Category: People in Parapsychology


Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Perhaps no other psychologist in the world is identified so much with parapsychology than Stanley Krippner. He received his doctoral degree at Northwestern University in 1961 and is currently Professor of Psychology and Integrative Inquiry at Saybrook University. Stanley, who I first met in the late 1970s in California, is well known for many contributions to parapsychology, among them his studies of ESP in dreams. Another contribution is his series of anthologies containing detailed reviews of the literature, Advances in Parapsychological Research (for the last volume click here).

Stanley Krippner

Dr. Stanley Krippner [Photo taken by Stuart Fischer]

Advances Vol 2

Advances Vol 9

Examples of his research on ESP and dreams in the laboratory include: Krippner, S., & Persinger, M. (1996). Evidence for enhanced congruence between dreams and distant target material during periods of decreased geomagnetic activity. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10, 487-493; Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1973). An experiment in dream telepathy with “The Grateful Dead”. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 20, 9-17; Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1972). A second precognitive dream study with Malcolm Bessent. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 66, 269-279; Krippner, S., Honorton, C., Ullman, M., Masters, R.E.L., & Houston, J. (1971). A long-distance “sensory bombardment” study of ESP in dreams. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 468-475; Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1970). Telepathy and dreams: A controlled experiment with electroencephalogram-electro-oculogram monitoring. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 151, 394-403; Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1969). A laboratory approach to the nocturnal dimension of paranormal experience: Report of a confirmatory study using the REM monitoring technique. Biological Psychiatry, 1, 259-270; Ullman, M., Krippner, S., & Feldstein, S. (1966). Experimentally-induced telepathic dreams: Two studies using EEG-REM monitoring techniques. International Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 577-603.

Ullman Dream Telepathy

His work covers many areas and topics, and it is not limited to parapsychology. This includes anthropology and various psychological topics, such as creativity, dissociation, dreams, hypnosis, psychotherapy, psychedelics, PTSD, and shamanism. An overview of his contributions appears in Jeannine A. Davies and Daniel B. Pitchford (Eds.), Stanley Krippner: A Life of Dreams, Myths and Visions (Colorado Springs, CO: University Professors Press, 2015).

Davies Stanley Krippner

Much information about Stanley appears in his web page (click here) and in the following autobiographical writings: (1975). Song of the Siren: A Parapsychological Odyssey (New York: Harper & Row; and (2013). My parapsychological odyssey. In R. Pilkington (Ed.), Men and Women of Parapsychology, Personal Reflections: Esprit Volume 2 (pp. 199-224; San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books).

Over the years he has earned many awards. A few of the most recent ones are: Lifetime Achievement Award (International Network on Personal Meaning, 2014), Human Treasure Award (Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2013), Charles Honorton Integrative Contribution Award (Parapsychological Association, 2011), The Ways of Knowing Award: Exploring Culturally Based Healing Traditions and Practices (Life Science Foundation and the University of Minneapolis Center for Spirituality and Healing, 2008), Lifetime Achievement Award (International Association for the Study of Dreams, 2006), Award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Hypnosis (American Psychological Association, Division 30 [Psychological Hypnosis], 2002), Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology (American Psychological Association, 2002), and Outstanding Career Award (Parapsychological Association, 1998).

Stanley Krippner Zimbardo

Stanley receives the Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology (American Psychological Association, 2002) from Dr. Philip Zimbardo

Stanley is also known for helping many persons, something that is not mentioned often enough. This includes colleagues and students, among others. His contributions, thus, transcend academia, and include a real and quiet attempt to help his fellow human beings.

I encourage my readers to peruse Stanley’s publications, as seen in the bibliography after the interview. Generally I present from 50 to 65 references in the interviews. Here I present more because Stanley has more publications than anyone else I have interviewed. I focus mainly on parapsychological topics, and related issues. Those of you wishing to see a longer list click here.

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

After meeting him when he spoke at the University of Wisconsin, J.B. Rhine invited me to visit the Duke University Parapsychology Laboratory and I was able to do so a few years later when I was working in the special education department of the Richmond, Virginia Public Schools. He put me up at his home, introduced me to his wife and two daughters, and spent considerable time discussing psi research with me. Rhine also suggested I visit “Lady Wonder,” a horse with alleged psychic powers who lived with her owner on a Virginia ranch. I reported that the horse gave remarkable answers on a huge typewriter, but it was obvious to me that she was responding to cues from her owner. He also asked me to visit a young woman who possessed the alleged ability to read newspapers while blindfolded. I did so and immediately observed that the blindfold was not secure enough to prevent peeking.

When I became a graduate student at Northwestern University, I was able to invite Rhine to be the invited speaker at the annual Phi Delta Kappa banquet. This was an educational society, and there was no objection to the invitation. The psychology department objected to Rhine’s appearance and the department chair ordered his faculty to boycott it. The one professor, Donald Campbell, who ignored the boycott expressed his reservations regarding psi research but was polite in doing so. He later was elected president of the American Psychological Association, and we remained friends until his death.

A fellow graduate student, Arthur Hastings, and I drove Rhine to Chicago for his next engagement, passing by my parents’ farmhouse. It was a thrill to introduce them to Rhine who lived in a farmhouse himself, the one I visited several times over the years.

While at Northwestern University, Hastings and I arranged a meeting of graduate students interested in psi with Gardner Murphy after his seminar for the psychology department. Subsequently, Murphy, his wife, and I became close friends and colleagues.

I was still at Northwestern when Rhine asked me to check out a poltergeist case at nearby Gutenberg, Iowa. I asked Hastings to accompany me. After a day of interviews and observations, we concluded that the disturbances were engineered by a grandson who had been given the unpleasant task of taking care of his grandparents. His efforts were successful and they fled their home in terror. This episode became the topic of my first article reporting psi research. Hastings and I wrote about expectancy set and how it can lead to misinterpretations of easily explained phenomena.

When the Parapsychological Association was formed, I became a Charter Member. By this time I was director of the Child Study Center at Kent State University, and I could have stayed there, received tenure, and retired happily. But the maintaining factor in my parapsychological interests kicked in. At a Parapsychological Association convention, I met Montague Ullman who had received a grant to study psi effects in dreams. Half a dozen prospects had turned down his offer to direct the laboratory and, perhaps in desperation, he asked me. I eagerly accepted and worked with Ullman at the Maimonides Medical Center for ten years — until the funds ran out. We published dozens of articles (many co-authored with Charles Honorton). Ullman often referred to our partnership as a “dream relationship.” In any event, this is what maintained my interest in psi research, which persists to this day.

Ullman Krippner Dream telepathy Monograph

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

My interests in the field cover the waterfront. I need to keep informed because I have edited nine volumes of Advances in Parapsychological Research, which I would list as one of my “contributions.” Following a symposium on Kirlian photography and acupuncture, Plenum Press asked me if I would like to edit a yearbook on the topics. My own reaction to Kirlian photography was that it was best viewed as an art form, at least at that time, and I was not an expert on Traditional Chinese Medicine. So I created a spin that turned the offer into three volumes on psi research, featuring excellent literature reviews of PK, ESP, survival, and various other topics. After disappointing sales, Plenum Press was happy to turn the series over to McFarland, which has published the subsequent volumes. The series still does not make anyone any money but its preparation is now subsidized by Saybrook’s University’s Chair for the Study of Consciousness.

My most influential publication was Varieties of Anomalous Experience, co-edited with Etzel Cardeña and Steven Lynn, and published by the American Psychological Association, most recently in a second edition.

Cardena Varieties second ed

Of course, my major contribution to the field was my ten years directing research into anomalous dreams at Maimonides Medical Center. During that decade I authored or co-authored (usually with Montague Ullman and Charles Honorton) over one hundred articles, a monograph, and a popular book. I designed two precognitive dream experiments (with Malcolm Bessent as the sole participant), installing such safeguards as hiring graduate students from a local university to monitor dreams with no knowledge of the purpose of the experiment. When asked to comment on the psychic dream research by the San Francisco Weekly, arch-critic Ray Hyman commented, “There’s no smoking gun to say they didn’t have something,” but added that no one has ever duplicated the “striking success” of the Maimonides dream lab. When Wikipedia trashed the Maimonides work, several friends attempted to insert Hyman’s comments into my entry but Wikipedia refused. Nor would Wikipedia admit James Randi’s statement, in the same article, that “in this field…there are so many people who are prejudiced and biased. But I can depend on Stan. And I don’t think he’s biased at all.” Instead, Wikipedia featured an appraisal of the Maimonides work by C.E.M. Hansel that was not only biased but inaccurate.

On the positive side, I designed a 4-night experiment in an attempt to replicate Charles Tart’s 1968 study with a “Ms. Z” who reported an OBE in which she correctly identified a five-digit number on a shelf in Tart’s sleep lab. My study eliminated all of the alternative explanations proposed by Tart, and on the fourth night, our participant reported an OBE in which he correctly identified an image that had been placed on a similar shelf, but in a way in which nobody could have seen the image and passed on its identify by cuing or by telepathy.

Another contribution was to survey (with Michael Persinger) the dream telepathy “hits” and “misses” from the perspective of geomagnetic field activity; “hits” were significantly associated with “calm” nights, and “misses” with “stormy” nights. When the spontaneous precognitive dreams of psychic claimant Alan Vaughan were subjected to a similar analysis by James Spottiswoode and me, we found the same results. Later, I led a team that worked with the claimant medium Amyr Amiden in Brazil; his recurrent spontaneous PK was significantly associated with high geomagnetic activity as well as psychophysiological measures.

Finally, I have presented papers on psi research at half a dozen conventions of the American Psychological Association, and have stimulated research efforts on psi by students at Saybrook University and several other colleges and universities both here and abroad.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

Psi research is important for several reasons. Various meta-analyses of the data have demonstrated that the evidence for psi is overwhelming. At the very least, psi research may point out that statistical anomalies and/or experimenter effects are more profound than mainstream science suspects. In addition, surveys of spontaneous cases of psi-like experiences have found many links to personality traits but not to psychopathology. Our work at the Maimonides Medical Center was published in most of the US psychiatric journals, and modulated the earlier claim that claiming to dream about future events or other people’s activities was a sure-fire marker of schizophrenia and other disorders.

In addition, parapsychological researchers have pioneered novel methods of collecting and analyzing data about human (and non-human) behavior, and (in another innovative move) have published non-significant results in their journals . Hence, even if the psi hypothesis is eventually found to be unsubstantiated, our work has not been in vain.

But what if there is, indeed, a capacity for living organisms to engage in remote sensing and remote perturbation? For these traits to have persisted over time, they must have had a survival advantage, and I have turned to “costly signaling theory” (CST) to support this thesis. Psi could well have provided adaptive functioning, helping living creatures avoid danger, identify sources of support, and facilitate communication and cooperation. These signals are “costly” because they involve effort, energy, and time. Peacocks exhibit plumage during mating season, birds manifest warning calls, and bees perform elaborate dances to signal a source of nutrients. These behaviors are not easy to produce, and if they were faked, they would not carry accurate information that would confer survival benefits. From an evolutionary perspective, costly signals are inherently “honest” and promote species collaboration. Montague Ullman spoke of the “honesty” of dreams, and this lack of guile is due to the likelihood that REM sleep and its accompanying dreams were costly signals, psi-related dreams included. This topic is dealt with at length in the Postscript to the book Mysterious Minds, which I co-edited with Harris Friedman. It is also compatible with the “first sight” theory of James Carpenter, which I consider to be a major theoretical contribution.

Krippner Mysterious Minds

Psi research is important for another reason, in that many debunkers have over-reacted whenever the topic is mentioned verbally or in print. Decades ago, James McConnell trained planaria to turn left or right, then fed them to untrained planaria that seemed to learn the skills more quickly than non-cannibal planaria. Other researchers reported that trained responses in rats could be transferred to untrained rats by peptides extracted from their brains. Attempts at replication fell short of confirming these neurobiological changes, the conformation of which would have led to major revisions in biological theory. The positive results were attributed to experimenter effects, methodological defects, and extrinsic influences — but not to fraud and deliberate manipulation of the data, as has been asserted by debunkers of psi data.

The tendency of debunkers to go overboard when faced with positive results from parapsychological research is exemplified by the outrageous statements they have made concerning the Maimonides experiments. I took up each of these charges in the book Debating Psychic Experiences (also co-edited by Harris Friedman) finding that only one of them (lack of replicability) had any basis in fact. The psychology and sociology of debunkers, most of who have been well trained to engage in scientific pursuits, will make an important contribution to the literature on bias and “logic-tight compartments,” especially by men and women who hold important positions in academic and research institutions.

Krippner Friedman Debating

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

It is fairly easy to “round up the usual suspects” when discussing the major problems facing parapsychology’s attempt to enter the scientific mainstream. Parapsychology needs to be recognized as a legitimate disciplined inquiry (i.e., a science) and not, as Wikipedia claims, a “pseudoscience.” The “usual suspects” include underfunding, the lack of serious media coverage, and the paucity of accredited graduate schools allowing students to conduct psi-oriented research. Many of my colleagues would add the absence of replicable experiments to this list and there is some degree of validity to this claim, but this issue plagues mainstream psychology (and many other sciences) as well, evidenced by articles in recent issues of Science and Nature on repeatability and falsifiability A more serious problem is the prejudice parapsychologists encounter, even among scientists who should know better. But, as cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman revealed in a computer simulation study, organisms (including humans) evolved to produce “fitter” behavior, not to construct accurate representations. For mainstream scientists, those “fitter” behaviors often include attaining awards, tenure, and professional prestige—all of which trump the search for truth.

Sometimes I suspect that advances in other fields, such as physics, biology, and the neurosciences, will run across some data that cannot be explained by dominant paradigms. I can imagine these investigators saying, “Years ago, parapsychologists found much the same thing but their experiments were so poorly constructed and they made so many bizarre proposals that they were not taken seriously.” This is what happened when positive psychology garnered respect – and massive funding – from mainstream sources. Humanistic psychology is rarely mentioned in positive psychology’s articles and books. When this omission is brought up in open forums, the usual response is, “Yes, humanistic psychologists had some of the same ideas but these notions were not backed up by solid research and the leaders in this field were very ‘New Agey,’ not serious thinkers.” Neither of these assertions is correct, of course, but they continue to be cited.

There is some excellent work being done by sleep and dream researchers who have investigated ways in which one’s waking life experiences are reflected in the content of their dream reports. The research designs exist that would allow investigators to determine if some of these dream reports also matched future life experiences. If such experiments demonstrate that dreams can be premonitory, would parapsychologists get any credit for what we have done for decades in our studies of precognitive dreams? Parapsychologists have offered a number of viable theoretical hypotheses that would be of value to the social and behavioral sciences generally, yet most of them fall on deaf ears.

In the meantime, I have done my best to bring psi research to the attention of conventional psychologists. I have presented more psi-oriented papers than anyone at the annual conventions of the American Psychological Association, and chaired a symposium on parapsychology at an annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science. Psi is a complex phenomenon, one that will require a systems approach to comprehend. Parapsychology has become a transdisciplinary discipline, rather than a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary discipline. As a result, newcomers to the field have a massive amount of material from many fields of disciplined inquiry to study and comprehend before they can make their own contributions. This situation, by itself, may discourage interest in the field.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

In addition to my work with graduate students and my professional presentations, I am a frequent guest on podcasts, which gives me an opportunity to speak on behalf of parapsychology and associated topics. Along with several former Saybrook students, I am currently involved in a remote viewing study. The participants’ judging is finished and one of them attained 19 “hits” and one “miss.” He did his ‘viewing” from Southeast Asia, where he had to pay close attention to the time framework. With one of another of my former students, I am co-editing a book on various approaches to clinical work with dreams, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder nightmares. My two co-authored books on PTSD (written with Saybrook graduates who are clinicians) have received better notices from mainstream reviewers than any of my books on parapsychology! I am also continuing my cross-cultural study of gender differences in dream content, using the method co-authored by my old friend Robert Van de Castle.

I am studying the recurring dreams of an assistant chaplain who dreams about soldiers who were killed in Afghanistan and Iraq; all were known personally by her colleague, another assistant chaplain, and contain specific names and locations that have been verified.

Before my memory deteriorates even further, I would like to do more autobiographical writing and set the record straight before Wikipedia corrupts it.

Stanley Krippner drums

Selected Bibliography

Books Authored or Co-Authored

Jones, S.M.S., & Krippner, S. (2012). The voice of Rolling Thunder: A medicine man’s wisdom for walking the Red Road. Rochester, VT: Bear.

Rock, A., & Krippner, S. (2011). Demystifying shamans and their world: A multidisciplinary study. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.

Feinstein, D., & Krippner, S. (2008). Personal mythology: Using ritual, dreams, and imagination to discover your inner story (3rd ed.). Santa Rosa, CA: Energy Psychology Press/Elite Books.

Kierulff, S., & Krippner, S. (2004). Becoming psychic: Spiritual lessons for focusing your hidden abilities. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page.

Krippner, S., Bogzaran, F., & de Carvalho, A. P. (2002). Extraordinary dreams and how to work with them. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Krippner Extraordinary Dreams

Krippner, S., & Welch, P. (1992). Spiritual dimensions of healing: From native shamanism to contemporary health care. New York: Irvington.

