Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Visiting Scholar, Rhine Research Center
Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (2007-08). Interrelationships of parapsychological experiences, dream recall, and lucid dreams in a survey with predominantly Spanish participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 27, 63-69.
Previous questionnaire studies of parapsychological experiences have found significant interrelations between the experiences in question and dream experiences. In this study we present a replication of these relationships using a nationality of participants neglected in previous studies, a predominantly Spanish sample. A questionnaire was published in a Spanish New Age magazine. Four hundred and ninety-two questionnaires were received. Most of the parapsychological experiences correlated significantly and positively with each other and with dream recall and lucid dream frequency (Bonferroni-corrected). The results are consistent with the idea discussed in terms of boundary thinness, dissociation, and fantasy proneness that there is a disposition, or openness in some individuals to have or to believe they have had seemingly parapsychological experiences.
Gow, K.M., Hutchinson, L., & Chant, D. (2009). Correlations between fantasy proneness, dissociation, personality factors and paranormal beliefs in experiencers of paranormal and anomalous phenomena. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 169–191.
This study examined various psychological correlates of belief in, and experience of, anomalous phenomena. Anomalous experiences are those that, although they may be experienced by a considerable number of individuals—such as experiences considered to be telepathic—are thought to diverge from ordinary experiences or from established accounts of reality. One hundred and seventy-three participants (114 females and 59 males) were classified as anomalous experiencers (n = 125), anomalous believers (n =39) and non-believers (n = 9), according to their responses on a Measure of Anomalous Experiences and Beliefs. Focusing on the Experiencer group, correlational analyses were conducted with fantasy proneness, dissociation, paranormal beliefs, and the personality correlates of “intuition” and “feeling.” Analyses revealed significant correlations between fantasy proneness and five of the seven subscales of paranormal belief and significant moderate (to low) correlations with both the “intuition” and “feeling” dimensions of the MBTI. Dissociation was also related to global paranormal belief and to the subscales of psi, superstition, and extraordinary life forms.
Kokubo, H. (2014). A questionnaire survey for the digital native generation on their anomalous experiences and trust for other persons. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 32, 217-227.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, questionnaire surveys were done in Japan for university students and medical staff members on anomalous (paranormal) experiences. Since then a new generation has appeared, the so-called “Digital Native Generation” that was born during the development of many forms of information technology. Also they are often called the “Yutori” generation in Japan if they were born from 1987 to 1997 and were educated by “Yutori” curriculum. The present study gives the results of a questionnaire survey for Japanese university students (133 males, 152 females) of Digital Native on anomalous experiences and trust for other persons. It was found that the frequencies of anomalous experiences were similar to those of previous surveys, and that supported the hypothesis that anomalous experiences are experience-based, not culture-based. The tendency of trust was larger for the Digital Native generation than the previous generations. It was suggested that the belief for 6th sense correlated to other factors such as trust for other persons, rather than ESP experiences.
Parra, A. (2012). Relación entre las experiencias paranormales y esquizotipia positiva/negativa [Relationship between paranormal experiences and positive/negative schizotypy]. Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina, 58, 246-255.
The present study investigated how subjective paranormal experience relates to positive and negative schizotypy. It was hypothesized that paranormal experiences would correlate with schizotypy proneness, schizotypy sub-factor Unusual experiences, and positive schizotypy than non-experients. Undergraduate students, and family members and friends, 57% females and 42.2% males (Mean age = 33 years old), filled two questionnaires. The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, which assesses schizotypy in four dimensions and the Paranormal Experiences Questionnaire-which collects information on spontaneous paranormal experiences, were analized. Participants with experiences were less cognitively disorganized and reported subjectively more pleasant paranormal experiences, were less impulsive. more social, and showed less eccentric forms of behaviour, often suggesting a lack of self-control. The majority of the paranormal experiences were related to positive schizotypy scores. It is noteworthy that, in an inverse direction, some paranormal experiences are also related to negative schizotypy. In conclusion, the present study implies an interaction between schizotypal personality factors that could predict the subjective quality of odd experiences. Consistent with previous research, results indicate a potentially adaptive, and indeed protective role for paranormal beliefs and magical thinking.
Parra, A., & Corbetta, J.M. (2014). Changes resulting from paranormal/spiritual experiences and their effects on people’s wellbeing: An exploratory examination. Journal for the Study of Spirituality, 4, 73-82.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of paranormal and mystical/spiritual experiences on people’s lives and to evaluate changes resulting from such experiences. Twenty-four participants attended workshops about paranormal/spiritual experiences. The Index of Changes Resulting From Experiences and a checklist of possible effects of paranormal or transcendent experiences were used. All of the respondents reported at least one paranormal experience, and 83% reported at least one transcendent experience. The high percentage of paranormal experiences reported may reflect the fact that respondents were recruited based on interest in parapsychology and the paranormal. Seventy per cent now have a purpose in life as a result of their paranormal or transcendent experience; 62% have had paranormal and/or transcendent experiences since childhood; 54% said they became significantly more spiritual or religious as a result of their experiences; and 54% were helped to understand and accept death. The fact that anomalous experiences apparently induce positive reactions in some people provides a strong impetus for further research. This line of research also has significant implications for understanding better not only those people who volunteer to participate in parapsychological experiments but also the results of those experiments.
Rattet, S.L., & Bursik, K. (2001). Investigating the personality correlates of paranormal belief and precognitive experience. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 433-444.
Do individuals who endorse paranormal beliefs differ from those reporting actual precognitive experiences? This study examined the personality correlates of these variables in a sample of college students, 61% of whom described some type of precognitive experience. Extraversion and intuition were associated with precognitive experience, but not with paranormal belief; dissociative tendencies were related to paranormal belief, but not precognitive experience. The importance of conceptualizing and assessing paranormal belief and precognitive experience as separate constructs is discussed.