Category: Digital Resources

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation.

I recently published a summary and overview of the famous work of Nandor Fodor, Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science:

Carlos S. Alvarado, Early Psychical Research Reference Works: Remarks on Nandor Fodor’s Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2020, 34(4), 717–754. []

Abstract—Some early reference works about psychic phenomena have included bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and general over­view books. A particularly useful one, and the focus of the present article, is Nandor Fodor’s Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science (Fodor, n.d., circa 1933 or 1934). The encyclopedia has more than 900 alphabetically arranged entries. These cover such phenomena as apparitions, auras, automatic writing, clairvoyance, hauntings, materialization, poltergeists, premoni­tions, psychometry, and telepathy, but also mediums and psychics, re­searchers and writers, magazines and journals, organizations, theoretical ideas, and other topics. In addition to the content of this work, and some information about its author, it is argued that the Encyclopaedia is a good reference work for the study of developments from before 1933, even though it has some omissions and bibliographical problems.

This is a classic work that has been reprinted several times. Before I review Fodor’s work about psychic phenomena, methodology, and various aspects of spiritualism and psychical research,  I have sections about: Reference Works Covering Pre-1930 Developments, Psychical Research During the 1930s, and Nandor Fodor.

I wrote: “Fodor published much about psychic topics over the years, including These Mysterious People (Fodor, 1934b), Haunted People (Carrington & Fodor, 1951), On the Trail of the Poltergeist (Fodor, 1958), The Haunted Mind (Fodor, 1959a) . . . , Mind Over Space (Fodor, 1962), Between Two Worlds (Fodor, 1964), The Unaccountable (Fodor, 1968), and Freud, Jung, and Occultism (Fodor, 1971). He also worked as a psychoanalyst in New York and published on the subject and on various psychological matters . . . Fodor was also interested in theory, as can be seen in his articles about apports and materialization phenomena . . . But most of his writings in this area were about psychoanalytic ideas.”

Most of my comments are about the contents of the Encylopaedia, which had more than 900 entries. “Many of the entries included by Fodor were about phenomena. A few examples were: Apparitions, Apports, Auras, Automatic Writing, Bilocation, Clairvoyance, Direct Voice, Emanations, Fire Immunity, Haunting, Levitation, Luminous Phenomena, Materialisation, Obsession, Premonitions, Psychometry, Raps, Retrocognition, Table Turning, and Telepathy. Some of these entries were quite long, covering many aspects of the phenomena. For example, the Haunting one had sections about specific cases, and other topics, among them the “laying of the haunters” . . . “premonitory haunting” . . . , and “speculations of the early S.P.R. researchers.”

Nandor Fodor - Wikipedia
Nandor Fodor

There were also entries about investigators, mediums and psychics, famous cases, theoretical ideas, journals and magazines, frauds, and organizations. “A few entries were about the movements of Mesmerism, Spiritualism, and Psychical Research. The discussion about Spiritualism had sections about the phenomena of the movement, Spiritualism and religion, and short overviews of its history in various countries.”

There were also devices used in many investigations. “Biometer of Baraduc, Communigraph, Dynamistograph, Ouija Board, Psychic Telephone, and Sthenometer. The latter was an instrument invented by French physician Paul Joire to measure the exteriorization of nervous force from the human body, a topic covered as well in Emanations.”

Paul Joire’s Sthenometer

There were also many discussions of mediumistic communications: “He included topics such as ‘The Play of the Subconscious—Deceiving Spirits’ . . . , and ‘The Personal Character—Difficulties and Complications of Communications’ . . . The latter topic reminds me of James H. Hyslop’s . .  discussion of what he referred to as the pictographic process in mediumistic communications.”

Although there was much useful information, there were also some problems about lack of details about references to some facts, and precise information about individuals information about psychic phenomena.

In my view the Encyclopaedia was useful if used as the first aspect to obtain information about psychic phenomena. “Fodor provided us with a wide canvas that has proved to be very valuable in presenting the claims and ideas that characterized psychical research before the Encyclopaedia was published.” Fodor may be questioned in various ideas, but provided good information about the psychic literature. His Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science can be very useful to understand the ideas about psychic phenomena before Fodor published his work.