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S., with Vaughan, A. (1989). Dream telepathy: Experiments in nocturnal ESP (2nd ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S., & Villoldo, A. (1987). The realms of healing (3rd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts.

Villoldo, A., & Krippner, S. (1987). Healing states. New York: Fireside/Simon and Schuster.

Krippner, S. (1980). Human possibilities: Mind exploration in the USSR and East Europe. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.

Krippner, S. (1975). Song of the siren: A parapsychological odyssey. New York: Harper & Row.

Krippner Song of the Siren

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1970). Dream studies and telepathy: An experimental approach (Parapsychological Monograph No. 12). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Edited or Co-edited Books

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S.J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.). (2014). Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Krippner, S., Rock, A. J., Beischel, J., Friedman, H. L., Fracasso, C. L. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 9. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S., & Friedman, H.L. (Eds.). (2010). Mysterious minds: The neurobiology of physics, mediums, and other extraordinary people. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Krippner, S., & Friedman, H.L. (Eds.). (2010). Debating psychic experience: Human potential or human illusion? Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Krippner, S., & Ellis, D.J. (Eds.). (2009). Perchance to dream: The frontiers of dream psychology. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Krippner Perchance to Dream

Krippner, S., & Waldman, M. R. (Eds.). (1999). Dreamscaping: New and creative ways to work with your dreams. Los Angeles: Roxbury Park/Lowell House.

Krippner, S., & Powers, S. (Eds.). (1997). Broken images, broken selves: Dissociative narratives in clinical practice. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1997). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 8. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1994). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 7. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1990). Dreamtime and dreamwork: Decoding the language of the night. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Krippner Dreamtime

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1990). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 6. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1987). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 5. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1984). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 4. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1982). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 3. New York: Plenum Press.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1979). Psychoenergetic systems: The interaction of consciousness, energy and matter. New York: Gordon and Breach.

Krippner Psychoebergetic Systems

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1978). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 2. New York: Plenum Press.

Krippner, S. (Ed.). (1977). Advances in parapsychological research. Vol. 1. New York: Plenum Press.

White, J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.). (1977). Future science: Life energies and the physics of paranormal phenomena. Garden City, NJ: Anchor/Doubleday.

Krippner, S., & Rubin, D. (Eds.). (1975). The energies of consciousness: Explorations in acupuncture, auras, and Kirlian photography. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Krippner Rubin Energies of Consciousness

Krippner, S., & Rubin, D. (Eds.). (1974). The Kirlian aura. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.

Krippner, S., & Rubin, D. (Eds.). (1973). Galaxies of life: The human aura in acupuncture and Kirlian photography. New York: Gordon & Breach/Interface.

Chapters

Krippner, S., & Achterberg, J. (2014). Anomalous healing experiences. In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed., pp. 273-301). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., Krippner, S., & Lynn, S.J. (2014). Anomalous experiences: An integrative summary. In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed., pp. 409-426). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Krippner, S. (2013). My parapsychological odyssey. In R. Pilkington (Ed.), Men and women of parapsychology, personal reflections: Esprit volume 2 (pp. 199-224). San Antonio, TX: Anomalist Books.

Fracasso, C., Friedman, H., & Krippner, S. (2013). Near-death experiences from a Christian vantage point. In J. H. Ellens, (Ed.), Heaven, Hell, and the afterlife: Eternity in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Volume 2: End time and afterlife in Christianity (pp. 293-299). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Krippner, S., & Bragdon, E. (2012). Contributions of Brazilian Spiritist treatment to the global improvement of mental health care. In E. Bragdon (Ed.), Spiritism and mental health: Practices from Spiritist centers and Spiritist psychiatric hospitals in Brazil (pp. 257-266). London, England: Singing Dragon.

Krippner, S. (2012). Parapsychology and dreams. In D. Barrett & P. McNamara (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sleep and dreams: The evolution, function, nature, and mysteries of slumber, Vol. 2 (pp. 479-481). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.

Hageman, J.H., & Krippner, S. (2012). A survey of Afro-Brazilian mediums: Gender differences and distinguishing characteristics. In D. Eigner, G. Fleck, S. Kreitler, & L. Repolyi (Eds.), Consciousness: Cultural and therapeutic perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 77-108). Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang.

Hageman, J.H., Peres, J.F.P., Moreira-Almeida, A., Caixeta, L., Wickramasekera, I., II, & Krippner, S. (2010). The neurobiology of trance and mediumship in Brazil. In S. Krippner & H.L. Friedman (Eds.), Mysterious minds: The neurobiology of physics, mediums, and other extraordinary people (pp. 85-111). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Krippner, S. (2010). The scientific study of anomalous dreams. In J. Millay (Ed.), Radiant minds: Scientists explore the dimensions of consciousness (pp. 39-42). San Francisco, CA: Author.

Krippner, S. (2010). National and gender differences in reports of extraordinary dreams. In J. Millay (Ed.), Radiant minds: Scientists explore the dimensions of consciousness (pp. 44-54). San Francisco, CA: Author.

Moreira-Almeida, A., Moreira de Almeida, T., Gollner, A.M., Krippner, S. (2009). A study of the mediumistic surgery of John of God. Journal of Shamanic Practice, 2(1), 21-31.

Krippner, S., & Wickramasekera II, I. (2008). Absorption and dissociation in spiritistic Brazilian mediums. In T. Simon (Ed.), Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality (425-438). Boulder, CO: Sounds True.

Krippner, S. (2007). Anomalous experiences and dreams. In D. Barrett, & P. McNamara (Eds.), The new science of dreaming (Vol. 2, pp. 285-306). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Krippner, S. (2006). Getting through the grief: After-death communication experiences and their effects on experients. In L. Storm, & M. A. Thalbourne (Eds.), The survival of human consciousness (pp. 174-193). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (2005). Psychoneurological dimensions of anomalous experience in relation to religious belief and spiritual practices. In K. Bulkeley (Ed.), Soul, psyche, brain: New directions in the study of religion and brain-mind science (pp. 61-92). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Krippner, S., & Hövelmann, G. (2004). The future of psi research: Recommendations in retrospect. In M.A. Thalbourne & L. Storm (Eds.), Parapsychology in the twenty-first century (pp. 167-188). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (2004). Psi research and the human brain’s “reserve capacities.” In A. Combs, M. Germine, & B. Goertzel (Eds.), Mind in time: The dynamics of thought, reality, and consciousness (pp. 313-329). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Krippner, S. (2002). The scientific study of anomalous dreams. In V.G. Rammohan (Ed.), New frontiers of human science: A Festschrift for K. Ramakrishna Rao (pp. 119-141). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (1999). From chaos to telepathy: New models for understanding dreams. In S. Krippner & M. R. Waldman (Eds.), Dreamscaping: New and creative ways to work with your dreams (pp. 265-269). Los Angeles: Roxbury Park/Lowell House.

Krippner, S., Wickramasekera, I., Wickramasekera, J., & Winstead, C.W., III. (1998). The Ramtha phenomenon: Psychological, phenomenological, and geomagnetic data. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 92, 1-24.

Krippner, S. (1997). Dissociation in many times and places. In S. Krippner & S. Powers (Eds.), Broken images, broken selves: Dissociative narratives in clinical practice (pp. 3-40). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Krippner, S. (1997). The varieties of dissociative experience. In S. Krippner & S. Powers (Eds.), Broken images, broken selves: Dissociative narratives in clinical practice (pp.336-361). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Krippner, S. (1994). The Maimonides ESP-dream studies. In K. R. Rao (Ed.), Charles Honorton and the impoverished state of skepticism: Essays on a parapsychological pioneer (pp. 40-54). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S. (1993). Telepathy and dreaming. In M. A. Carskadon (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sleep and dreaming (pp. 612-613). New York: Macmillan.

Krippner, S. (1991). An experimental approach to the anomalous dream. In J. Gackenbach & A. A. Sheikh (Eds.), Dream images: A call to mental arms (pp. 31-54). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.

Krippner, S. (1991). The role of “past life” recall in Brazilian spiritistic treatment for multiple personality disorders. In A.S. Berger, & J. Berger (Eds.), Reincarnation: Fact or fable? (pp. 169-185). London: Aquarian.

Krippner, S. (1991). Observing psychic wonder kids: Pitfalls and precautions. In A. A. Drewes & S. A. Drucker (Eds.), Parapsychological research with children: An annotated bibliography (pp. 26-29). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Greene, F. G., & Krippner, S. (1990). Panoramic vision: Hallucinations or bridge into the beyond? In G. Doore (Ed.), What survives? Contemporary exploration of life after death (pp. 61-75). Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Krippner, S. (1989). Some touchstones for parapsychological research. In G. K. Zollschan, J.F. Schumaker, & G.F. Walsh (Eds.), Exploring the paranormal: Perspectives on belief and experience (pp. 167-183). Lindfield, Australia: Unity Press.

Krippner, S. (1989). Touchstones of the healing process. In R. Carlson & B. Shield (Eds.), Healers on healing (pp. 111-113). Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Krippner, S. (1989). A call to heal: Entry patterns in Brazilian mediumship. In C. A. Ward (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness and mental health: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 186-206). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Krippner, S. (1988). Parapsychology and postmodern science. In D. R. Griffin (Ed.), The reenchantment of science: Postmodern proposals (pp. 129-140). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Krippner, S., & George, L. (1986). Psi phenomena as related to altered states of consciousness. In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of states of consciousness (pp. 332-364). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

George, L., & Krippner, S. (1984). Mental imagery and psi phenomena: A review. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research (Vol. 4, pp. 64-82). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1983). An experiment in dream telepathy with the Grateful Dead. In P. Grushkin (Ed.), Grateful Dead: The official book of the Dead Heads (p. 90). New York: Quill.

Krippner, S. (1982). Holonomy and parapsychology. In K. Wilber (Ed.), The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes: Exploring the leading edge of science (pp. 124-125). Boulder, CO: Shambhala.

Krippner, S. (1982). Psychic healing. In I. Grattan-Guiness (Ed.), Psychical research: A guide to its history, principles, and practices (pp. 134-143). Wellingborough, UK: Aquarian Press.

Krippner, S., & Hastings, A. (1981). Parapsychology. In A. Villoldo & K. Dychtwald (Eds.), Millennium : Glimpses into the 21st century (pp. 104-119). Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Krippner, S. (1980). Psychic healing. In R. Herink (Ed.), The psychotherapy handbook (pp. 503-506). New York: New American Library.

Krippner, S. (1980). Folk healing and parapsychological investigation. In M. L. Nester & A. S. T. O’Keefe (Eds.), Exploring parapsychology (pp. 2-3). New York: American Society for Psychical Research.

Krippner, S. (1980). Psychic healing. In A. C. Hastings, J. Fadiman, & J.S. Gordon (Eds.), Health for the whole person (pp. 169-177). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Krippner, S. (1978). “Psychic healing”–A multidimensional view. In J. L. Fosshage & P. Olsen (Eds.), Healing: Implications for psychotherapy (pp. 48-83). New York: Human Sciences Press.

Krippner, S. (1978). The interface between parapsychology and humanistic psychology. In M. Ebon (Ed.), The Signet handbook of parapsychology (pp. 79-87). New York: New American Library.

Krippner, S. (1976). Research in paranormal healing: Paradox and promise. In M. L. Nester (Ed.), Exploring ESP and PK (p.15). New York: American Society for Psychical Research.

Krippner, S., & Murphy, G. (1976). Extrasensory perception and creativity. In A. Rothenberg & C. R. Hausman (Eds.), The creativity question (pp. 262-267). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Krippner, S., & Murphy, G. (1975). Parapsychology and education. In T. B. Roberts (Ed.), Four psychologies applied to education: Freudian, behavioral, humanistic, and transpersonal (pp. 478-481). New York: Schenkman.

Krippner, S. (1975). Parapsychology. In J. Paradise et al. (Eds.), 1976 yearbook: Annual supplement to Collier Encyclopedia (pp. 72-78). New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation.

Krippner, S. (1974). Telepathy. In J. White (Ed.), Psychic exploration: A challenge for science (pp. 112-131). New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.

Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1974). Telepathic perception in the dream state. In L. LeShan, The medium, the mystic, and the physicist (pp. 292-299). New York: Viking Press.

Ullman, M., Krippner, S., & Vaughan, A. (1974). The influence of telepathy on dream content. In R. L. Woods & H. B. Greenhouse (Eds.), The new world of dreams (pp. 406-408). New York: Macmillan.

Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1974). ESP in the night. In J. B. Maas (Ed.), Readings in Psychology Today (3rd ed., pp.62-65). Del Mar, CA: CRM Books.

Krippner, S., & Fersh, D. (1972). Spontaneous paranormal experience among members of intentional communities. In G. B. Carr (Ed.), Marriage and family in a decade of change (pp. 220-233). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1972). ESP in the night. In Readings in Psychology Today (2nd ed., pp. 46-51). Del Mar, CA: CRM Books.

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1969). Two studies using EEG-REM monitoring techniques. In G. Schmeidler (Ed.), Extrasensory perception (pp. 137-161). New York: Atherton Press.

Journal Articles

Krippner, S. (2015). Research perspectives in parapsychology and shamanism. Paranthropology: Journal of Anthropological Approaches to the Paranormal, 6, 2-53.

De Oliveira Maraldi, E., & Krippner, S. (2013). A biopsychosocial approach to creative dissociation: Remarks on a case of mediumistic painting. NeuroQuantology, 11(4), 544-572.

Hageman, J., Krippner, S., & Wickramasekera, I. II. (2011). Across cultural boundaries: Psychophysiological responses, absorption, and dissociation comparison between Brazilian Spiritists and advanced meditators. NeuroQuantology, 9, 5-21.

Alvarado, C., & Krippner, S. (2010). Nineteenth century pioneers in the study of dissociation: William James and psychical research. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17, 19-43.

Krippner, S. (2004). The dreams and visions of Eva Hellstrom: A Swedish psychic claimant. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68, 210-225.

Krippner, S. (2002). Stigmatic phenomena: An alleged case in Brazil. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 16, 207-224.

Krippner, S., Winstead, C.W. III, & White, R.A. (2002). Phenomenological analyses of first-person reports of “healers” and “healees” in unexpected recoveries. Exceptional Human Experience, 17, 64-80.

Krippner, S., Wickramasekera, I., & Tartz, R. (2002). Scoring thick and scoring thin: The boundaries of psychic claimants. Journal of Subtle Energy, 11(1), 43-61.

Krippner, S. (2002). A systems approach to psi research based on Jungian typology. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 96, 106-120.

Krippner, S., & Faith, L. (2001). Exotic dreams: A cross-cultural study. Dreaming, 11, 73-82.

Krippner, S. (2000). A cross-cultural model of dissociation and its inclusion of anomalous phenomena. European Journal of Parapsychology, 15, 3-29.

Krippner, S., Vaughan, A., & Spottiswoode, S.J.P. (2000). Geomagnetic factors in subjective precognitive experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 64, 109-118.

Krippner, S. (1996). A pilot study in ESP, dreams and purported OBEs. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 61, 88-93.

Krippner, S., & Persinger, M. (1996). Evidence for enhanced congruence between dreams and distant target material during periods of decreased geomagnetic activity. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10, 487-493.

Krippner, S., Winkler, M., Amiden, A., Crema, R., Kelson, R., Lal Arora, H., & Weil, P. (1996). Physiological and geomagnetic correlates of apparent anomalous phenomena observed in the presence of a Brazilian “sensitive.” Journal of Scientific Exploration, 10, 281-298.

Krippner, S. (1995). A psychic dream? Be careful who you tell! Dream Network, 14(3), 35-36.

Krippner, S. (1995). Psychical research in the postmodern world. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 89,1-18.

Krippner, S., Winkler, M., Weil, P., Amiden, A., Lal Arora, H., Kelson, R., & Crema, R. (1995). The magenta phenomena, Part II: Twenty Sessions in Brasilia, March 1994. Exceptional Human Experience, 13, 44-63.

Krippner, S., Braud, W., Child, I. L., Palmer, J., Rao, K. R., Schlitz, M., White, R. A., & Utts, J. (1994). Demonstration research and meta-analysis in parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 275-286.

Krippner, S., Bergquist, C., Bristow, J., de Carvalho, M., Gold, L., Helgeson, A., Helgeson, D., Lane, J., Petty, C., Petty, W., Ramsey, G., Raushenbush, M., Reed, H., & Robinson, S. (1994). The magenta phenomena, Part I: Lunch and dinner in Brasilia. Exceptional Human Experience, 12, 194-206.

Krippner, S. (1992). Fechner’s interest in psychical research: Perspectives from parapsychology and humanistic psychology. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 27, 63-78.

Krippner, S. (1990). A questionnaire study of experiential reactions to a Brazilian healer. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 208-215.

Persinger, M. A., & Krippner, S. (1989). Dream ESP experiments and geomagnetic activity. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 83, 101-116.

Krippner, S. (1985). Parapsychological research: Past, present, and future. Psi Research, 4(3/4), 4-35.

