Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Many were the phenomena produced by Eusapia Palladino. She was well known for her physical phenomena, things such as table levitations and materializations, but her repertoire also included many other effects, among them changes in temperature, imprints on substances such as clay, and luminous manifestations.


Eusapia Palladino

Less discussed were the medium’s mental phenomena. This included, among others, trances and personality changes.

One of the medium’s researchers, Italian psychiatrist Enrico Morselli (1852-1929), listed and classified Palladino’s phenomena in his book Psicologia e “Spiritismo” (Turin: Bocca, 1908, vol. 2, pp. 507-521).


Enrico Morselli


Here is Morselli’s list of phenomena, showing this was a rich case of mediumship. He used the words “subjective” and “objective” to refer to mental and physical phenomena. Morselli wrote: “The phenomenology of E.P. is varied and intense in the physical sphere, [but] very poor in the intellectual [one]”(vol. 2, p. 507). His classification, he admitted, was somewhat artificial because many phenomena combined mental and physical components.

Here is his a brief version of Morselli’s classification and list of phenomena:


1. Modifications of the state of consciousness (e.g., diminution of normal consciousness)

2. Modifications of the physiological state (e.g., changes in sensory and motor functions)

3. Radiations from the body of the medium (e.g., luminous effects) [unclear why this is included here, maybe Morselli is emphasizing the subjective perception of light]

4. Auto-hypnosis (e.g., trance, catalepsy)


Palladino in trance

5. Amnesia from the period of “trance”

6. Exteriorization of sensibility (dubious spontaneous and experimental clairvoyance) [the term is generally used to refer to the projection of tactile sensations from the body]

7. Exteriorization of motricity (parakinesis: movement of objects with slight contact with object; telekinesis: movement of objects without contact) [unclear why this is included here]

8. Hypno-magnetic susceptibility (difficult to hypnotize, easy to magnetize using mesmeric passes)

9. Exogenous susceptibility (e.g., verbal suggestion, perceptions)

10. Monodeism (fixed ideas; e.g., obsessions, beliefs)

11. Hallucinatory dream phenomena (e.g., flying and fearful dreams)

12. Automatisms (dissociative: sensory and motor)

13. Mental regression (dissociative: primitive, infantile, playful ideas)

14. Personifications (secondary personalities)

15. Communications and messages in Italian

16. Communications in languages other than the medium’s

17. Pseudodivination of thought (use of sensory means simulating telepathy)

18. Cryptopsychism (use of mental material from memory and surrounding ideas)

19. Artificial mental suggestion (various phenomena produced via suggestion)

20. Lucidity, clairvoyance, second sight (Morselli stated that the medium was incapable of this)

21. Intrahuman telepathy (spontaneous communication with distant persons)

22. Hyperhuman telepathy (communication with spirits, disbelieved by Morselli)


1. Parakinesis (phenomena with physical contact, e.g., meaningless and intelligent table movements, raising of table)


2. Telekinesis (e.g., movements without contact, e.g., movement of tables, curtain, and various objects)

3. Weight phenomena (e.g., changes in the weight of various objects and medium’s body)

4. Thermic-radiant phenomena (temperature changes, cold breezes)

5. Acoustic phenomena (e.g., raps, sounds from musical instruments, voices)

6. Hyloplastic phenomena (phenomena producing marks or tracings on matter at a distance: e.g., writing, imprints)


Imprints on clay

7. Zollnerian phenomena (molecular phenomena: e.g., appearance of knots in cords, apports)

8. Tangible teleplasty (apparent living form presenting consistency: e.g., touches, limbs)

9. Simple telephany (luminous phenomena: e.g., clouds, luminous points)

10. Visible, active and tangible teleplasm (organized forms: e.g., clear, unclear and human forms, limbs)


Sketch of materialized figure