The rest of my comments are about the critics and opinions used by Fodor.

Some Online General Books About Psychical Research

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation.  

I hope the readers will find this list of books useful for Christmas.  

These are old books about psychical research published between the early 1900s and the late 1950s. The writings of individuals such as William Barrett, Raynor Johnson, Joseph Maxwell, Ricardo Musso, Charles Richet, and others, are particularly interesting and informative.

The books are online here: GB (Google Books; HT (Hathi Trust; IA (Internet Archive; IAPSOP (International Association for the Preservation of Spiritualist and Occult Periodicals; and SurvivalAfterDeath | CienciasPsíquicas (

William F. Barrett. (1911). Psychical Research. New York: Holt. [HT, IA, IAPSOP]

Camille Flammarion. (1907). Mysterious Psychic Forces: An account of the author’s investigations in psychical research, together with those of other European savants. Boston: Small, Maynard. [GB HT IA IAPSOP]

Anthony Flew’s (1953) A New Approach to Psychical Research. London: Watts. [IAPSOP]

Raynor C. Johnson. (1956) Psychical Research. London: English Universities Press. [IA IAPSOP]

Joseph Maxwell. (1905) Metapsychical Phenomena: Methods and Observations. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons. (Original work published in French 1903) [GB HT IA IAPSOP]

J. Ricardo Musso. (1954). En los Límites de la Psicología: Desde el Espiritismo Hasta la Moderna Parapsicología [On the Limits of Psychology: From Spiritism to the Modern Parapsychology]. Buenos Aires: Periplo. [SurvivalAfterDeath | CienciasPsíquicas]

Paul Joire. (1916). Psychical and Supernormal Phenomena: Their Observation and Experimentation. London: William Rider. (Original work published in French 1909) [HT IA]

T. Konstantin Oesterreich. (n.d., ca 1921). Occultism and Modern Science. London: Methuen. [HT IA IAPSOP]

Charles Richet. (1923). Thirty Years of Psychical Research: Being a Treatise on Metapsychics. New York: Macmillan. [GB HT IA IAPSOP]

Rudolf Tischner. (1921). Einführung in den Okkultismus und Spiritismus. [Introduction to occultism and Spiritism]. Munich: J.F. Bergmann. [HT]

G.N.M. Tyrrell. (1954). The Personality of Man: New Facts and Their Significance. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books. [HT, IA]

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

This is the third part of a series of blogs designed to provide online reading materials about the old psychical research literature. I hope readers find it interesting, particularly in these days of social isolation due to the virus going around the world.

Here I would like to focus on reading material about the celebrated mental medium Leonora E. Piper (1857-1950). Although there are discussions about her mediumship in recent publications, an example being Michael Tymn’s Resurrecting Leonora Piper (Guildford: White Crow Books, 2013; see also my blog), here I focus on online freely available publications coming from the late nineteenth century to 1929.

Mrs. Piper in Different Stages of Her Life

Leonora Piper 2

Leonora Piper 4

Leonora E. Piper

Leonora Piper 3

Michel Sage’s Mrs. Piper & the Society for Psychical Research (New York: Scott-Thaw, 1904) is a good general introduction to Mrs. Piper. The author wrote in the first chapter: “Mrs Piper’s mediumship is one of the most perfect which has ever been discovered. In any case, it is the one which has been the most perseveringly, lengthily and carefully studied by highly competent men. Members of the Society for Psychical Research have studied the phenomena presented by Mrs Piper during fifteen consecutive years. They have taken all the precautions necessitated by the strangeness of the case, the circumstances, and the surrounding scepticism; they have faced and minutely weighed all hypotheses. In future the most orthodox psychologists will be unable to ignore these phenomena when constructing their systems; they will be compelled to examine them and find an explanation for them, which their preconceived ideas will sometimes render it difficult to do” (pp. 1-2).