Krippner, S., & Solfvin, J. (1984). Psychic healing: A research survey. Psi Research, 3 (2), 16-28.

Krippner, S. (1984). Psychic healing: Past, present, and future. Spiritual Frontiers, 16, 3-6.

Krippner, S. (1983). Three more recommendations for parapsychology’s future. Zetetic Scholar, No. 11, 151-153.

Krippner, S. (1982). Parapsychological research: A century of inquiry. Parapsychological Journal of South Africa, 3(2), 60-69.

Krippner, S. (1982). Parapsychological research: A century of inquiry. Journal of Indian Psychology, 2, 19-26.

Krippner, S. (1982). Parapsychological research: A century of inquiry. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 29, 121-127.

Krippner, S. (1982). Eidetics: Some parapsychological considerations. Journal of Mental Imagery, 6, 69-71.

Krippner, S. (1981). Psi phenomena and transpersonal experience. Phoenix: Journal of Transpersonal Anthropology, 5, 11-17.

Krippner, S. (1980). Humanistic psychology and parapsychology. Parapsychological Journal of South Africa, 1(2), 45-77.

Krippner, S. (1980). A suggested typology of folk healing and its relevance to parapsychological investigation. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 50, 491-500.

Krippner, S. (1979). Transpersonal experience and psi phenomena. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 11, 64-65.

Krippner, S., & Greene, G. (1979). Transpersonal experience and psi phenomena. Forum for Correspondence and Communication, 10(2), 7-10.

Krippner, S. (1979). “Psychic healing” and psychotherapy. Journal of Indian Psychology, 1, 35-44.

Krippner, S. (1977). Evaluation of a clairvoyance training program. New England Journal of Parapsychology, 1, 95-101.

Krippner, S. (1977). Preliminary investigations of Kirlian photography as a technique in detecting psychokinetic effects. International Journal of Paraphysics, 11, 69-73.

Krippner, S. (1977). Current parapsychological research in the United States. Psychoenergetic Systems, 2, 277-280.

Krippner, S. (1976). Psychic healing in the Philippines. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 16, 3-31.

Krippner, S. (1976). Psychotronics and the study of human personality. International Journal of Paraphysics, 10, 40-43.

Krippner, S. (1975). Evaluation of a clairvoyance training program. International Journal of Paraphysics, 9, 90-92.

Krippner, S. (1975). Paranormal communication: Dreams and other conscious states. Journal of Communication, 25, 173-182.

Krippner, S., & Bova, M. (1974). Environmental influences on clairvoyance and alterations in consciousness. International Journal of Paraphysics, 8, 48-56.

Krippner, S., & Davidson, R. (1973). Paranormal events occurring during chemically-induced “psychedelic” experience and their implications for religion. Anglican Theological Review,55(3), 324-334.

Krippner, S., & Zeichner, S. (1973). Telepathy and dreams: A descriptive analysis of art prints telepathically transmitted during sleep. A.R.E. Journal, 8, 197-201.

Krippner, S., & Dreistadt, R. (1973). Electrophysiological studies of ESP in dreams: Content analysis of witness-participant variables. Human Dimensions, 2 (3/4), 34-37.

Krippner, S., & Hubbard, C. C. (1973). Clairvoyance and alterations in consciousness evoked by the Electrosone-50 and other devices. Journal of Paraphysics, 7, 5-17.

Krippner, S., & Murphy, G. (1973). Humanistic psychology and parapsychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 13(4),3-24.

Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1973). Experimentally-induced paranormal effects in dreams and other altered states of consciousness. Journal of Paraphysics, 7, 147-161.

Krippner, S., & Nell, R. (1973). Clairvoyance and the lunar cycle. Journal of Paraphysics, 7, 180-186.

Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1973). An experiment in dream telepathy with “The Grateful Dead”. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 20, 9-17.

Krippner, S., Hickman, J., Auerhahn, N., & Harris, R. (1972). Clairvoyant perception of target material in three states of consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 439-446.

Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1972). A second precognitive dream study with Malcolm Bessent. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 66, 269-279.

Krippner, S., Becker, A., Cavallo, M., & Washburn, B. (1972). Electrophysiological studies of ESP in dreams: Lunar cycle differences in 80 telepathy sessions. Human Dimensions, 1(1), 14-19.

Foulkes, D., Belvedere, E., Masters, R.E.L., Houston, J., Krippner, S., Honorton, C., & Ullman, M. (1972). Long-distance, “sensory bombardment” ESP in dreams: A failure to replicate. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 731-734.

Krippner, S. (1971). Telepathic transmission in sleep. Psychiatric Spectator, 6(12), 2-3.

Krippner, S., Honorton, C., Ullman, M., Masters, R.E.L., & Houston, J. (1971). A long-distance “sensory bombardment” study of ESP in dreams. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 468-475.

Krippner, S., & Davidson, R. (1971). Implications of experimentally induced telepathic dreams. Journal for the Study of Consciousness, 4, 105-114.

Krippner, S., Ullman, M., & Honorton, C. (1971). A precognitive dream study with a single subject. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 192-203.

Krippner, S., & Zirinsky (1971). An experiment in dreams, clairvoyance, and telepathy. The A.R.E. Journal, 6, 12-16.

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1970). An experimental approach to dreams and telepathy: II. Report of three studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 1282-1289.

Krippner, S. (1970). Electrophysiological studies of ESP in dreams: Sex differences in seventy-four telepathy sessions. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 64, 277- 285.

Krippner, S., & Davidson, R. (1970). Religious implications of paranormal events occurring during chemically-induced “psychedelic” experience. Pastoral Psychology, 21(206), 27-34.

Krippner, S., & Fersh, D. (1970). Paranormal experience among members of American contra-cultural groups. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 3, 109-114.

Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1970). Telepathy and dreams: A controlled experiment with electroencephalogram-electro-oculogram monitoring. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 151, 394-403.

Honorton, C., & Krippner, S. (1969). Hypnosis and ESP performance: A review of the experimental literature. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 63,214-252.

Krippner, S. (1969). The paranormal dream and man’s pliable future. Psychoanalytic Review, 56, 28-43.

Krippner, S. (1969). Investigations of “extra-sensory” phenomena in dreams and other altered states of consciousness. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 16, 7-14.

Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1969). A laboratory approach to the nocturnal dimension of paranormal experience: Report of a confirmatory study using the REM monitoring technique. Biological Psychiatry, 1, 259-270.

Krippner, S., & Ullman, M. (1969). Telepathic perception in the dream state: Confirmatory study using EEG-EOG techniques. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 29, 915-918.

Krippner, S. (1968). Experimentally-induced telepathic effects in hypnosis and non-hypnosis groups. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 62, 387-398.

Krippner, S. (1968). An experimental study in hypnosis and telepathy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 11, 45-54.

Krippner, S. (1967). The cycle of deaths among U.S. Presidents elected at twenty-year intervals. International Journal of Parapsychology, 9, 145-153.

Ullman, M., Krippner, S., & Feldstein, S. (1966). Experimentally-induced telepathic dreams: Two studies using EEG-REM monitoring techniques. International Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 577-603.

Krippner, S. (1965). Coding and clairvoyance in a dual aspect test with children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 20,745-748.

Krippner, S. (1963). Creativity and psychic phenomena. Gifted Child Quarterly, 7, 51-63.

Krippner, S. (1962-1963). An expansion of consciousness and the extensional world. Parapsychology: Indian Journal of Parapsychological Research, 4, 167-184.

Krippner, S. (1962-1963). Creativity and psychic phenomena. Indian Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 1-20.

Krippner, S., & Hastings, A. (1961). Poltergeist phenomena and expectancy set. Northwestern University Tri-Quarterly, 3 (3),43-47.

Stanley Krippner 11

Advertisements

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. Dick Bierman is currently an emeritus professor at the University of Amsterdam, where he is in the Brain and Cognition Program of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences. He supervises students working on issues related to consciousness, intuition, and anomalous experiences,. He recently also joined the university of Groningen at the Heymans-lab. Heymans, Dick wrote to me, “was one of the first serious experimental researchers of the paranormal, and the very first one who introduced systematic manipulation of potentially relevant variables like alcohol consumption.”

Dick Bierman

Dick Bierman

In the past, he has been a visiting researcher at Interval (Paul Allen’s thinktank in California) and a visiting researcher at StarLab in Brussels. Some of his parapsychological publications include:

Bierman, D.J., & Bijl, A. (2014). Anomalous “retrocausal” effects on performance in a Go/NoGo task. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 28, 437-452; Bierman, D. (2011). Anomalous switching of the bi-stable percept of a Necker cube: A preliminary study. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 721–733; Bierman, D. (2010). Consciousness-induced restoration of time symmetry (CIRTS). A psychophysical theoretical perspective. Journal of Parapsychology, 24, 273–300; Bierman, D. J. (1999). The PRL autoganzfeld revisited: Refuting the sound leakage hypothesis. Journal of Parapsychology, 63, 271–274; Bierman, D.J., Broughton, R.S., Berger, R.E. (1998). Notes on random target selection: The PRL autoganzfeld target and target set distributions revisited.  Journal of Parapsychology, 62, 341-350; Bierman, D.J., & Radin, D.I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills 84, 689-690; Bierman, D.J., & Houtkooper, J.M. (1975). Exploratory PK tests with a programmable high-speed random number generator. European Journal of Parapsychology.1 (1), 3-14.

Bierman on presentiment and time

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I think curiosity is part of my nature. But the actual reason was that at the Institute for Atomic & Molecular Physics, where I did research for my PhD, I also was editor of the institute’s newsletter. This was in the late sixties when young people rebelled against those in power. The power person at the institute was the physicist Prof. Kistermaker and everybody knew he was interested in parapsychology and did secret psi experiments in the lab over the weekend. So, as a ‘rebel’, I wrote a funny piece about this ‘hobby’ of his. Skeptics would have liked it. BTW Kistemaker later became my PhD supervisor so there were no hard feelings. In spite of my ridiculing Kistemaker’s interest I also got curious and at the time thought this should be an easy-to-solve signal-noise problem. So I designed a well-powered study with over 2000 school kids in the Busschbach tradition, trying to guess what random picture their teacher was looking at.

The study was a methodological failure because we used the same target sequence (on punched paper tape) over and over again and hence ran into the so called stacking effect. A humbling experience for a physicist.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

My main interest is to understand the phenomena and integrate them in main stream science. My secondary goal is to help maintain and create a sufficient level of knowledge in European academia in order to have a ‘fast take off’ once the topic becomes an accepted academic topic. It is important to always set up the research in the framework of a theory. We have contributed the RIPP-RNG to the fieldMany PK-experiments have used them and they are also used in the Global Consciousness Project. I am currently working on a new PK-test environment that is embedded in an automatic and simple pre-registration and remote real time data storage environment. And we have done many (conceptual) replications because we think replications are extremely important and jumping from one successful protocol to another one does not forward the field.

After many years of research I think the field has ‘established’ that ‘miracles’ do happen but that psi under lab conditions is rather elusive and that we have a paradox of researchers reporting effect sizes of 0.3-0.5 (in RV) but no profits. The paradox being that it can easily be shown by simulation that using the Associated Remote Viewing protocol with this kind of effect sizes, one doesn’t need any grants anymore. My preliminary conclusion is that whatever psi turns out to be, it can’t be used in a robust way or we currently overestimate the effect sizes.

Any theoretical approach should account for the elusiveness.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

There is a hunch that further research might shed light on the free-will issue. An issue that by the way is becoming more and more important in fundamental physics around the topic of retro-causation. I suspect that free-will, in spite of the neuroscientific evidence suggesting otherwise, has a role in our existence. I am agnostic/skeptical with regard to other more philosophical or world view (spiritual) consequences.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

The main problem is that the topic is underestimated. It is not a question of just an extra sensory capability. Single phrase solutions of the problem, like it’s all ‘non local consciousness’, are counterproductive in my opinion. Having the ‘solution’ of the problem ready actually implies that further research is not really necessary. Many serious colleagues in main stream are not so sure that there is even a problem to be solved. What I see in our psi-community is a disdain for main stream science and especially for physics, because their materialistic approach is thought to be the source of all ‘evil’. That is not a good starting point for integration.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

In a recent project we attempted to see if we could fit the meta-analytic ganzfeld data to a model that assumed questionable research practices. We could not get a good fit without assuming some psi in the database. But the psi effect size to obtain the best fit was very low and we concluded that, if this model was correct, the power of ganzfeld studies was way too low and that the only solution for this power problem was to use selected populations like musicians.

It seems therefore a logical next step to focus on the development of ‘selection instruments’ for good subjects and, what might be even more important, for good experimenters. Most of our research occurs in the framework of main stream intuition research where we allow for a retrocausal component (presentiment). As far as I know there haven’t been presentiment studies with special populations (with the exception of meditators).

By far the most important project that I envision is an experiment where the computer analyses the presponse and decides on the basis thereof that the future must be ‘emotional’. In one condition the computer then, on purpose, creates a non-emotional future, thus creating a so called time loop paradox. I hope to work on this in the forthcoming year at the university of Groningen.

In order to see if, in spite of my belief of the contrary, it is possible to create a robust income by associative remote viewing, we will run another ARV experiment next year. We hope to expand our automatic ARV system when the grant for this research is finally available. In the end I am a Popperian and thus have to try to reject my own theoretical ideas as worded in CIRTS (consciousness induced restoration of time-symmetry).

Selected Publications (click here  and here)

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I was saddened to learn from an email sent to me by Dr. Massimo Biondi that Silvio Ravaldini, from Italy, passed away on November 24 this year. For many years he was the main editor of the journal Luce e Ombra  as well as the Director of the Fondazioni Biblioteca Bozzano-De Boni. He is probably unknown to most of the readers of my blog, but he is worth remembering. Details about his life appear below in a short obituary that Massimo sent to me.

Silvio Ravaldini

Silvio Ravaldini

I first met Silvio in 1995 when my wife Nancy L. Zingrone and I went to Italy. We met him in a conference in Riccione. But even nicer than the conference, was meeting Silvio, and what followed.

Silvio & Teresa Ravaldini at Biondi'a Wedding 1993

Silvio and his wife Teresa, at Massimo Biondi’s wedding in 1993

After the conference was over Nancy and I took a train to Bologna, where we stayed overnight at Silvio and Teresa’s apartment. We were both struck by Silvio’s good nature and his giving and positive personality. That night we all watched a video of the Three Tenors Caracalla concert and had a great time even though neither of us spoke Italian. I was able to understand some of what Silvio said because of the similarities between Spanish and Italian, and Silvio was able to understand some of what I said. Other than that we were gesturing and using words we all knew in English or Italian. It was interesting how well we could communicate. At one point in the evening we understood Silvio to say that he had in his computer a bibliographical database of thousands of entries about psychic phenomena and related topics formed mainly from the annotations that Ernesto Bozzano made in his books. He playfully asked us to give him a topic to search the database.  At the time Nancy was interested in  apparitions and she suggested that topic. Silvio left us for 10 minutes or so and then returned holding what Nancy remembers to have been 42 pages of closely printed references about apparitions mainly from the Italian, French, and English spiritualist and psychical research literatures. This unique source has been published in print in several volumes.

I will never forget Silvio’s face with a big smile and an amazing sense of pleasure, when he saw how absorbed I got during my visit to the Bozzano-De Boni Library. The experience, almost intoxicating, was remarkable, because the collection houses many rare Italian and French books and journals, many of which I had never seen. Somehow I escaped momentarily from my altered state and saw Silvio’s reaction and that made my experience even better.

Bozzano De Boni Library

Bozzano-De Boni Library

Over the years I have had occasional contacts with Silvio, some of them through other persons. He wrote many articles and a number of books. I particularly remember his study of Bozzano, Ernesto Bozzano e la Ricerca Psichica (Ernesto Bozzano and Psychical Research; Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 1993), which I reviewed for an American journal.

Ravaldini Ernesto Bozzano

Massimo refers to Silvio’s work and bibliography in his comments below. For my part and for Nancy, in addition to his work, we will always remember him for two attributes, his great kindness, and his keen dedication to the foundation and its work. We are sure Massimo feels the same.

Online Interview with Silvio Ravaldini About Mediumship (in Italian)

Massimo Biondi 2

Dr. Massimo Biondi

Silvio Ravaldini: A Relevant Figure in the History of Spiritism and Psychical Research in Italy

Massimo Biondi

The name and the person of Silvio Ravaldini (December 5, 1925-November 24, 2015) are probably little known to the psychical researchers outside Italy, but they are certainly familiar to many spiritualists all over the world. Because, as a child, he attended séances performed with a non-professional medium in his parents’ home, early in his life he accepted spiritist beliefs, and later became a firm advocate of that belief as well as developed a strong interest in the history of spiritism and psychical research.

When he was forced to move to Bologna (from his native Tuscany), he got in touch with Gastone De Boni, Ernesto Bozzano’s protégé and the leader of Italian spiritualists. At the time in Verona De Boni was the director of the quarterly Luce e Ombra and, occasionally, published books by Bozzano and other authors in the field of spiritualism. De Boni owned all the materials (books, volumes and issues of journals and magazines, letters, documents, photos, etc.) that had previously belonged to Bozzano. The first task De Boni assigned Ravaldini was to write down a report of his old private séances. Afterwards De Boni asked Ravaldini to take part in all of De Boni’s publishing activities. So in 1982, it was natural that when De Boni died, Ravaldini became the proprietor of all the papers and the books of Bozzano and De Boni, as well as the director of Luce e Ombra, a position he continued to hold until his death.

Ravaldini’s first accomplishment, over a few years of intensive activity, was to revive the fortunes of the journal, growing the subscribership. He also arranged for the restorations of the books, collected new papers and documents, and created a “library on the occult” for scholars, students and friends. Luce e Ombra attracted many people with different levels of involvement in parapsychology and spiritism from Italy and other countries around the world. In time, Ravaldini had developed a host of friends and colleagues, among them many well-known people in the field in Italy such as Piero and Brunilde Cassoli, Enrico Marabini, Paola Giovetti, Giovanni Iannuzzo, Alfredo Ferraro, Iacopo Comin, and Ettore Mengoli, and myself. In addition, Ravaldini knew well many Italian mediums such as Roberto Setti, Corrado Piancastelli, Demofilo Fidani, and Marcello Bacci. His list of colleagues outside of Italy included Ian Stevenson, William G. Roll, Hubert Larcher, Erlendur Haraldsson, and Carlos S. Alvarado.

From the 1960s, Ravaldini regularly attended séances with the medium Corrado Piancastelli, and adhered to the “philosophy” of that circle. With some friends he transcribed the tapes of recorded communications of the “spirit” of the circle, publishing bimonthly excerpts of those discourses. In the meantime, from the 1970s he published many articles and book reviews in Luce e Ombra and other Italian “psychic” journals and magazines, recounting both his own experiences in mediumship as well as covering both historical and contemporary topics of psychical research. Moreover, he gave lectures, participated in parapsychological meetings and contributed many chapters to books. His complete bibliography, including published and unpublished writings, amounts to approximately 150 items.

During the Eighties, under my suggestion and that of Ian Stevenson, Ravaldini tried to solve some “drop-in cases” that had occurred during the séances held in his home many years before. His hope was to identify some of the unknown “spirits” who manifested by giving their names or a few fragmentary details. He employed two detective agencies, but only one of those cases was solved, thanks to information discovered by Ian Stevenson in the United States.1

Toward the end of the Twentieth Century, with the financial and entrepreneurial aid of the textile manufacturer Silvana Pagnotta, Ravaldini managed to create a Library Foundation so as to guarantee a future home for Bozzano and De Boni materials. The same day Mrs. Pagnotta died, the “Bozzano-De Boni Library” was inaugurated in Bologna, governed by the Foundation with Ravaldini acting as its first President.

Ravaldino Progetto

The last fifteen years of his life were occupied with work designed to strengthen the Library (developing catalogs and indexes and fundraising), with the publication of Luce e Ombra, and with providing news, books, and copies of documents to scholars in Italy and abroad, as well as with supporting students engaged in master theses on “occult” topics. In addition to this Ravaldini answered questions that came in from all over the world and compiled new books that were destined to be published by different publishers, among these, anthologies of excerpts from old issues of Luce e Ombra (with his prefaces),2-4 a biography of Ernesto Bozzano5 (the only of Ravaldini’s books to be included in the Library of Congress in the United States), a summary of the séances that he attended in his early years,6 a “spiritual” autobiography,7 the communications recently received through a (currently active) medium,8 and a collection of a long series of old lectures on classical mediumship.9 He worked at his usual activities until the last weeks of his life. His last essay, an article on the psychic abilities of animals, was published in the third volume of Luce e Ombra in 2015.10

Ravaldini Realta e Mistero

  1. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M., Stevenson, I. The case of Giuseppe Riccardi: An unusual drop-in communicator in Italy. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1990, 56, 257-265.
  2. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. Le tracce dell’anima, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1901-1925 [Traces of the soul. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1901-1925]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 1998.
  3. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. La realtà dell’anima, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1926-1950 [The Reality of the soul. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1926-1950]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 1999.
  4. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. Il potere dello spirito, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1951-1975 [Powers of the spirit. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1951-1975]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 2000.
  5. Ravaldini, S. Ernesto Bozzano e la ricerca psichica: Vita e opere di un pioniere della parapsicologia [Ernesto Bozzano and psychical research: Life and work of a pioneer of parapsychology]. Edizioni Mediterranee, Roma 1993.
  6. Ravaldini, S. Realtà e mistero: Esperienze di vita vissuta a contatto con i fenomeni paranormali [Reality and mystery: Life experiences in contact with paranormal phenomena]. Bologna: Casa Editrice Conti, 1988.
  7. Ravaldini, S., with Dotti, L. Il progetto della mia anima: Una vita a contatto con la medianità [My soul’s project. A life in contact with mediumship]. Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 2015.
  8. Dotti, L., Ravaldini, S. Colloqui con le anime: Grandi personaggi ci parlano [Talks with souls: Great personalities communicate with us]. Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 2014.
  9. Ravaldini, S. La medianità 1840-2000. I medium, i fenomeni prodotti e gli studi fatti su di loro. [Mediumship 1840-2000: Mediums, their phenomena, and studies done on them]. Unpublished.
  10. Ravaldini, S. I misteri del mondo animale, [Mysteries of the animal world]. Luce e Ombra 2015, 115(3), 223-232.

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am happy to post an interview with Dr. Etzel Cardeña, whose work has been discussed in this blog before (click here, here, and here). I first met Etzel in 1984 when he came to the Institute of Parapsychology at Durham, North Carolina, for their Summer Study Program, where I was teaching.

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Etzel, who has a PhD in psychology (with emphasis on Personality Psychology) from the University of California, Davis, is currently the Poul Thorsen Professor of Psychology at Lund University, in Sweden. In addition to his work in parapsychology, he is internationally known for his work on hypnosis and for various contributions to the literature on dissociation and trauma.

Cardena Varieties 2In addition to this work and supervising graduate students, Etzel has become known for editing comprehensive anthologies that have been very influential, work done together with other colleagues. One of them is Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2014, 2nd ed.), edited with Steven J. Lynn and Stanley Krippner. This is a groundbreaking work not only in its conception and structure, but also because it was published by the American Psychological Association. Another fascinating anthology was Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (co-edited with Michael Winkelman, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011), which I believe is the best source today for information about altered states of consciousness. More recently Etzel edited, with John Palmer and David Marcusson-Clavertz, Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015). This is the one of the most important reference works on contemporary parapsychology.

Cardena AlteringCardena et al ParapsychologyEtzel is one of the most eminent psychologists involved with parapsychology in recent times. Evidence for this are the more than 20 awards he has received throughout his career. A few of them are: Charles Honorton Integrative Contributions Award (Parapsychological Association, 2013), Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Hypnosis (Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, 2007), Morton Prince Award for cumulative contribution to research on dissociative disorders (International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 1999), Pierre Janet Award for the best clinical, theoretical or research paper, (International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 2012), and College of Social and Behavioral Sciences Award for Excellence in Research (University of Texas, 2004).

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I still remember vividly listening to my parents discuss J. B. Rhine’s research when I was a child in México. My father was a psychoanalyst with a great interest in parapsychology who held courses on the topic and discussed it with my also very well-read mother and us. He conducted informal exercises with family and friends trying to develop ostensible telepathy and clairvoyance and published with my brother a serial on parapsychology for the layperson. Although he did not use experimental controls I was still very impressed at times, particularly by a friend of the family who had an uncanny ability to diagnose precisely someone whose name had just been given to her. Growing up I took psi phenomena as a given and read some parapsychology research books besides the s/f speculations in books like Childhood’s End and More than Human.

Some years later, while doing a Ph. D. under Charley Tart on hypnosis, he encouraged me to attend an intensive parapsychology summer institute at the FRNM (currently the Rhine Research Center), around 1984. It was an unforgettable experience in so many different ways. The unsystematic knowledge about parapsychology I possessed became more solid and broad as I read a great amount of studies and attended the various lectures at the institute. I also participated in the research being conducted and got a book as a prize for scoring higher than other institute students in a PK experiment with a computer game (Poink) that Richard Broughton was conducting. In a ganzfeld study conducted by Nancy Zingrone  and others, I stumbled onto an indication of the complexities of the phenomena. I recall that I had a very clear and unusual image that I even drew (and I do not like to draw at all) before receiving feedback. When I was shown the target and the three decoys, I said about one of them that that was the exact image I had seen (and had the drawing as corroboration) whether that one was the target or not. As it turned out, the target was the image I ranked second. Other than parapsychology, during the institute I attended some extraordinary modern dance performances at the American Dance Festival at Duke University, and went on a boat trip through the Eno River with the other institute students, full of ominous signs and reminiscent in scary ways of James Dickey’s Deliverance. No one died or got injured but it was an unforgettable and eerie experience.

After my stay at the FRNM, I got a scholarship from the Parapsychology Foundation to conduct field research in Haiti on spirit possession, subscribed to the main parapsychology journals, and kept myself informed of the field through reading them and presenting at and attending the PA and Parapsychology Research Group meetings. Then, about 12 years ago, the Chair I now hold at Lund University in Sweden was advertised and I was offered the position, which has a remit on parapsychology and hypnosis, and which I thought (and continue to think) was a wonderful fit and professional opportunity.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I include my interest in psi phenomena within the field of alterations of consciousness and anomalous experiences. Plato/Socrates and a number of earlier and later thinkers have considered our ordinary state of consciousness as limiting and other modes of being as potentially able to reveal aspects of reality veiled to the ordinary state. Whether this is the case or not (and there are good reasons to believe it is), I think that alterations of consciousness need to be accounted for in any theory of consciousness and its relation to reality. From this perspective, I think that my main contributions to the field so far have been:

1) Normalizing anomalous experiences (including psi-related ones) within psychology through the two editions of Varieties of Anomalous Experience, published by a mainstream press (American Psychological Association), and other peer-reviewed books, papers and presentations. I have also tried to give some “cover,” to those who want to work in the field by co-organizing a published “Call for an Open, Informed Study of All Aspects of Consciousness,” signed by 100 current or past academics and published in a mainstream journal, as well as developing a very impressive list of eminent people from the past who were interested in psi, about to make its debut in the SPR psi webpages. My hope is that these publications will make it easier for faculty who are given the spiel that parapsychology is pseudoscience and that no “real” scientists take it seriously to argue that “real” and very eminent current scientists from Harvard, Stanford, Berkeley, Cambridge and other universities, besides figures from the past of the stature of Einstein, Planck, and Curie have supported research on the field.

2) The editing (see below) of an updated Handbook of Parapsychology, as well as upgrading the previous PA newsletter into the bulletin Mindfield, which I have now edited for 7 years.

3) Ongoing programmatic research on the relations between hypnosis, dissociation, alterations of consciousness, and performance in controlled psi experiments.

4) Linking psi phenomena to other disciplines (art and literature in a published paper, classical philosophy in a forthcoming paper).

5) Last but definitely not least, supervising doctoral students who will continue to work in the field. My previous doctoral student, Devin Terhune, got the Swedish award for the best young psychologist of that year, and David Marcusson-Clavertz has already published papers on psi and co-edited a book with me. I have another doctoral student doing important work on dissociation and trauma among young immigrants.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

This question can be either answered fairly in a book or succinctly in a couple of sentences. First, it strongly suggests (along with other phenomena discussed by Ed Kelly) that the current limitations to consciousness assumed by most materialist-reductionist models are fallacious. Second, and in agreement with a number of interpretations of quantum mechanics by such people as d’Espagnat and Stapp, it agrees with a model of a unified continuous aspect of reality. Finally, the link between alterations of consciousness and psi gives rise to the speculation, already considered by some classical Greek and Indian philosophers, that the filter of the ordinary state of consciousness might be more restrictive of certain aspects of reality than other states of consciousness.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

Where do I start? I have the advantage of also researching other areas that are more accepted and so I can bring an external perspective as well. One of the largest problems is the wrathful and prejudiced intolerance that characterizes so much of the anti-psi movement. You find the phobia that presumes that accepting parapsychology will bring about the end of science (I have never been able to follow that argument very well), and the petulance that just because some critics have not experienced these phenomena or they do not fit their cognitive schemas then those wanting to research them have to be cretins, spiritual fanatics, or worse. Related to this attitude is a more general arrogance in which some scientists assume that their current account of reality is final or close to final, and that any deviations from it are of course deluded, notwithstanding the history of science showing how “final” accounts of reality have been superseded by considerably different ones, and how much our capacity to know is limited by the nature of our receptors, our evolved limited rationality, and the nature of nature of nature itself. The anti-parapsychology movement has been very effective so far in marginalizing the field and exerted a very high cost on those who want to work in the field, with the main exception of Great Britain. The result is that there are preciously few researchers and theoreticians working in the area. As a comparison, a subfield of a subfield of a subfield, for instance the study of the P300 event related potential (ERP), attracts far more researchers, labs, and financial opportunities than all of parapsychology combined.

But there is also self-inflicted damage, in my view:

1) In agreement with at least one critic, there is a tendency among some (of the very few) researchers to go from one method or question to another, rather than to persevere with a promising question and conduct programmatic research on it to get a better comprehension, as is done by most successful mainstream researchers. For instance, at a recent PA I heard about a study that did not turn out as expected and the presenter explained why that might have occurred, but instead of testing that hypothesis in later studies, s/he declared that s/he would move to another question.

2) Considering parapsychology as an independent “discipline” is unrealistic. It is rather a cross-disciplinary topic of interest to psychologists, physicists, biologists, and so on. This has two consequences. The first is that it implies that psi research should be better integrated into larger disciplines (as researchers like Bem or theoreticians like Carpenter are doing), rather than remaining within a very small community. For instance, studies having both a psi and non-psi component are likely to make greater inroads than those just evaluating possible psi. The second is that, as with other topics, the greater the impact of the researcher in the larger discipline overall, the greater the likelihood that s/he will be heard by people not already commited to psi. For example, statisticians pay attention to Jessica Utts’s pronouncements about psi because of her general reputation as a statistician, not because of psi itself. Similarly, I have been able to publish papers on psi in mainstream journals probably because I am well-known for my work in other areas.

3) Considering the very meager resources in the psi field (and thanks to Bial, there are some rather than almost none), there should be far more inter-laboratory collaborations than is the case. For instance, I think that it is imperative to develop and test with a large number of participants a potential battery of task-related (as Rex Stanford has suggested) tests, psychological measures, and other indicators to determine who is likely to succeed in a psi experiment, and that this should be done as a collaborative enterprise. Even though I do not expect that we will find a strong indicator, even a moderate indicator would be of great help to increase our chances of evaluating phenomena more reliable.

4) Finally, I think that both extremes of granting unjustifiedly too much to critics instead of responding assertively to them, or claiming greater certainties about the nature of psi phenomena than are warranted does disservice to the field. In the first case it allows critics to get away with demonstrable falsehoods, does not require them to produce actual research to support their points, and does not discuss (the very real) limitations of psi research within the greater context of the limitations of empirical research in general. As for claims that we clearly understand psi phenomena, they crash against the reality of the field’s limited success in establishing the conditions under which results can be robustly replicated.

One final point is a problem that I have seen all too often in listservs and other specialized forums in which honest researchers who express doubt as to the evidence of some types of psi and/or point to contradictory evidence are personally attacked or assumed to be cognitively deficient. I know of at least one person who left the field because of this. Despite what I think is an idealization of people working in parapsychology as generally open and selfless, I have found the same dogmatism, egocentricity, and outright nastiness that I have observed in other groups. I am particularly aware of this since some members of the parapsychology community in Sweden started attacking me personally even before I arrived to Sweden, and they have continued their attacks now for more than 10 years, the longest and most malicious temper-tantrum I have ever witnessed.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

We (co-editors Etzel Cardeña, John Palmer and David Marcusson-Clavertz, with contributions from many of the most important workers in the field) just finished a major enterprise, an update of the 1977 Handbook of Parapsychology (Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century) that provides both a state-of-the-science account of psi research along with information on how to design experiments and analyze them statistically. The book is intended for those interested in the field as well as for beginning and experienced researchers.

One of my doctoral students and I finished recently the preliminary analyses and report of a study on ganzfeld, hypnosis, and the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI), which we will submit to a journal within the next few months. Although we did not replicate a previous strong correlation between psi z-scores and experiencing an altered state of consciousness, we did replicate moderate correlations between psi scores and low arousal and more focused attention that Chris Roe and collaborators have found in their research. Our results were also consistent with the MPI. We have transcribed the sessions from this and a previous telepathy experiment and at some point will see if quantitative and qualitative content analyses can evidence a relation between specific mentations and psi scoring or missing.

I finished a paper that presents the case for considering anomalous experiences (and potential anomalous events including psi) as essential for any model of consciousness, to be published in a mainstream encyclopedia on consciousness. We (past or current doctoral students and I) have many papers recently accepted or under revision on such related topics as the influence of hypnotizability and dissociation on the stream of consciousness and mind-wandering, and dissociation, posttraumatic symptomatology, and attachment styles among teenage immigrants to Sweden previously exposed to traumatic events. Collaborators from other universities and I are working on papers on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic and posttraumatic symptoms among breast cancer survivors. And if I am unable to control my masochistic tendencies, I might also accept invitations to write two books on alterations of consciousness, psi phenomena, and their ontological and epistemological implications.