An interesting biography by the medium’s daughter is Alta L. Piper’s The Life and Work of Mrs. Piper (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1929). Summaries of research with the medium can be found in: Henry Holt’s On the Cosmic Relations (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1919, Vol 1, Vol. 2); James H. Hyslop, Science and a Future Life (Boston: Herbert B. Turner, 1905); and Oliver J. Lodge’s The Survival of Man (New York: George H. Dorran, 1920, 2nd ed.).

Piper Life and Work of Mrs. Piper

The first research report with Mrs. Piper was William James’ “Report of the Committee on Mediumistic Phenomena” (Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1886, 1, 102–106). This was followed by James’ “A Record of Observations of Certain Phenomena of Trance (5). Part III (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 6, 651–659), and “Report on Mrs. Piper’s Hodgson-Control” (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 23, 2–121). In his 1890 paper James stated “taking everything that I know of Mrs. P. into account, the result is to make me feel as absolutely certain as I am of any personal fact in the world that she knows things in her trances which she cannot possibly have heard in her waking state, and that the definitive philosophy of her trances is yet to be found” (pp. 658–659).

William James

William James

Other important research reports included:

Hodgson, R. (1892). A record of observations of certain phenomena of trance. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 8, 1-167.

Hodgson, R. (1898). A further record of observations of certain phenomena of trance. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 13, 284-582.

Richard Hodgson

Richard Hodgson

Hyslop, J.H. (1901). A further record of observations of certain phenomena of trance. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 16, 1-649.

Leaf, W. (1890). A record of observations of certain phenomena of trance (3). Part II. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 6, 558-646.

Lodge, O. (1890). A record of observations of certain phenomena of trance (2). Part I. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 6, 443-557.

Oliver Lodge younger

Oliver J. Lodge

Tanner, A.E. (1910). Studies in Spiritism. New York: D. Appleton.

The last study, by Amy Tanner, was a skeptical one in which she argued that the communicators were purely psychologically created secondary personalities and that the rest was explained as being due “to a heightened suggestibility to involuntary betrayals of the sitter, with a modicum of guessing, fishing, and inference” (p. 310).

Another study, a massive review of the literature about Mrs. Piper authored by Eleanor M. Sidgwick, also took a psychological view of Piper’s mediumistic communicators (“A Contribution to the Study of the Psychology of Mrs. Piper’s Trance Phenomena.” Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1915, 28, 1–657). However, she believed the medium produced veridical communications. Sidgwick wrote: “I think it is probably a state of self-induced hypnosis in which her hypnotic self personates different characters either consciously and deliberately, or unconsciously and believing herself to be the person she represents, and sometimes probably in a state of consciousness intermediate between the two. In the trance state her normal powers transcend in some directions those of her ordinary waking self . . . . And further what makes her case of great importance she can obtain, imperfectly and for the most part fragmentarily, telepathic impressions” (p. 330).

Eleanor Sidgwick 2

Eleanor M. Sidgwick

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This is by no means a complete bibliography about Mrs. Piper. But I hope it will facilitate the study of this important and fascinating medium.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Because we are still practicing social isolation due to the virus problem, I am presenting more links to books from the old psychical research literature in case you need reading material.

I hope you find them interesting.

Hereward Carrington (1919). Modern Psychical Phenomena. New York: Dodd, Mead.


Hereward Carrington

Théodore Flournoy (1911). Spiritism and Psychology. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Theodore Flournoy

Théodore Flournoy

James H. Hyslop (1919). Contact with the Other World. New York: Century.

James H. Hyslop

James H. Hyslop

Cesare Lombroso (1909). After Death–What? Boston: Small, Maynard.

Cesare Lombroso 3

Cesare Lombroso

Joseph Maxwell (1905). Metapsychical Phenomena. London: Duckworth.

Joseph Maxwell profile 1895

Joseph Maxwell in profile (with Albert de Rochas, in seance with medium Eusapia Palladino)

Frank Podmore (1894). Apparitions and Thought-Transference. London: Walter Scott.