Other than that, I am planning to direct the extraordinary play Krapp’s Last Tape by Samuel Beckett in the fall as Artistic Director of the International Theatre of Malmö, and of course enjoy all of life with the spark of my life Sophie and our little ones.

Selected Publications

Edited Books

Cardeña, E., Palmer, J., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (Eds.). (2015). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., & Facco, E. (Eds.) (2015). Non-Ordinary Mental Expressions. E-book Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.) (2014). Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Winkelman, M. (Eds.). (2011). Altering consciousness: Multidisciplinary perspectives (2 vols.). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Cardeña, E., & Croyle, K. (Eds.) (2005). Acute Reactions to Trauma and Psychotherapy: A Multidisciplinary and International Perspective. New York: Haworth Press. Also as special issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6(2).

Cardeña, E., & Nijenhuis, E. (2000). Embodied sorrow. Special issue on somatoform dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1.

Kirsch, I., Capafons, A., Cardeña, E., & Amigó, S. (Eds.) (1999). Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation therapy: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Articles

Cardeña, E., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). The influence of hypnotizability and dissociation on everyday mentation: An experience sampling study. Submitted for publication.

Cardeña, E. (in press). The unbearable fear of psi: On scientific censorship in the 21st century. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Cardeña, E., & Terhune, D. B. (in press). Daydreaming style moderates the relationship between working memory and mind-wandering: Towards an integration of two hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Cardeña, E. (in press). Anomalous experience. In M. Velmans (Ed.), The Blackwell companion of consciousness, 2nd ed. London, UK: Blackwell.

Schaffler, Y., Cardeña, E., Reijman, S., & Haluza, D. (in press). Traumatic experiences and somatoform dissociation among spirit possession practitioners in the Dominican Republic. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Cardeña, E. (2015). On negative capability and parapsychology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). States, traits, beliefs, and psi. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century (pp. 110-124). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., Marcusson-Clavertz, D., & Palmer, J. (2015). Reintroducing parapsychology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., Reijman, S., Lawaetz Wimmelmann, C., & Jensen, C. G.. (2015). Psychological health, trauma, dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness among Danish spiritual practitioners. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2, 170-184.

Cardeña, E. & Terhune, D. B. (2014). Hypnotizability, personality traits, and the propensity to experience alterations of consciousness. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 292-307.

Cardeña, E., & Alvarado, C.S. (2014). Anomalous self and identity experiences. In E. Cardeña. S.J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of Anomalous Experiences (2nd ed., pp. 175-212). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E. (2014). Hypnos and psyche, or how hypnosis has contributed to the study of consciousness. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 123-138.

Cardeña, E. (2014). A call for an open, informed, study of all aspects of consciousness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2014). Anomalous experiences in perspective. In E. Cardeña, S. J., Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. 2nd ed, (pp. 3-20). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Pekala, R. J. (2014). Methodological issues in the study of altering consciousness and anomalous experience. In E. Cardeña, S. J., Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. 2nd ed. (pp. 21-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., Jönsson, P., Terhune, D. B., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2013). The neurophenomenology of neutral hypnosis. Cortex, 49, 375-385.

Cardeña, E., Iribas, A., & Reijman, S. (2012). Art and psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 3-25.

Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Terhune, D. B., & Cardeña, E., (2012). Individual differences and state effects on mind wandering: Hypnotizability, dissociation, and sensory homogenization. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1097-1108.

Cardeña, E., & Alvarado, C.S. (2011). Altered consciousness from the age of Enlightenment through mid-20th century. In E. Cardeña and M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives: Vol. 1: History, Culture and the Humanities (pp. 89-112). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Cardeña, E., & Carlson, E. (2011). Acute Stress Disorder revisited. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 245-267. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104502

Marcusson-Clavertz, D. & Cardeña, E., (2011). Hypnotizability, alterations in consciousness, and other variables as predictors of performance in a ganzfeld psi task. Journal of Parapsychology, 75, 235-259.

Terhune, D. B., Cardeña, E., & Lindgren, M. (2011). Differential frontal-parietal connectivity during hypnosis as a function of hypnotic suggestibility. Psychophysiology, 48, 1444-1447. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01211.x

Moreira-Almeida, A., & Cardeña, E. (2011). Differential diagnosis between non-pathological psychotic and spiritual experiences and mental disorders: A contribution from Latin American studies to the ICD-11. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 33 Suppl. 1, S29-S36.

Cardeña, E. (2011). On wolverines and epistemological totalitarianism. (Guest editorial). Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 539-551.

Cardeña, E. (2011). Altered consciousness in emotion and psychopathology. In E. Cardeña, & M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering consciousness. Multidisciplinary perspectives. Volume II. Biological and psychological perspectives (pp. 279-299). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Granqvist, P., Reijman, S. & Cardeña E. (2011). Altered consciousness and human development. In E. Cardeña, & M. Winkelman. Altering consciousness. Multidisciplinary perspectives. Volume II. Biological and psychological perspectives (pp. 211-234). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Terhune, D. B., & Cardeña, E (2010). Differential patterns of spontaneous experiential response to a hypnotic induction: A latent profile analysis. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 1140-1150.

Zingrone, N.L., Alvarado, C.S., & Cardeña, E. (2010). Out-of-body experiences, physical body activity and posture: Responses from a survey conducted in Scotland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 163-165.

Cardeña, E., & Krippner, S. (2010). The cultural context of hypnosis. In Lynn, S. J., J. W. Rhue, & Kirsch, I. (Eds.) Handbook of clinical hypnosis 2nd Ed (pp. 743-771). Washington, D. C: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Weiner, L. (2009). Trance/possession phenomena. In Dell, P.F., & O’Neil, J. A. (Eds.). Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond.

Cardeña, E., Dennis, J. M., Winkel, M., & Skitka, L. (2005). A snapshot of terror: Acute posttraumatic reactions to the September 11 attack. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6, 69-84.

Cardeña, E. (2005). The phenomenology of deep hypnosis: Quiescent and physically active. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 37-59.

Cardeña, E. (2005). Subjectivity and communitas: Further considerations on pain. In Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan E. Mezzich, & Ahmed Okasha (Eds.) Somatoform disorders. Evidence and experience in psychiatry V. 9 (pp. 121-123). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cardeña, E. (2004). Introspection is alive and well: Current methodologies to study conscious experience. Proceedings of the 5th Simpósio da Fundaçao Bial. Porto, 43-54. Portugal: Bial.

Cardeña, E., & Gleaves, D. (2003) Dissociative disorders. In S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.). Adult psychopathology & diagnosis Fourth edition (pp. 476-505). New York: Wiley.

Cardeña, E., Butler, L. D., & Spiegel, D. (2003). Stress disorders. In G. Stricker & T. Widiger, (Eds.) Handbook of Psychology. V 8. (pp. 229-249). New York: John Wiley.

Van Ommeren, M., de Jong, J. T. V. M., Sharma, B., Komproe, I., Thapa, S., & Cardeña, E. (2001). Psychiatric disorders among tortured Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 475-482.

Cardeña, E., Koopman, C., Classen, C., Waelde, L., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ): A valid and reliable measure of acute stress reactions. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 719-734.

Cardeña, E., Maldonado, J., Van der Hart, O., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Hypnosis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 580-584.

Cardeña, E. (2000) Hypnosis in the treatment of trauma: A promising, but not fully supported, efficacious intervention. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 221-234.

Litwin, R., & Cardeña, E. (2000). Demographic and seizure variables, but not hypnotizability or dissociation, differentiated psychogenic from organic seizures. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1, 99-122.

Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, I., Barabasz, A., Cardeña, E., & Patterson, D. (2000) Hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention: The state of the evidence and a look to the future. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 235-255.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2000). Anomalous experiences in perspective In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn., & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience (pp. 3-21). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Easterlin, B. & Cardeña, E. (1998-99). Perceived stress, cognitive and emotional differences between short-and long-term Vipassana meditators. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 69-82.

Cardeña, E., Holen, A., McFarlane, A., Solomon, Z., Wilkinson, C., & Spiegel, D. (1998). A multi-site study of acute-stress reaction to a disaster. In Widiger, T. A. et al. (Eds.)Sourcebook for the DSM-IV. Vol. IV (pp. 377-391). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Cardeña, E., Alarcón, A., Capafons, A., & Bayot, A. (1998). Effects on suggestibility of a new method of active-alert hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3, 280-294.

Cardeña, E. (1998). Dissociation and PSI: What are the links? In N. L. Zingrone, M. J., Schlitz, C. S. Alvarado, & J. Milton (Eds.). Research in Parapsychology 1993. Scarecrow Press: Lanham, Maryland.

O’Connor, B., Calabrese, C., Cardeña, E., et al. (1997). Defining and describing complementary and alternative medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3, 49-57..

Cardeña, E. (1997) The etiologies of dissociation. In S. Powers & S. Krippner (Eds.), Broken images, broken selves (pp. 61-87). New York: Brunner.

Cardeña, E., & Beard, J. (1996). Truthful trickery: Shamanism, acting and reality. Performance Research, 1, 31-39.

Cardeña, E. (1996). “Just floating on the sky”. A comparison of shamanic and hypnotic phenomenology. In R. Quekelbherge & D. Eigner (Eds.) 6th Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie (6th Yearbook of cross-cultural medicine and psychotherapy) (pp. 367-380). Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel, D. (1996). Diagnostic issues, criteria and comorbidity of dissociative disorders. In L. Michelson & W. J. Ray (Eds.), Handbook of Dissociation (pp. 227-250) New York: Plenum.

Cardeña, E. (1994). The domain of dissociation. In S. J. Lynn and J. W. Rhue (Eds.) Dissociation: Clinical, theoretical, and research perspectives (pp. 15-31). New York: Guilford.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel D. (1993) Dissociative reactions to the Bay Area Earthquake. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 474-478.

Cardeña, E. (1992) Trance and possession as dissociative disorders. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 29 , 283-297.

Spiegel, D., & Cardeña, E. (1991). Disintegrated experience: The dissociative disorders revisited. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 , 366-378.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel, D. (1991). Suggestibility, absorption, and dissociation: An integrative model of hypnosis. In John F. Schumaker (Ed.) Human suggestibility: Advances in theory, research and application. New York: Routledge, 93-107.

Cardeña, E. (1989). The varieties of possession experience. Association for the Anthropological Study of Consciousness Quarterly, 5 (2-3), 1-17.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am glad to have an interview with Dr. Fatima Regina Machado, who I have visited in her country, Brazil, as well as her husband and colleague Dr. Wellington Zangari. I first met Fatima in 1993 when she came to Durham, North Carolina, to participate in the now defunct parapsychology Summer Study Program at what was then known as the Institute of Parapsychology. I was lecturing there at the time.

Dr. Fatima Regina Machado

Dr. Fatima Regina Machado

For many years Fatima has been working—sometimes with Wellington—on behalf of parapsychology in an academic setting in Brazil. She is in fact a pioneer in this field in her country, and her accomplishments are clear both in the interview below as well as in the bibliography that follows. Two of her main areas of interest are poltergeist phenomena and surveys of psychic experiences. Fatima, interestingly, is the only person I know who has two doctoral degrees, as you can see in her interview below. She has PhDs in psychology (social psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009), and in Communication and Semiotics (Pontifical University of São Paulo, 2003).

One of her most important contributions was the report of the results of her second PhD dissertation “Experiências Anômalas na Vida Cotidiana: Experiências Extra-Sensório-Motoras e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-estar Subjetivo” (Anomalous Experiences in Daily Life: Extrasensorimotor Experiences and their Association with Beliefs, Attitudes and Well-being, Institute for Psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009). The article, “Experiências Anômalas (Extra-Sensório-Motoras) na Vida Cotidiana e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-Estar Subjetivo,” appeared in the Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia (2010, 30, 462-483). This was important for at least two reasons. First, it appeared in a prestigious forum of Brazilian psychology, a journal published by the Academia Paulista de Psicologia (Paulist Academy of Psychology). Second, this work has inspired similar studies which are currently being conducted by doctoral students.

Other contributions include the following: Machado, F.R. (2009). Field Investigations on Hauntings and Poltergeists. Utrecht II: Charting the Future of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation / Het Johan Borgmanfonds Foundation, 115-150; Radin, D.I., Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2002). Effects of Distant Healing Intention Through Time & Space: Two Exploratory Studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine Journal, 11, 34-58; Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2001). Parapsychology in Brazil: A Science Entering Adulthood. Journal of Parapsychology, 65, 351-356; Machado, F.R. (2001). A New Look on Hauntings and Poltergeist Phenomena: Proposal of a Semiotic Perspective of Analysis. In J. Houran & ; R. Lange (Eds.), Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 227-247; Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2000). The Poltergeist in Brazil: A Review of the Literature in Context. International Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 105-132.

Interview

Rhine Canais OcultosHow did you get interested in parapsychology?
When I was a little girl I liked hearing ghost stories and folklore tales. My grandfathers were really good story tellers. My father’s father was very credulous about supernatural events. My mother’s father was a scientist and always had a naturalistic explanation for the cases I was told. I grew up hearing those fascinating stories, and I always considered the naturalistic explanations also fascinating, very elucidating. In high school, we had a short course on parapsychology taught by a priest who had a Catholic approach to the supposed paranormal events and not very convincing answers to my many questions on the subject. It was quite disappointing to me at that time. After finishing high school, I attended another parapsychology course where they would supposedly explain how telepathy and clairvoyance work and teach some techniques with which we would be able to control our minds and to have extrasensory experiences. But that course did not convince me either. When I went to college in 1991, I met Wellington Zangari, who was really interested in parapsychology from a scientific point of view. He was studying it for some years already. I have to thank him for introducing me to the field. It was a surprise for me to discover that very serious people were studying systematically psychokinetic and extrasensory phenomena/experiences. The first books I had contact with were, in Portuguese, Canais Ocultos do Espírito (Hidden Channels of the Mind), written by Louisa Rhine, and Magia e Parapsicologia, a book on the history of parapsychology written by Bruno Fantoni; and in English, Foundations of Parapsychology, by Edge, Morris, Palmer and Rush, and the Handbook of Parapsychology, organized by Benjamin B. Wollman. A new world was opened to me and I was getting more and more interested. Zangari (who later became my husband) had already founded an institute for parapsychology in São Paulo. Some courses were offered and there was a study group who had meetings weekly. Soon I got involved with the institute activities and left my job (I was an elementary school teacher) to be devoted to the field.

Fantoni Magia y ParapsicologiaWhat are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I am especially interested in the meaning and relevance of psi experiences for the experiencers’ lives. Because I understand that psi experiences are part of daily life and have something to reveal about human nature and the way we interact with our environment – independently of its ontological status, but also because of its possible ontological reality – I invested efforts in developing academic research related to the field in Brazil. In order to do that I helped to introduce the topic into the academy in Brazil primarily through my master’s thesis and Ph.D dissertations. My master’s thesis was A Causa dos Espíritos: Um Estudo sobre a Utilização da Parapsicologia para a Defesa da Fé Católica e Espírita no Brasil (The Cause of the Spirits: A Study on the Use of Parapsychology to the Defense of the Catholic and Spiritist Faiths in Brazil, Sciences of Religion Post-Graduation Program, Pontifical University of São Paulo, 1996). I have two PhD degrees. My first dissertation was A Ação dos Signos nos Poltergeists: Estudo do Processo de Comunicação dos Fenômenos Poltergeist a Partir de seus Relatos (The Action of Signs in Poltergeists: Study of the Communication Process of Poltergeist Phenomena from their Accounts, Communication and Semiotics Post-Graduation Program, Pontifical University of São Paulo, 2003). The second one was Experiências Anômalas na Vida Cotidiana: Experiências Extra-Sensório-Motoras e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-estar Subjetivo (Anomalous Experiences in Daily Life: Extrasensorimotor Experiences and their Association with Beliefs, Attitudes and Well-being, Institute for Psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009).

Title Page of Machado's Dissertation About Anomalous Experiences

Title Page of Machado’s Dissertation About Anomalous Experiences

As a professional, I consider that exchanging information with the international scientific community is essential for the development of the field because it helps to break barriers and to expand perspectives. In 1993, I attended the Summer Study Program at Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (today the Rhine Research Center) and it was a great opportunity to get in contact with researchers of the international community and to present what was happening in the Brazilian context in terms of interest, studies and efforts. I became the first Brazilian woman to become a Parapsychological Association member (currently I am a member of its Board of Directors), and since 2001 Zangari and I are International Affiliates of the Parapsychology Foundation. I should also say that the PF was really important to us in terms of support, as was the support of some persons such as Nancy L. Zingrone, Carlos S. Alvarado, and Stanley Krippner, who have served as bridges for my international activities.

I have also done some experimental research, but my expertise is case studies (especially poltergeist ones) and surveys. Zangari and I have been working together in order to develop research and spread good quality information in our country, where the term parapsychology is badly used, confusing the field with all sort of practices. We worked to transform the former independent institute/study group into a research group in academia. Attending and participating in conferences and seminars in different fields of studies was a strategy to present information and break barriers and prejudices against the field. All these actions, combined with the maintenance of our research group, have helped to motivate more people to do research and to present good quality information.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

For my PhD in Psychology, I did a survey that shows that 82.7% of the participants (N = 306) reported having had at least one psi experience (ESP or PK), and the majority of them considered their psi experience(s) important or relevant to their lives. Brazil seems to be a country where we can find a high prevalence of psi experiences. Also surveys in other countries show considerable prevalences of psi experiences. This cannot be dismissed. It demonstrates that psi experiences are part of daily life and I believe that they are clues to reveal some aspects of human nature and the way we interact with the environment (independently of its ontological status, but also because of its possible ontological reality) which we still do not understand. Parapsychology is important because it is a field devoted to the investigation of psi and to attempts to obtain and assess scientific evidence for its support. And beyond that, due to the intricate nature of the subject to be investigated, it has the double effect of provoking very interesting debates among scientists (at least among those who are not prejudicially opposed to it) and of improving methodological procedures and conceptual advances, independently (or maybe exactly because) of the surrounding controversies.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

Despite all efforts to “clean up” the popular image of “parapsychology,” as a misused term, we still find some resistance to it. It can be problematic when you ask for grants in Brazil, for instance – and a research field needs resources to keep growing. However, as I said before, I have not met opposition to the study of psi. On the contrary: the interest in studying psi is growing and growing in Brazil. Recently (2010) our research group adopted the term Anomalistic Psychology to designate our field of study, expanding the spectrum of interests. This has attracted more students and interested people in general, besides contributing to the improvement of the dialogue with other study areas and the insertion of psi research into the scientific mainstream. It does not mean that we have abandoned parapsychology. Now we have more possibilities to encourage people to listen to us and understand the relevance of (scientific and serious) parapsychological studies.

Another problem I see in parapsychology as a scientific field is the still poor replicability of psi experiments – not only because of the nature of psi, but also because I do not see many researchers involved in replications of experiments. I think we could also do more replications in cross-cultural studies (never forgetting spontaneous case studies, of course!). It would, for sure, improve the data base and this could help in the development of experimental procedures.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

In Brazil we are living a very special moment in terms of interest in academic research of parapsychological experiences. From 1999 to 2009 our research group was based at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, where I was a PhD student and latter, a teacher, and it was very important to develop activities and to mature. In 2009, Zangari and I began a project to establish our research group (now called Inter Psi – Laboratory of Anomalistic Psychology and Psychosocial Processes) at the University of São Paulo (USP), the most important public university in the country. Since 2010, our laboratory has been established at USP. I have co-supervised several activities which have been developed with the help of Zangari’s graduate students who have, in turn, worked on master theses or in PhD dissertations (and now we have two post-doctoral fellows). The topics these students have worked on have included anomalous experiences in general (surveys, experimental, field and case studies), and especially ESP, PK, OBEs, UFO abductions and mediumistic experiences. Besides individual research projects, there are some collective projects being developed by different groups of Inter Psi’s participants. We intend to train graduate students to establish their own groups after they finish their doctorates and start working in other universities. In addition to these activities, we have also worked to establish international agreements to do cross-cultural research and exchange students with other universities. We have already received the visit of outstanding foreign researchers such as Nancy L. Zingrone, Carlos S. Alvarado, Stanley Krippner, Chris Roe, and Elizabeth Roxburgh.

Members of Inter Psi (Dr. Fatima Regina Machado (third from right), Dr. Wellington Zangari (fifth from right). Visitors from England: Dr. Chris Roe (first from left), and Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh (fifth from left)

Members of Inter Psi (Dr. Fatima Regina Machado (third from right), Dr. Wellington Zangari (fifth from right). Visitors from England: Dr. Chris Roe (first from left), and Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh (fifth from left)

In addition to Inter Psi, I am also a member of the Laboratory for Social Psychology of Religion and a member of the National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology, where I participate in the Working Group “Psychology and Religion”. In all these activities I have worked for promoting academic research of parapsychological/anomalistic experiences.

Currently I am a post-doctoral fellow of the Sciences of Religion Post-Graduation Program at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Among different activities, I have contributed to the dissemination of information on psi research/anomalistic psychology to graduate students, promoting the exchange of information between graduate students from Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and the University of São Paulo, and by teaching some classes and participating in research meetings.

Now I am preparing an article on the history of parapsychology in Brazil which will be published soon, and a book chapter, co-authored with some colleagues, on Brazilian parapsychological spontaneous cases.

Selected Publications

ALVARADO, C.; MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Théodore Flournoy’s contributions to Psychical Research. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, v. 78, p. 149-168, 2014.

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; KRIPPNER, S. . Anomalous Mental and Physical Phenomena of Brazilian Mediums: a review of the scientific literature.. In: Jack Hunter; David Luke. (Org.). (Org.). Talking with the Spirits: Ethnographies From Between the Worlds.. 1ed.Brisbane: Daily Grail Publishing, 2014, v. 1, p. 259-301.

MARTINS, L. B. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Possibilidades Darwinistas para o Estudo das Experiências Anômalas. In: Clarissa de Franco; Rodrigo Petronio. (Org.). Crença e Evidência: Aproximações e controvérias entre religião e teoria evolucionária no pensamento contemporâneo. 1ed.São Leopoldo: UNISINOS, 2014, v. 1, p. 127-153.

ZANGARI, W. ; MARALDI, E. O. ; MARTINS, L. B. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Estados Alterados de Consciência e Religião. In: João Décio Passos; Frank Usarski. (Org.). Compêndio de Ciência da Religião. 1ed.São Paulo: Paulinas; Paulus, 2013, v. 1, p. 423-435.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . The Paradoxal Disappearance of Parapsychology in Brazil. Journal of Parapsychology, v. 76, p. 65-67, 2012.

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. A Psicologia das Crenças Paranormais: Uma Revisão Crítica. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 31, p. 394-421, 2011.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Por Uma Psicologia Anomalística Inclusiva. In: VII Encontro Psi: Pesquisa Psi e Psicologia Anomalística, 2011, Curitiba. Livro de Registro dos Trabalhos Apresentados no VII Encontro Psi: Pesquisa Psi e Psicologia Anomalística. Curitiba: UNIBEM, 2011. v. 1. p. 162-166.

MARALDI, E. O. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. . Importance of a Psychosocial Approach for a Comprehensive Understanding of Mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 24, p. 181-186, 2010.

MACHADO, F. R. . Experiências anômalas (extra-sensório-motoras) na vida cotidiana e sua associação com crenças, atitudes e bem-estar subjetivo. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 30, p. 462-483, 2010.

MACHADO, F. R. Field Investigations on Hauntings and Poltergeists. Utrecht II: Charting The Future of Parapsychology Proceedings of an International Conference. New York: Parapsychology Foundation; Het Johan Borgmanfonds Foundation: The Netherlands. p. 115 – 150, 2009.

MACHADO, F. R. Algumas reflexões sobre as implicações dos estudos da psicocinesia na compreensão da consciência e da espiritualidade. In: V Encontro Psi: A Variedade das Experiências Humanas, 2009, Recife. Livro de Registro dos Trabalhos Apresentados – V Encontro Psi. Curitiba: FBM, 2009. v. 1. p. 15-24.

MACHADO, F. R. . Parapsicologia no Brasil: Entre a Cruz e a mesa Branca. Ceticismo Aberto, http://www.ceticismoaberto.com/paranormal/2091/parapsicologia-no-brasil-entre-a-cruz-e-a-mesa-branca, 2009 (publicado originalmente em 2005).

MACHADO, F. R. . Consciência, Espiritualidade e Psicocinesia: Limites e Possibilidades de Estudo. In: III Simpósio Nacional sobre Consciência, 2008, Salvador. Artigos apresentados no III Simpósio Nacional Sobre Consciência. Salvador: Fundação Ocidemnte, 2008. v. 3. p. 1-16.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. ; ZINGRONE, N. L. . Perspectivas históricas da influência da mediunidade na construção de idéias psicológicas e psiquiátricas. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, v. 34, p. 42-53, 2007.

MACHADO, F. R. . Da Composição dos Casos Poltergeist. In: II Encontro Psi: Refletindo sobre o Futuro da Parapsicologia, 2004, Curitiba. Livro de Registro de Trabalhos Apresentados. Curitiba: Campus Universitário Bezerra de Menezes, 2004. v. 1. p. 51-62.

MACHADO, F. R. . Função e Significado dos Poltergeist: Uma abordagem semiótica.. In: 6ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos, 2003, São Paulo. Caderno da 6ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos. São Paulo: CEPE, 2003. v. 1. p. 30-43.

MACHADO, F. R. . Poltergeist: Un juego semiótico. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal, Buenos Aires, v. 13, n.3, p. 181-195, 2002.

RADIN, D. I. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. . Effects of Distant Healing Intention Through Time & Space: Two Exploratory Studies. Subtle Energies And Energy Medicine Journal, v. XI, n.3, p. 34-58, 2002.

MACHADO, F. R.; ZANGARI, W.. Parapsychology in Brazil: A Science entering adulthood. The Journal Of Parapsychology, Durham, NC – USA, v. 65, n.4, p. 351-356, 2001.

MACHADO, F. R. . A new look on hauntings and poltergeist phenomena: Proposal of a semiotic perspective of analysis. In: James Houran; Rense Lange. (Org.). Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. 1ed.Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001, v. 1, p. 227-247.

MACHADO, F. R.; ZANGARI, W. The Poltergeist in Brazil: A Review of the Literature in Context. International Journal Of Parapsychology, Nova Iorque, v. 11, n.1, p. 105-132, 2000.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. Estudo de três casos poltergeist em São Paulo. In: Tercer Encuentro Psi 1998: Consciencia y Psi como Fronteras de Exploración Cientifica, 1998, Buenos Aires. Actas del Tercer Encuentro Psi 1998. Buenos Aires: IPP, 1998. v. 1. p. 75-81.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZINGRONE, N. . Métodos de Investigación en Parapsicología (Parte II). Boletim Aipa, Buenos Aires, v. 2, n.1(3), p. 9-12, 1998.

ZANGARI, W.;  MACHADO, F. R. . The Adolescent Science: Parapsychology in Brazil. The Journal Of The American Society For Psychical Research, Nova Iorque, v. 91, p. 110-121, 1997.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. A Psicologia do Ganzfeld (Parte I). Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 38, p. 2-3, 1997.

ZANGARI, W.; MACHADO, F. R. . A Psicologia do Ganzfeld (Parte II). Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 39, p. 2-3, 1997.

MACHADO, F. R. . A Questão da Nomenclatura em Parapsicologia. Anuário Brasileiro de Parapsicologia, Recife, v. 2, p. 31-45, 1997.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZINGRONE, N. . Métodos de Investigación en Parapsicología (ParteI). Boletim Aipa, Buenos Aires, v. 1, p. 13-16, 1997.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ALVARADO, C. S. . Sobre o provincianismo em Parapsicologia. In: I Congresso Internacional e Brasileiro de Parapsicologia, 1997, Recife. Anais do I Congresso Internacional e Brasileiro de Parapsicologia. Recife: IPPP, 1997. v. 1. p. 75-88.

Zangari, W.; MACHADO, F. R. . Survey: Incidence and Social Relevance of Brazilian University Students’Psychic Experiences. European Journal Of Parapsychology, Edimburgo, v. 12, p. 75-87, 1996.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. A Psicologia do Poltergeist. Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 36, p. 11-16, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Incidencia y Importancia Social de las Experiencias Psiquicas en los Estudiantes Universitarios Brasileros. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, Buenos Aires, v. 7, n.1(25), p. 19-35, 1996.

MACHADO, F. R. . Considerações sobre ética e educação em Parapsicologia no Brasil. In: XIII Simpósio Pernambucano de Parapsicologia, 1995, Recife. Anais do XIII Simpósio Pernambucano de Parapsicologia. Recife: IPPP, 1995. v. 1. p. 76-82.

MACHADO, F. R. Um Fantasma em Minha Casa? Uma Introdução ao fenômeno de poltergeist ou RSPK. Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, São Paulo, v. 4, p. 8-15, 1994.

MACHADO, F. R. A Importância da Educação em Parapsicologia. Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, São Paulo, v. 3, p. 27-29, 1993.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. Hoyt Edge is a philosopher with a long track record of work in parapsychology (for an interview click here). He is well known for two types of contributions. As a philosopher he has written about philosophical issues in parapsychology. But he has also conducted many experiments, perhaps the most interesting being his studies in Bali. Examples of these contributions include:

(2009). There is No Mind-Body Problem in Parapsychology. In C. Roe, W. Kramer, & L. Coly, (Eds). Utrecht II: Charting the future of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 421-462; (2002). Two Cognitive DMILS Studies in Bali (with Luh Ketut Suryani, Niko Tiliopoulos, and Robert Morris), Journal of Parapsychology, 68, 289-321; (2002). Philosophy of Mind and Parapsychology. In Frontiers of Human Science, V. Gowari Rammohan, (Ed.). Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 30-45; and (1982). The Use of the Pendulum as an Automatism. In Research in Parapsychology 1981. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 193-95.

Dr. Hoyt Edge

Dr. Hoyt Edge

Hoyt, who I see here and there in conventions, is retired from Rollins College, where he was the Hugh F. and Jeannette G. McKean Professor of Philosophy and an Associate Dean. In 1989 he was elected President of the Parapsychological Association.

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

Cassadaga, the winter retreat for spiritualists, was only several miles away from Stetson University, where I went to college. I took a date there one time on a lark, and picked out a medium randomly by his sign on the street. We had readings, but the empty six pack of beer on the floor beside him did not seem to have helped him much. However, I kept hearing about a special medium, and during graduate school when my wife and I would come to Florida, we were finally able to set up an appointment with Anne Gehman after several attempts. I don’t need to go into detail, but the reading, which was more directed to my wife since I was trying to write down everything she said, was impressive in several details. One thing she said to me, however, was that she saw me doing experiments; given that I was studying philosophy, I just laughed at that assertion.

I got a job at Rollins College, again not far from Cassadaga, and after my first class in the evening school, a student came up to me to talk. That student was Jo Marie Haight, who later studied parapsychology and made good contributions while she worked at FRNM (now the Rhine Research Center). At that time she was secretary to Anne Gehman, who had recently founded a spiritualist church in Orlando. My wife started taking a development class, and came home with some impressive stories.

Meanwhile, I was preparing for our Winter Term, in which we were supposed to offer something unusual and especially attractive to students. Because of my love for William James, and knowing his interest in psychical research, I decided to offer a course on William James and Parapsychology, during which time I immersed myself in the experimental literature, and even did an experiment with several students on dream telepathy which had an unusual but impressive result. After that, several synchronous events occurred that drew me more deeply into parapsychology, which resulted in my collaboration with James Wheatley on an edited book in the philosophical implications of parapsychology, an invitation from the Parapsychology Foundation to a conference, and while directing a group of students attending college in Freiburg, Germany, being asked by Eberhard Bauer to contribute my first parapsychology article in the Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie (Journal of Parapsychology and Border Areas of Psychology).

So, my interest in parapsychology did not develop because of any psychic event that I had personally had (although the reading was impressive in some respects), but more because it spoke to the question I was interested in philosophically, the nature of the person.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I’ve had a rather Janus–like existence in parapsychology. On the one hand, I have had a philosophical interest stemming from my life-long interest in investigating the nature of the person, and examining how parapsychological phenomena impact our understanding of the person–in terms of human nature, cognition, and knowledge. But because I was focusing on the experimental literature, I tried my hand on a number of experimental projects, sometimes with students who were taking courses in parapsychology that I occasionally taught. Because I turned my attention over the last decades to cross-cultural studies, as another perspective from which to study human nature, it came natural that I combined these two interests, and with the kind support of the Bial Foundation, I was able to carry out a set of significant cognitive DMILS experiments in Bali, Indonesia. I and my colleagues have published the results of the first two of these, and Stefan Schmidt has included all of them in a review article. So the first half of my career was dedicated more to elucidating the philosophical implications of parapsychology, while the second half was directed more experimentally.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

I’ve already indicated that I believe that parapsychology is terribly important for understanding the nature of the person. Further, I think that parapsychology offers an opportunity to ask almost any question that is philosophically interesting, whether it be the mind-body problem, the nature of causation, the nature of time, whether we have free will, what counts as knowledge, and even the metaphysical question of the nature of the physical world.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

The first problem, certainly, would be the prejudice against parapsychology, ruling it as so out of hand scientifically that one does not have to seriously examine the evidence. While this reason is inexcusable, I think that there is a more delicate and difficult reason. Because of the lack of a unifying theory (a paradigm, if you will), parapsychology might be viewed as more of a proto-science, in spite of employing excellent scientific methods. There are several reasons for this, including a paucity of research funding, and in turn a paucity of researchers. And because there are so many interesting questions in parapsychology, these few researchers tend to ask a variety of questions and often don’t develop a research program that might lead to firmer answers over time. That’s a criticism that certainly could be directed at me.