Frank Podmore

Frank Podmore

A. von Schrenck-Notzing (1920). Phenomena of Materialisation. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner.

Albert von Schrenck Notzing

Albert F. von Schrenck-Notzing

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Many of us are not going out much due to the virus crisis. Recently someone told me in an email that they are bored at home. With that in mind, now is a good time to catch up with the old psychic literature.

Because my main interest is the history of parapsychology, I would like to present some reading suggestions about important books published before 1923 freely available online that I hope you will enjoy.

I will start with some general overview books published in English, and will cover other titles in future blogs.

Barrett, W. F. (1911). Psychical research. New York: Holt.


William F. Barrett

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Barrett, W.F. (1917). On the threshold of the unseen (2nd rev. ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.

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Joire, P. (1916). Psychical and supernormal phenomena. London: Rider.

Paul Joire

Paul Joire

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Kingsford, S.M. (1920). Psychical research for the plain man. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.

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Lambert, H.C. (1928). General survey of psychic phenomena. New York: The Knickerbocker Press.

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Podmore, F. (1897). Studies in psychical research. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Frank Podmore

Frank Podmore

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Podmore, F. (1908). The naturalisation of the supernatural. New York: G.P. Putnam‘s Sons.

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Richet, C. (1923). Thirty years of psychical research. New York: Macmillan.

Charles Richet 10

Charles Richet

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 Wright, G.E. (1920). Practical views on psychic phenomena. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Howe.

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The Psi Encyclopedia Keeps Growing

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Since my last comment about the Psi Encyclopedia, an online project managed by Robert McLuhan and sponsored by the Society for Psychical Research, several more additions have been posted to this reference work.

Some of them are about specific phenomena and concepts:

Does Something Leave the Body? (OBE Historical Perspective) (by Carlos S. Alvarado)

Dreams and Past-Life Memory (by James G. Matlock)

Jim Matlock 2

James G. Matlock

Observational Theories of Psi (by Brian Millar)

Psychological Aspects of Poltergeist Cases (by Bryan Williams)

Sinclair Telepathy Experiments (by Karen Wehrstein)

Sinclair Mental Radio

There are also many entries about individuals who have worked in parapsychology, both in the past and in recent years. These include:

Tony Cornell (by John Fraser)

Arthur Conan Doyle (by Karen Wehrstein)

Arthur Conan Doyle

Arthur Conan Doyle

Hoyt Edge (by Michael Duggan)

Camille Flammarion (by Carlos S. Alvarado)

Camille Flammarion Posing

Camille Flammarion

Carl Jung (by Everton de Oliveira Maraldi and Maria de Fátima Fernandes)

William McDougall (by Karen Wehrstein)

William McDougall 2

William McDougall

John Palmer (by Michael Duggan)

Chris Roe (by Michael Duggan)

D. Scott Rogo (Callum E. Cooper)

D. Scott Rogo

D. Scott Rogo

 William Roll (by Karen Wehrstein)

Jessica Utts (by Michael Duggan)

Jessica Utts 4

Jessica Utts

Mario Varvoglis (by Michael Duggan)

In addition, there are entries about such varied topics as American Society for Psychical Research (James G. Matlock), Edgar Cayce (Karen Wehrstein), and Journal of Parapsychology (Carlos S. Alvarado).

Edgar Cayce

Edgar Cayce

At this point the Psi Encyclopedia has been in existence for a few years, having accomplished so much. Robert McLuhan’s efforts in putting hundreds of entries together has contributed greatly to the dissemination of information about parapsychology. But, the Psi Encyclopedia has matured as a online reference source for people already in the field and new to the field. It is now at a point in its development, it seems to me, that its potential for future usefulness to all its constituencies could be maximized by taking a more formal turn. Considering this, I would like to offer some suggestions for the future of the encyclopedia.