I still hope, however, and fully expect that parapsychology will continue to make progress, and might accelerate the rate. Bob Morris’ contribution in putting the number of new parapsychologists into university systems in Great Britain and the US certainly bodes well for the future.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

I retired a year ago, and while I continued to serve as treasurer of the Parapsychological Association, I have turned my attention to more retirement kinds of things: traveling, reading novels, and gardening. I’m leaving it to the younger generation to continue the work; parapsychology is in good hands.

Selected Publications

Books

A Constructive Postmodern Perspective on Self and Community: From Atomism to Holism,    (Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1994).

Foundations of Parapsychology, with Robert Morris, Joseph Rush and John Palmer (New        York and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986).

Philosophical Dimensions of Parapsychology, co-edited with James M. O. Wheatley    (Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1976).

Articles and Book Chapters

“Gibt Es Vorbegriffliche Beobachtungen? Kommentare zu Stefan Schmidt: Die Fliege des Aristoteles. Bemerkungen zur Anomalistik und eine Forschungsübersicht zum Zusammenhang zwischen Meditation und Psi, In Zeitschrift fuer Anomalistik, (Band 12, Nr. 2+3, 2012) 179-184.

“There is No Mind-Body Problem in Parapsychology,” in Roe, C.A., Kramer, W. & Coly, L. (Eds) (2009). Utrecht II: Charting the future of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 421-462.

“Two Cognitive DMILS Studies in Bali,” with Luh Ketut Suryani, Niko Tiliopoulos, and Robert Morris, in Journal of Parapsychology (Vol 68, No. 2, Fall, 2002), 289-321.

“Philosophy of Mind and Parapsychology” in Frontiers of Human Science, V. Gowari Rammohan, ed. Jefferson, NC:McFarland & Company, 2002, 30-45.

“Dualism and the Self: A Cross-cultural Perspective,” in Parapsychology, Philosophy, and the Mind, Fiona Steinkamp (ed), Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Publishers, 2002, 33-56.

“Extraordinary Claims in a Cross-Cultural Context,” in Proceedings of Aquem e Alem do Cerebro (Behind and Beyond the Brain). Porto, Portugal: Bial Foundation), 2000, 159-180.

“Should Ganzfeld Research Continue to be Crucial in the Search for a Replicable Psi Effect? Part II. Edited Ganzfeld Debate,” with Gertrude Schmeidler, in The Journal of Parapsychology (Vol. 63, December 1999), 335-388.

“Spirituality in the Natural and Social Worlds” in ReVision, (Vol. 18, No. 1, Summer 1995), 44-48; republished in Body, Mind and Spirit, Charles Tart, ed., (Char­lottes­ville, VA: Hampton Roads), 1997, 153-162.

“Possession in Two Balinese Trance Ceremonies,” in Anthropology of Conscious­ness (Vol. 7, No. 4, December 1996), 1-8.

“Koori Personhood: A Report on Work in Progress” in Australian Parapsy­chological Review (No. 18, 2/1991 & 3/1991).

“The Medium as Healer and Clown: An Interpretation of Mediumship in Bali,” in The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (Vol 87, April 1993), 171-83.

“The Relentless Dualist: John Beloff’s Contribution to Parapsychology,” in The Journal of Parapsychology (Vol. 55, June 1991), 209-19.

Presidential Address to the Parapsychological Association: “Psi, Self and the New Mentalism,” in Research in Parapsychology 1989 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press. 1990), 125-59.

“Concluding Remarks at the 1988 PF Conference: Psi Research Methodolo­gy,” Parapsychology Review (Vol 20, No 1, Jan.-Feb. 1989), 1-4.

“Mind-Body Dualism in Parapsychology,” in Philosophers at Work: An Introduction to Issues and Practical Uses of Philosophy, Elliot Cohen, ed. (New York: Holt Rinehart, 1988), 372-84.

“The Use of Physics in Answering Metaphysical Questions,” in Journal of Near-Death Studies (Vol. 6, No. 2, Winter 1987).

“Parapsychology in the Land of the Canals,” in Parapsychology Review (Vol. 17, No. 3, May-June, 1986), 11-14.

“The Dualist Tradition in Parapsychology” in European Journal of Parapsycholo­gy (Vol. 6, No. 1, November 1985), 81-93.

“Parapsychology and Atomism” in Journal of the Society for Psychical Research(Vol. 53, December 1985), 78-86.

“The Adequacy of Idealism for Model Building” in Psychoenergetic Systems (Vol. 6, December 1984).

“Some Suggestions for Methodology Derived from an Activity Metaphysics” in Parapsychology and the Experimental Method (New York: Parapsychology Founda­tion, 1982). 43-64.

“The Use of the Pendulum As an Automatism” in Research in Parapsychology 1981 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press 1982), 193-95.

“Plant PK: A Failure to Replicate” in Research in Parapsychology 1981 Metuch­en, NJ: The Scarecrow Press 1982), 143-44.

“Further Support for the Psi-Distributed Hypothesis” with Martin Farkash, in Research in Parapsychology 1981 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press 1981), 171-172.

“Die Mangel der Kritik der ‘Rationalisten’ an der Parapsychologie,” in Der Wissenschaftler und das Irrational: (Zweiter Band), H. P. Duerr, ed. (Frankfurt am Main: Syndicat 1981), 307-333.

“A Test of Runner’s Euphoria as a Psi-Conducive State,” with Wendell Wright, in Research in Parapsychology 1979 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press 1981), 157-158.

“The Effect of Feedback and Awareness on a PK Task,” with Kevin Burke, in Research in Parapsychology 1979 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1981), 158-159.

“The Effect of the Laying On of Hands on an Enzyme: An Attempted Replica­tion,” in Research in Parapsychology 1979 (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1981), 137-139.

“Correlations of ESP Success and Biorhythms,” in the Research Let­ter, Parapsychology Lab, University of Utrecht (No. 10, August 1980), 29-41.

“Activity Metaphysics and the Survival Problem,” in Theta (Vol. 8, No. 3, Summer 1980), 5-8.

“Survival and the Meaning of Life,” American Society for Psychical Research Newsletter, (Vol. IV, July 1978), 1-2. Reprinted in Exploring Parapsycholo­gy, by The Education Department, American Society for Psychical Research.

“A Possible Case of the Displacement Effect in a Token Object Test,” with Alan Wright in The New England Journal of Parapsychology (Vol 1, March 1978), 28-34.

“A Philosophical Justification for the Conformance Behavior Model” in the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 72, July 1978), 215-231.

“Plant PK and the Experimenter Effect,” in Research in Parapsychol­ogy,1977, Morris and Roll, eds. (Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1978), 169-174.

“Psi and Materialism in Santayana” read at the Bicentennial Symposium of Philosophy in October 1976 and published in the Proceedings as Philosophy in the Life of a Nation.

“The Place of Paradigms in Parapsychology” read at the 28th Annual Interna­tional Conference of the Parapsychology Foundation, August 1976, in Parapsychology Review (Vol. 8, September-October 1977), 1-8, and in The Philosophy of Parapsychology, Shapin and Coly, eds. (New York: Parapsychology Founda­tion, 1977).

“Rejoinder to Dr. Wheatley’s Note on ‘Do Spirits Matter'”: in The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 70,October 1976), 293-301.

“Do Spirits Matter: Survival and Disembodied Spirits” in The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (Vol. 70, July 1976), 293-301.

“Paradigmata und Parapsychologie” in Zeitschrift fur Parapsychologie (16, 1974). Reprinted in Unter dem Pflaster Liegt der Strand (5), 93-110.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Tart Altered States AnchorI started reading Dr. Charles T. Tart from my early days as a psychology student in the early 1970s. I still remember the excitement I felt when I read his anthology Altered States of Consciousness, in its 1972 Anchor books edition. Later on I acquired his other publications and, eventually, got to see him at the 1979 convention of the Parapsychological Association. Over the years I have had more contact and correspondence with him, and it gives me great pleasure that he accepted my invitation to be interviewed for my blog.

Dr. Charles T. Tart

Dr. Charles T. Tart

Charley has a Ph.D. in psychology (1963), and an Aikido Shodan (black belt, 1987). Among his many awards he has been the recipient of the Parapsychological Association’s Outstanding Career Award (1999) and Division 30 of the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Contributions to Scientific Hypnosis Award (2000). He has had many academic appointments, among them Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis (1966-1994), from which he was awarded Professor Emeritus. He was also Professor of Psychology at the Institute for Transpersonal Psychology (1994-2012, now Sofia University).

As seen in the bibliography below, Charley has published many other influential worksTart States of Consciousness related to states of consciousness. This includes his paper “States of Consciousness and State-Specific Sciences”(Science, 176, 1203-1210), and his States of Consciousness (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1975; not to be confused with the previously mentioned anthology, Altered States of Consciousness). He also has had a long and eminent career in parapsychology, as seen by the bibliography below. Charley has published research about the relationship of ESP to learning theory, electrical shielding, geomagnetism, and the psychophysiology of out-of-body experiences, and discussions of the relationship between altered states of consciousness and ESP, and other topics such as auras, and our sometimes not so conscious resistances to the occurrence of psi. But this only scratches the surface of his many contributions.

Tart Transpersonal PsychologiesTart Psi

Tart Learning ESP

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I was raised to be conventionally religious, a Lutheran. My parents weren’t religious, but we lived in an apartment upstairs from my grandparents, and my grandmother was devout. She was the one who took me to Sunday school and eventually to church. She was also a major source of unconditional love in my life, so what was good enough for her was good enough for me!

Then as I grew older, became an adolescent, I became an expert on noticing hypocrisy in adults. Not my grandmother, but many adults who went to church didn’t seem to show by the way they lived that they took their religion too seriously. They were basically good people, but something was lacking. Of course, like many teenagers, I was unrealistically idealistic in making my judgments. I also became fascinated by science and by the time I was a teenager I was reading several science books a week, often adult books that I got out of the city library. Thus I became aware that while some scientists had been deeply religious or spiritual themselves, many questioned it and pointed out nonsensical aspects of religion. I could see their points.

I think many people went through this kind of conflict between religion and science in their teenage years, and several patterns developed. One way of coping was to get somewhat fanatical in your belief about religion and just ignore the ways science conflicted with it. The opposite was to say science was completely right, religion was all nonsense. A third was a kind of compartmentalization, religion was important on Saturdays or Sundays, it could be pretty much ignored the rest of the week. In my extensive reading I came across the old books on psychical research as well as more contemporary, for that time (late 1940s and early 1950s), books on parapsychology. I was relieved to see that well educated men and women, particularly members of the SPR in England, had gone through a similar kind of conflict, and had come to the idea that we could apply the methods of science to try to figure out what was indeed true in religion and what was, as critics claimed, superstition and nonsense. You could say my whole career since then has been following that calling, in various ways investigating phenomena that might have spiritual import, seeing what was true and what wasn’t.

I also discovered enormous amounts about the psychology of belief, the politics of belief, etc., so there was no easy simple answer, but, as I concluded in my last book, The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together, after more than half a century of researching parapsychology, psychical research, altered states of consciousness, spirituality, and the like, it is reasonable to be both scientific and spiritual in one’s approach to life, science has not somehow categorically disproven spirituality.

Tart End MaterialismOf course there is a lot of nonsense under the heading of spirituality, but there’s nonsense in all areas of life, and discrimination is very much needed. One practical outcome of deciding there is good scientific evidence to take spirituality seriously is that in the several spiritual paths I have practiced in life, trying to get a direct, experiential feel for what all that is about, while I’ve known they are culturally biased and contain mistakes, I’ve also been confident that these various paths are on to something real and it was worth putting in that effort.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I’ve worked all over the field, from psychological speculation on spontaneous cases too much more technical experimental work like seeing how immediate feedback can help train people to use ESP more consistently, how a certain kind of electrical shielding may amplify ESP ability, measuring brain wave changes in a young woman who had out of the body experiences, etc. I’ve also tried to act as a gadfly to colleagues, constantly pointing out that once you allow for ESP the question of experimenter bias becomes enormously important, as well as experimenter characteristics in general, so pretending that we are just objective scientists whose individual characteristics don’t matter is a losing approach. Because of my interest in altered states of consciousness and spirituality, I also became one of the founders of transpersonal psychology, a small specialty area of psychology that takes the spiritual seriously, and I’m more willing than most of my colleagues to think about the meaning of parapsychological phenomena, rather than focus on technically sophisticated experiments as if they were just anomalies.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

A total materialism is the dominant philosophical view in contemporary science, mind is nothing but electrochemical patterns in your brain, “spirit” is a totally nonsensical concept. I’ve been one of the few to think about the psychological import of such a view of reality. It means, for instance, that your desire to do good is no different from any desires you have to do evil or to just watch TV for the evening, there is no inherent meaning in reality, it’s just how things happen to turn out after molecules randomly bumped into each other for several zillion years. As a psychologist and from personal experience I know how much we humans need to have a feeling of meaning in life, though, so this kind of attitude is very depressing, and pretending the meaninglessness implied in total materialism isn’t there doesn’t make its negative effects on us go away. Because parapsychological phenomena suggest some kinds of reality to the spiritual, and spiritual systems give us a function in a universe that’s inherently meaningful, that’s much bigger than random interactions of electricity and chemistry, that can help people live a better life, both in terms of their own satisfaction and developing wisdom and compassion in interacting with others. But I’m not interested in just promoting fantasies that make people feel good, so the degree to which parapsychological phenomena suggest a reality to the spiritual is a vitally important human question. My last book, The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together, summing up half a century of my and others’ research in this area, is about beginning to look at those kinds of meanings.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

I think the deep causes of many of our problems in parapsychology today are (a) deep-seated fears of psychic abilities (it hasn’t been very long since we burned witches at the stake, even in Western society), these fears are held both by the scientific community in general and by we parapsychologists, and (b) failure to recognize the importance of the psychological characteristics of experimenters, which leads to great variability and poor replicability of parapsychological experiments.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

I’m semi-retired now, but I participate extensively in discussion groups among parapsychologists, particularly those involving experimental work in general and involving the question of possible survival of bodily death. I’m also working with some of my former students on the possible facilitation of ESP by electrical shielding, and have dozens of theoretical ideas about psi, altered states, spirituality, etc., that I try to find time to at least write preliminary essays about. A number of people have told me I should write an autobiography, since I’ve had an unusual life working with parapsychology, and I think that would be interesting to do if it could give encouragement to others to follow what’s important to them, but I don’t know whether I’ll do that or not.

Selected Publications

(with emphasis on parapsychology and transpersonal psychology)

Books

Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969 (Editor and Contributor).

[Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. New York: Doubleday, 1972. Second Edition, revised.]

[Altered States of Consciousness. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990. Third edition, revised.]

On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication. Palo Alto, California: Science and Behavior Books, 1971. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Transpersonal Psychologies. New York: Harper & Row, 1975 (Editor and Contributor).

[Transpersonal Psychologie. Berlin: Walter-Verlag, 1978 (German translation).]

[Transpersonal Psychologies. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paidos, 1979 (Spanish translation).]

[Transpersonal Psychologies. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992, second, revised edition (Editor and Contributor).]

States of Consciousness. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

[Stati di Coscienza. Roma: Astrolabio, 1977.]

[States of Consciousness. El Cerrito, California: Psychological Processes, 1983.]

[Teaduse seisundid. Finnish translation, 2008]

The Application of Learning Theory to ESP Performance. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc., 1975.

Symposium on Consciousness. New York: Viking Press, 1975 (With Lee, P., Ornstein, R., Galin, D., & Deikman, A.).

Learning to Use Extrasensory Perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm. Tokyo: Kowsakusha, 1982 (Japanese translation).]

[Das Übersinnliche: Forschunger über einen Grenzbereich psychischen Erlebens. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta., 1986]

Mind at Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. New York: Praeger, 1979 (Tart, C., Puthoff, H., & Targ, R., Editors and Contributors). Second and revised edition, Charlottesville, Virginia: Hampton Roads, 2002.

Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Boston: New Science Library, 1986. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

[Hellwach und Bewußt Leben: Wege zur Enfaltung des Menschlichen Potentials – die Anleitung zum Bewußten Sein. Munchen: Scherz Verlag, 1988.]

[Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Long­mead, England: Element Books, 1988.]

[El Despertar del “Self”. Barcelona: Editorial Kairos, 1990.]

[Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Moscow, Russia. 1997. (Russian translation)]

[Japanese translation] 2001.

Ebook version available from Amazon.com.

Open Mind, Discriminating Mind: Reflections on Human Possibili­ties. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2000.

Living the Mindful Life. Boston: Shambhala, 1994.

[Die innere Kunst der Achtsamkeit: Ein Praxisbuch für das Leben im gegenwärtigen Moment. Freiamt, Germany: Arbor Verlag, 1996.]

[Russian translation, 1996; new edition 2005]

Body Mind and Spirit: Exploring the Parapsychology of Spirituality. Charlottesville, Virginia: Hampton Roads, 1997. (Editor and Contributor).

Mind Science: Meditation Training for Practical People. Novato, California: Wisdom Editions, 2001. Second print edition, Fearless Books, Napa CA 2013. Ebook available thru Amazon.