Similar to other reference works on other topics, Psi Encyclopedia could use an editorial board to help the editor balance the mix of entries towards making sure that important lines of research or areas of interest are represented in biographical entries, and in more general entries. Another important project would be to encourage a general review of already-published articles written by non-specialists in the field. By bringing in specialists possible mistakes and important omissions in some entries could be detected. One example of an entry that could benefit from this type of review is “Psi Research in North America”. The entry contends that experimental work began in the United States with J. B. Rhine’s work. The story of experimental psi research in North America is not complete without the work of the early ASPR members (e.g., Bowditch et al., [1886]. Report of the committee on thought-transference. Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1, 106–112) and the work of such researchers as John E. Coover (Coover, J. E. [1918]. Experiments in psychical research at Leland Stanford Junior University. Stanford, CA: Stanford University) who published their research in this area long before J. B. Rhine ever thought of moving away from botany towards psychical research. Other examples could also be mentioned. 

Coover Experiments 2

Regarding omissions, some entries do not include important references, something that may well have been noticed by knowledgeable reviewers and well-read newcomers. Among the key references that are missing are: D.J. West’s Eleven Lourdes Miracles (New York: Helix Press, 1957) that should be in the entry Lourdes Cures); Olivier Leroy’s Levitation (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1928) that should be in the entry Religious Levitation), and Juliette-Alexandre Bisson’s Les phénomènes dits de materialisation (2nd ed., Paris: Félix Alcan, 1921) that should be in the entry Marthe Béraud (Eva C.).

Eleven Lourdes Miracles Cover

An editorial board that represents different areas and topics of parapsychology could also assist the editor to find additional authors to write more entries. McLuhan has worked consistently to increase the author pool, approaching some people in parapsychology for suggestions and following up, and of course, such projects are entirely dependent on the willingness to participate among the potential authors, no matter how dedicated the chief editor might be. But I believe that an editorial board could greatly expand McLuhan’s reach and make the job of finding and soliciting willing authors much easier.

An understandable bias prevalent in the Encyclopedia is its current reliance on English-language developments. As a mature reference, Psi Encyclopedia, needs to live up to its goals of representing the field as a whole. I have noticed that several articles about phenomena lack proper references to non-English-language sources. I have also noticed that 80% of the entries covering psychic researchers and authors of books and articles psychic phenomena are from English-speaking countries (80%). (An article in the encyclopedia about psychical research in Europe, and others about Brazil, France, and the Netherlands help to correct this situation.) Although biases are inevitable when few of those working on the encyclopedia are English-speakers with working knowledge of other languages, having an editorial board chosen for their content and language expertise can greatly enhance the completeness of the encyclopedia’s coverage of the field. 

Another suggestion: to improve the information value of the articles it is a good idea to craft the entries to follow a similar outline. Such instructions for the authors would need to include the flexibility to modify entries to accommodate differing needs. For example, all entries about specific researchers could have a basic biographical section about their lives and work unrelated to their psychic studies. Such a section would be useful even if it is brief. In addition, as is common in many encyclopedias, there could be a section at the end of all entries that presents relevant bibliography for the reader’s follow-up. Such a section should include basic sources of information about the topic in question, including general overviews of research and theory, or, in the case of individuals, deeper biographical and even autobiographical books and articles. Taken together with links to other related entries in the Psi Encyclopedia, such a section could extend the usefulness of the resource to students and teachers alike.

There are certainly many topics that have not yet been covered at all. Among these are those related to experimental work and to mediumship. While the coverage of past lives is broad and interesting, I wonder why there are 55 entries about various aspects of the topic when so many other important topics have no representation in the encyclopedia at all as of yet. I suppose this reflects the interests of some industrious frequent contributors who enthusiastically propose and complete entries of interest to themselves. I have been one of those who has proposed and completed entries on topics that are of interest to me. But, even though this imbalance is well-motivated and understandable, achieving a managed balance of topics and authors would be desirable, if only to inform the public that there are other important phenomena with multiple aspects, among them ESP and near-death experiences.

While there is room for improvement, it is important to recognize the extraordinary accomplishment Robert McLuhan has crafted for the field in such a short period of time. Without McLuhan’s energy and dedication to this project, the Psi Encyclopedia would not have taken such a central place on the map of reference sources in the field. As a work in progress, I believe that the encyclopedia will continue to evolve into a more complete and more useful reference work.

Our Psychic Past in Digital Libraries: VIII: Luce e Ombra

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I was recently exploring old issues of the Italian journal Luce e Ombra (LO). Initially edited by Angelo Marzorati, this publication started in 1901 and had a spiritualistic orientation. There are many issues of LO in the International Association for the Preservation of Spiritualist and Occult Periodicals (Search here.)

Luce e Ombra 1902

Luce e Ombra 1907

Luce e Ombra 1922

LO is very important to understand 20th century Italian interest in spiritualism and psychical research. The collection has the following years: 1902-1903, 1907-1913, and 1915-1929. My colleague in Italy, Dr. Massimo Biondi, a fountain of knowledge regarding the Italian history of Spiritism and psychical research, recently told me in an email that there are more issues of this journal available online at the digital library of the Biblioteca Nazionali Centrale di Roma, including those published in later years with a different title, La Ricerca Psichica (1932-1939).

Massimo Biondi

Massimo Biondi

Ricerca Psichica

LO has fascinating articles. A frequent contributor was Ernesto Bozzano, who I have mentioned before in this blog (click here and here). Bozzano published many multi-part articles in LO (as well as books) discussing various psychic phenomena and presenting a great number of cases from the spiritualist and psychical research literatures. Some examples are the following:

Ernesto Bozzano 2

Ernesto Bozzano

(1911). Considerazioni ed ipotesi su fenomeni di bilocazioni [Reflections and hypotheses about the phenomena of bilocation]. 11, 57-70, 173-186, 234-246, 273-294.

(1912-1913).  Dei fenomeni premonitori [Premonitory phenomena]. 12, 454-468, 528-541; 13, 17-29, 82-94, 120-131, 173-190, 263-276, 303-310, 341-353, 391-405, 442-457, 486-501, 554-564.

(1916-1918). Dei fenomeni d’infestazione [The phenomena of infestation (hauntings)]. 16, 417-430, 484-504; 17, 25-58, 92-105, 161-180, 232-244, 290-307, 345-360; 18, 13-30, 86-101, 169-180, 199-210, 265-272, 309-319.

Bozzano Infestazione Luce e Ombra 1916

(1919-1920). Delle apparizioni di defunti al letto di morte [Deathbed apparitions of the dead]. 19, 169-179, 250-257, 192-305; 20, 15-30.

(1921-1922). Dei fenomeni di “telekinesia” in rapporto con eventi di morte [The phenomena of “telekinesis” in relation with death events]. 21, 225-233, 270-276, 304-315, 375-380; 22, 13-25.

Bozzano Telekinesia Morte Luce e Ombra

(1923-1925). Delle communicazioni medianiche tra vivente [On mediumistic communication between the living]. 23, 193-205, 272-286, 362-372; 24, 5-20, 87-97, 139-148, 230-237, 265-272, 333-340; 25, 21-29, 57-63, 104-119.

Readers interested in the medium Eusapia Palladino will find particularly interesting the May-June 1918 issue, which has several articles about the medium, who died that year. The issue also has an editorial note presenting an index of articles about the medium published in LO: “L’Attivita Medianica di E. Palladino Registrata in “Luce e Ombra” (1901-1917)” [The Mediumistic Activity of E. Palladino Recorded in “Luce e Ombra” (1901-1917). 18, 166-168]. This includes over 90 entries consisting of séance reports and aspects about the medium’s life, as well as mentions of Palladino in general articles, critiques of publications, and news about seances in various places.

Luce e Ombra 1918 Palladino Issue

Eusapia Palladino whole body Courtier

Eusapia Palladino

Several authors who are virtually forgotten today wrote repreatedly for LO. Some examples were Antonio Bruers, Enrico Carreras, Vincenzo Cavalli, Angelo Marzorati, and Francesco Zingaropoli. Although Emilio Servadio is remembered today in parapsychology mainly for his writings about ESP and psychoanalysis, he wrote several articles in LO that are rarely cited today. Some of them are:

Emilio Servadio 4

Emilio Servadio

(1930). Surrealismo e medianità [Surrealism and mediumship]. 30, 169-174.

(1930). Che cos’e la metapsichica moderna [What is modern metapsychics]. 30, 274-279, 327-332, 375-381.

(1932) Otto sedute col medium Erto [Eight seances with the medium Erto]. La Ricerca Psichica (Luce e Ombra), 32, 344-355, 381-393, 434-448, 481-495, 535-546.
(1933). L’ultima Hélène Smith [The last of Hélène Smith]. La Ricerca Psichica (Luce e Ombra), 33, 674-685.

The following are a few of the many articles discussing various phenomena and conceptual issues by other authors in LO:

Bianchi, R. (1925). Il calcolo elementare applicato ai sogni premonitorio [Elementary calculus applied to premonitory dreams].25, 386-394, 457-467.

Bruers, A. (1926). Fenomeni telepatico nella vita dell’exploratore Stanley [Telepathic phenomena in the life of the explorer Stanley]. 26, 145-150.

Carreras, E. (1902). Materializzazione in pieno giorno [Materialization in full daylight]. 2, 440-446.

Imoda, E. (1912). La media Linda Gazzera [The medium Linda Gazzera]. 12, 1-5.

Linda Gazzera 7

Linda Gazzera

Lombroso, C. (1909). Case fantomatiche (hantees) [Phantom houses (hauntings)]. 9, 3-21.

Luisiada, E. (1928). Sogni premonitore e teorie metapsichiche [Premonitory dreams and metapsychic theory]. 28, 219-227.

Mackenzie, W. (1923). A proposito di “polipsichismo” [Regarding “polypsychism”]. 23, 129-142.

Porro, F. (1903). Animismo e Spiritismo [Animism and Spiritism]. 3, 44-49.

Francesco Porro

Francesco Porro

Raveggi, P. (1915). Il fenomeni metapsichici e la psicologia introspectiva [Metapsychic phenomena and introspective psychology]. 15, 433-439.

Richet, C. (1927). L’avenire della metapsichica [The future of metapsychics]. 27, 423-424.

Senigaglia, G. (1910). Una seduta a  Roma con Eusapia Paladino [A séance in Rome with Eusapia Paladino]. 10, 32-35.

Venzano, G. (1907-1908). Contributo allo studio delle materializzazioni [Contribution to the study of materializations]. 7, 405-409, 441-453, 521-531, 576-586, 622-631; 8, 27-40, 57-68.

Vesme, C. (1929). Studio sulle possessioni demoniache descrita negli Evangeli [Study of demoniacal possession described in the Gospels]. 29, 507-513, 550-557.

Cesar de Vesme

Cesare Baudi di Vesme

X. (1911). Un caso di rincarnazioni? [A case of reincarnation?] 11, 40-42.

Zingaropoli, F. (1908). Manifestazioni spontanee misterose: Marche e impronte di fuoco [Mysterious spontaneous manifestations: Fire marks and imprints]. 8, 329-345, 539-545.

Luce e Ombra 1910 issues

LO is still around. For a list of articles published in 2019 click here. There is also a list of the articles published between 1947 and 2003.

Luce e Ombra 1948




New Entries in the Psi Encyclopedia

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I have commented about the Psi Encyclopedia in previous essays (click here, here, and here), a project sponsored by the Society for Psychical Research . The project, managed by Robert McLuhan, has continued to grow. Here is a list of some new entries posted in 2018 and 2019.

psi encyclopedia 2019

Animals in Psi Research, by Michael Duggan

Announcing Dreams and Related Experiences, by James G. Matlock

Arigo, by Karen Wehrstein

karen wehrstein

Karen Wehrstein

Behavioural Memories in Reincarnation Cases, by James G Matlock

Creery Telepathy Experiments, by Karen Wehrstein

Decline Effect in Parapsychology, by Matthew Colborn

matt colborn

Mathew Colborn

Experimental Psi Research in Asia and Australia, by Michael Duggan

Fraud in Science and Parapsychology, Chris Roe

chris roe 2

Chris Roe

Gladys Osborne Leonard, Trevor Hamilton

Global Consciousness Project, Roger D Nelson

Hubert Larcher, by Renaud Evrard

renaud evrard 2

Renaud Evrard

Indridi Indridason, by Erlendur Haraldsson

Mediumship and Pathology, by Carlos S Alvarado

Mental Mediumship Research, by Julie Beischel


Julie Beischel

Parapsychology in Psychology Textbooks, by Chris Roe

Perspectival Postmortem Awareness, by Stephen E Braude

Psi Research in the Netherlands, by Dick Bierman, Hans Gerding, and Hein van Dongen

dick bierman 2

Dick Bierman

Unusual Ways of Testing for Psi, Michael Duggan



Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsycholohy Foundation

The site SurvivalAfterDeath | CienciasPsíquicas, in Spanish, has much information about psychical research, particularly about mediumship and the topic of survival of death. There is a section presenting links to many important books, (click here), many of which have been taken from other digital libraries such as Internet Archive and Google Books. Here are some examples.

Baird, A.T. (Ed.). (1944). One Hundred Cases for Survival After Death.

Barrett, W.F. (1926). Death-Bed Visions.

Bennett, E.T. (1905). Automatic Speaking and Writing: — A Study.

Carrington, H. (1909). Eusapia Palladino and Her Phenomena.

Crawford, W.J. (1921). The Psychic Structures at the Goligher Circle.

De Morgan, S. (1863). From Matter to Spirit.

Fodor, N. (n.d.). Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science.

Fournier d’Albe, E.E. (1908). New Light on Immortality.

Gurney, E., Myers, F.W.H., & Podmore, F. (1886). Phantasms of the Living.
Vol. 1,   Vol. 2

Hamilton, T.G. (1942). Intention and Survival.

Hyslop, J.H. (1913). Psychical Research and Survival.

Lodge, O.J. (1916). Raymond or Life After Death.

Lombroso, C. (1909). After Death—What?

Maxwell, J. (1905). Metapsychical Phenomena.

Myers, F.W.H. (1907). Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death.

Owen, R.D. (1860). Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World.

Schrenck-Notzing, Baron von. (1923). Phenomena of Materialisation.

Smith, W.W. (1920). A Theory of the Mechanism of Survival.

Wallace, A.R. (1896). Miracles and Modern Spiritualism.

Zollner, J.C.F. (1880). Transcendental Physics.

These are only a few examples of many other books available in this collection. In addition, the are many issues of the Annals of Psychical Science, and of the Proceedings and Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.

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Important Books About Experimental ESP, 1930-1958

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here are some important books about experimental ESP studies published between 1930 and 1958 that are freely available online.

Carington, W. (1945). Telepathy: An Outline of its Facts, Theory, and Implications (2nd Ed.). London: Methuen.

Whately Carington

Whateley Carington

Humphrey, B.M. (1948). Handbook of Tests in Parapsychology. Durham, NC: Parapsychology Laboratory.

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Pratt, J.G., et al. (1940). Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. New York: Henry Holt.

Pratt Rhine ESP 60 title page

Rhine, J.B. (1935). Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston Bruce Humphries.  (First published in 1934)

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Rhine, J.B., & Pratt, J.G. (1957). Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

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J.B. Rhine 1956

J.B. Rhine

J.G. Pratt

J.G. Pratt

Schmeidler, G.R., & McConnell, R.A. (1958). ESP and Personality Patterns. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gertrude Schmeidler

Gertrude Schmeidler

Robert McConnell

Robert McConnell

Sinclair, U. (1930). Mental Radio. Pasadena, CA: Author.

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Upton Sinclair

Upton Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair Upton’s wife, tested for telepathy

Sinclai Results of telepathy drawing test

Results of telepathy drawing test

Soal, S.G., & Bateman, F. (1954). Modern Experiments in Telepathy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Soal Bateman Modern Experiments Telepathy

Warcollier, R. (1938). Experimental Telepathy. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.

Rene Warcollier

René Warcollier

Telepathic Drawing Experiments (Target Above, Response Below)