The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together. Oakland, California: New Harbinger, 2009.

Le spiritual est-il reel? Paris, Intereditions, 2010.

Le Psychologue, la Science et l’ Extraordinaire. Paris, InterEditions, 2012.

El Fin del Materialismo: Parapsicologia, Ciencia y Espiritualidad. Barcelona, Editorial Kairos, 2013.

Ebook available thru Amazon.

Articles

1963

Physiological correlates of psi cognition. International Journal of Parapsychology, 5, 375-386.

1964

A possible “psychic” dream, with some speculations on the nature of such dreams. Journal of the Society for Psychical Re­search, 42, 283-298.

A comparison of suggested dreams occurring in hypnosis and sleep. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 263-289.

1965

The hypnotic dream: Methodological problems and a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 87-99.

Applications of instrumentation to the investigation of “haunt­ing” and “poltergeist” cases. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 59, 190-201.

Exploratory ESP matching tests with a “sensitive.” Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 59, 226-236. (Roll, W. & Tart, C.)

1966

Models for explanation of extrasensory perception. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 2, 488-504.

Card guessing tests: Learning paradigm or extinction paradigm. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 60, 46-55.

Some effects of posthypnotic suggestion on the process of dream­ing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 30-46.

ESPATESTER: An automatic testing device for parapsychological research. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 60, 256-269.

1967

A second psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experiences in a gifted subject. International Journal of Parapsychology, 9, 251-258.

1968

A psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experiences in a selected subject. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 62, 3-27.

Hypnosis, psychedelics, and psi: Conceptual models. In R. Cavanna & M. Ullman (Eds.), Psi and Altered States of Con­sciousness. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 24-41.

Two token object studies with Peter Hurkos. Jour­nal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 62, 143-157. (Tart, C., & Smith, J.)

1969

A further psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experienc­es in a gifted subject. Proceedings of the Parapsychology Association, 6, 43-44.

1970

Did I really fly? Some methodological notes on the investigation of altered states of consciousness and psi phenomena. In R. Cavanna (Ed.), Psi Favorable States of Consciousness: Proceedings of an International Conference on Methodology in Psi Research. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 3-10.

1972

Scientific foundations for the study of altered states of con­sciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 3, 93-124.

Concerning the scientific study of the human aura. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 1-21.

States of consciousness and state-specific sciences. Science, 176, 1203-1210.

Some studies of psychokinesis with a spinning silver coin. Jour­nal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 143-153. (Tart, C., Boisen, M., Lopez, V., & Maddock, R.)

1973

Preliminary notes on the nature of psi processes. In R. Ornstein (Ed.), The Psychology of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, pp. 468-492.

1974

On the nature of altered states of consciousness, with special reference to parapsychological phenomena. In W. Roll, R. Morris, & J. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1973. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 163-218.

Some methodological problems in out-of-the-body experiences re­search. In W. Roll, R. Morris, & J. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1973. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 116-120.

Out-of-the-body experiences. In E. Mitchell, & J. White (Eds.), Psychic Exploration. New York: Putnam’s, pp. 349-374.

1975

The basic nature of altered states of consciousness: A systems approach. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 8(1), 45-64.

Studying out-of-the-body experiences. In T. X. Barber (Ed.), Advances in Altered States of Consciousness and Human Poten­tialities, Vol. 1. New York: Psychological Dimensions Press, pp. 579-585.

A large-sample classroom ESP card-guessing experiment. European Journal of Parapsychology, 1(3), 40-56. (Palmer, J., Tart, C., & Redington, D.)

1977

Toward humanistic experimentation in parapsychology: A reply to Dr. Stanford’s review. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 81-102.

Putting the pieces together: A conceptual framework for under­standing discrete states of consciousness. In N. Zinberg (Ed.), Alternate States of Consciousness. New York: Free Press, pp. 158-219.

Toward conscious control of psi through immediate feedback train­ing: Some considerations of internal processes. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 375-408.

Scoring patterns in an ESP Ganzfeld experiment. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 121-145. (Palmer, J., Bogart, D., Jones, S. & Tart, C.)

1978

Psi functioning and altered states of consciousness: A perspec­tive. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Psi and States of Awareness. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 180-210.

Space, time, and mind. In W. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsy­chology 1977. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 197-250.

1979

Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance: A second study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Re­search, 73, 151-165. (Tart, C., Palmer, J., & Redington, D.)

Improving real-time ESP by suppressing the future: Trans-tempo­ral inhibition. In C. Tart, H. Puthoff, & R. Targ (Eds.), Mind at Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. New York: Praeger, pp. 137-174.

A survey of expert opinion on potentially negative uses of psi, United States government interest in psi, and the level of research funding of the field. In W. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology 1978. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 54-55.

An emergent-interactionist understanding of human consciousness. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Brain/Mind and Parapsycholo­gy. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 177-200.

Delayed PK with Matthew Manning: Preliminary indications and failure to confirm. European Journal of Parapsychology, 2, 396-407. (Palmer, J., Tart, C., & Redington, D.)

Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance over short time periods. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 291-301. (Tart, C., Palmer, J., & Redington, D.)

Some psi experiments with Matthew Manning. Journal of the Socie­ty for Psychical Research, 50, 224-228. (Tart, C., & Palm­er, J.)

1980

Information transmission in remote viewing experiments. Nature, 284, 13 March, 191. (Tart, C., Puthoff, H., & Targ, R.)

The possible nature of post-mortem states: A discussion, Part II. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 74, 418-424.

1981

Causality and synchronicity: Steps toward clarification. Jour­nal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 75, 121-141.

1982

Extrasensory perception (ESP). McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Sci­ence and Technology, fifth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 282-283.

Mathematical inference strategies versus psi: Initial explora­tions with the Probabilistic Predictor Program. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 325-356. (Tart, C., & Dronek, E.)

The controversy about psi: Two psychological theories. Journal of Parapsychology, 46, 313-320.

1983

Improving psychokinesis performance: Theoretical and methodolog­ical notes. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 475-481.

Information acquisition rates in forced-choice ESP experiments: Precognition does not work as well as present-time ESP. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 77, 293-310.

1984

Acknowledging and dealing with the fear of psi. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 133-143.

1985

Pure clairvoyance and the necessity of feedback. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 79, 485-492. (Targ, R. & Tart, C.)

1986

Stopping on a hit: Preliminary studies of a method for producing positive experiences in the parapsychology laboratory. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 31-48.

Attitudes toward strongly functioning psi: A preliminary study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 163-173. (Tart, C. T. & LaBore, K.)

Psychics’ fears of psychic powers. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 279-292.

1987

Altered states of consciousness and the possibility of survival of death. In J. Spong (Ed.), Consciousness and Survival: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry into the Possibility of Life Beyond Biological Death. Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences, pp. 27-56.

1988

Effects of electrical shielding on GESP performance. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 82, 129-146.

Geomagnetic effects of GESP: Two studies. Journal of the Ameri­can Society for Psychical Research, 82, 193-216.

1989

Enlightenment, altered states of consciousness and parapsycholo­gy. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Parapsychology and Human Nature. New York: Parapsychology Foundation. Pp. 150-169.

A case of predictive psi, with comments on analytical, associative and theoretical overlay. Journal of the Society for Psychi­cal Research, 55, 263-270.

1990

Psi-mediated emergent interactionism and the nature of conscious­ness. In R. Kunzendorf & A. Sheikh (Eds.), The Psychophy­siology of Mental Imagery: Theory, Research and Applica­tion. Amityville, New York: Baywood, 1990. Pp. 37-63.

1992

Perspectives on scientism, religion, and philosophy provided by parapsychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 32, No. 2, 70-100.

1993

Marijuana intoxication, psi, and spiritual experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 87, 149-170.

1994

Fears of the paranormal in ourselves and our colleagues: Recog­nizing them, dealing with them. Subtle Energies, 5, No. 1, 35-67.

1995

Toward the objective exploration of non-ordinary reality. Jour­nal of Transpersonal Psychology, 27, No. 1, 57-67.

1996

Science, compassion and the possible survival of death. In S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy (second ed). Albany: State University of New York Press. Pp. 531-544.

Parapsychology and transpersonal psychology. In B. Scotton, A. Chinen & J. Battista (Eds.), Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology. New York: Basic Books. Pp. 186-194.

1997

Parapsychology as calling and science. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 91, 77-81.

1998

Six studies of out-of-the-body experiences. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17, 73-99.

2000

Fear of psychic phenomena. In E. Leskowitz (Ed.), Transpersonal Hypnosis: Gateway to Body, Mind and Spirit. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Pp. 1-12.

What is parapsychology? In R. Kuhn (Ed.), Closer to Truth: Challenging Current Belief. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 65-80. (Beyerstein, B., Kuhn, R., Radin, D., Schlitz, M., Tart, C. & Trefil, J.)

Can ESP affect your life? In R. Kuhn (Ed.), Closer to Truth: Challenging Current Belief. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 81-94. (Beyerstein, B., Kuhn, R., Schlitz, M., Tart, C. & Trefil, J.)

Prelude to Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: A proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. International Journal of Parapsychology, 11, No. 1, 3-5.

Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: State-specific sciences. In M. Velmans (Ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Pp. 255-278.

2002

Parapsychology & transpersonal psychology: “Anomalies” to be explained away or spirit to manifest? Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 31-47.

2003

Spiritual motivations of parapsychologists? Empirical data. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 181-184.

2004

On the scientific foundations of Transpersonal Psychology: Contributions from Parapsychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 36, No. 1, 66-90.

2008

Altered states of consciousness and the spiritual traditions: The proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. In Rao, K. R., Paranjpe, A. C. & Dalal, A. K. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Indian Psychology.   New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India Pvt. Ltd. Pp. 577-607.

2010

Reflections on the experimenter problem in parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 74, 3-13.

Toward evidence-based spirituality. Journal of Parapsychology, 74, No. 1, 31-60.

Fifty-five years in parapsychology: frustrations, advances, directions, meaning, and an interesting life. In Millay, J. (Ed.), Radiant Minds: Scientists Explore the Dimensions of Consciousness. Doyle, CA: Millay. Pp. 564-587.

2013

The parapsychological side of my career. In R. Pilkington (Ed.), Men and Women of Parapsychology, Personal Reflections. Esprit, Volume 2. San Antonio: Anomalist Books. Pp. 385-406.

2015

Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: A proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. In D. Eigner & J. Kremer (Eds.), Transformation of Consciousness: Potentials for our Future. Kathmandu: Vajra Books, pp. 67-98.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. Dean Radin is well known both in and outside parapsychological circles. I believe I first met him in a convention of the Parapsychological Association sometime in the late 1980s, although he attended a PA convention for the first time in 1978.

Dr. Dean Radin

Dr. Dean Radin

Dean is currently Chief Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) and has worked at a variety of places such as AT&T Bell Labs, Princeton University, University of Edinburgh, and SRI International. He is well known in parapsychology for his innovative experimental studies, among them: Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for “signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction research: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 185-200; Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11, 163-180; Radin, D. I., Machado, F. and Zangari, W. (2000). Effects of distant healing intention through time and space: Two exploratory studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 11, 207-240; Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G. & Walsh, J. (2007). Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 3, 485-492; Radin, D. I., Michel, L, Wendland, P., Rickenbach, R., Delorme, A., Galdamez, K. (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments. Physics Essays, 25, 157-171; Shiah, Y-J & Radin, D. I. (2013). Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: Testing the roles of intention and belief on mood when drinking tea. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9, 355-360.

Radin Conscious UniverseDean has been elected President of the Parapsychological Association four times, which shows the high regard in which his colleagues hold him. He has published the following books: The Conscious Universe (HarperOne, 1997), Entangled Minds (Simon & Schuster, 2006), and Supernormal (Random House, 2013), all of which remain in print and two of which have won awards.

Radin Entangled MindsRadin Supernormal

Interview Questions

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I seem to have arrived on this planet with an imperative to know. A friend joked that I must have been born with an extra “why” chromosome. My first grade teacher wrote in her end-of-year student evaluation that “Dean will be one of our future scientists.” I don’t remember what I may have done that influenced her assessment, but I do know that a persistent driving force throughout my life has been curiosity. I wanted to know how the universe worked, why I or anyone else existed, and if there was any purpose to anything. This wasn’t a matter of existential angst as much as a chronic state of existential curiosity.

My first “career” was playing the violin. By age 11 I won a scholarship to the Hartt School, a performing arts conservatory at the University of Hartford, Connecticut, and I had many stints as concertmaster in various orchestras. In college, I took the honors program in physics and I eventually earned undergraduate and masters degrees in electrical engineering and a Ph.D. in psychology.

I first encountered the idea of psychic phenomena as a pre-teen by reading every comic book, fairy tale, parable, myth, and science fiction story I could find. When those were exhausted I read the “true tales” of the Eastern mystic masters. No one in my immediate family ever reported psychic or mystical experiences, but somehow I felt that the psi-oriented aspects of those stories were more than mere fantasy. In 1968, the Star Trek television show broadcast an episode entitled “The Empath”. The titular character was a woman from an alien race whose empathic sense was so well developed that she could take on the pain of others and dissipate it through herself. From that story I learned that while I did not have classic psychic or mystical experiences, I did share some characteristics of an empath, which may have explained why I was attracted to that literature in the first place.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

Like most scientists my activities are influenced by available funds, so over the years I’ve followed the money and have investigated various aspects of telepathy, presentiment, precognition, mediumship, DMILS, and mind-matter interactions involving RNGs, cell cultures, water, chocolate, tea, and more recently, optical systems. I’ve also been interested in applying analytical methods to psi data, leading to several meta-analyses, neural network analyses, complex systems analyses, and so on. I’ve conducted psi research while at Bell Laboratories, SRI International, Princeton University, the Koestler Parapsychology Unit at the University of Edinburgh, the University of Nevada, Interval Research Corporation, Boundary Institute, and for the past 15 years, at the Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

At minimum, psi phenomena remind us that today’s scientific worldview is incomplete. At maximum, it suggests that our assumptions about human potential are vastly underestimated. I’d like to know which of today’s assumptions are incomplete, and what better assumptions we should consider. There is no better way to do that than through the careful study of those anomalies we call psi. On the whole, gaining a better understanding of psi will almost certainly lead to revisions about who and what we think we are. As a scientist, I think that’s the most exciting place to be.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

The woo-woo taboo remains a major problem; perhaps it is the major problem. There is no lack of private interest in psi among mainstream scientists and funding agencies, even at the highest levels. This allows a small cadre of uber-skeptics to get away with presenting a false picture of parapsychology through popular outlets like Wikipedia, and all of that combined significantly slows progress. I suspect that this taboo will continue to persist for a long time because the people who inculcate a false history are not motivated by a rational consideration of the evidence. What will eventually break the taboo is not necessarily better evidence from parapsychology, although that will certainly help, but rather a growing realization within mainstream science that its worldview is converging toward a picture of the universe where psi is no longer viewed as anomalous.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

I continue to do many radio and television interviews, documentary films, and conference presentations to help educate the general public and scientists about psi research. I’ve given over 300 interviews and talks at last count, including something like 50 television shows in the US, UK and Japan, many newspapers and magazines, a dozen invited presentations at traditional yoga ashrams in the US, the Bahamas, and in India, and at universities including Cambridge, Edinburgh, Princeton, Harvard, Stanford, the Sorbonne (University of Paris), and the University of Allahabad (India). I’ve also been invited to speak at Bell Labs, Google, Johnson & Johnson, iClif (an international leadership organization in Kuala Lumpur, supported by the Central Bank of Malaysia), the (US) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the US Navy’s Strategic Studies Group, and the Naval Postgraduate School. And I’ve hosted or co-hosted invited conferences on psi research at IONS, the University of British Columbia, and the (US) National Academy of Sciences.

I also accept invitations for many smaller podcasts and late night talk radio shows on “paranormal” themes as a way to help inform the lay public on how to discriminate between scientific and non-scientific ways of studying psi. For the same reason, I do lots of interviews with authors writing works of fiction or nonfiction. I find that doing these interviews helps me to sharpen how to speak about psi in simple but accurate ways, and this has had the beneficial side effect of making my academic talks that much clearer.

I regard all of these public and private outreach efforts as rather odd given my basic temperament. I much prefer to be quietly working on something in the lab rather than speaking in front of the camera or an audience, or organizing conferences. But because I feel an obligation to help dissolve the woo-woo taboo and educate people about the science of psi, I do these activities trusting that I can reach a few more people who might have otherwise remained either “true disbelievers” or “true believers.”

I’ve also written some three dozen book chapters, three popular books, one textbook, and authored or coauthored over 70 articles in peer-reviewed journals ranging from the psi-specialty journals, to journals in physics, neuroscience, psychology, medicine, consciousness studies and other topics (e.g., Journal of Parapsychology, European Journal of Parapsychology, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Physics Essays, Foundations of Physics, Foundations of Physics Letters, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Frontiers in Psychology, The Humanistic Psychologist, British Journal of Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Missouri Medicine, Explore, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Neuroquantology, Perceptual and Motor Skills).

As for my research projects, I have a half-dozen active projects on various aspects of psi perception and mind-matter interaction. I am also looking forward to starting a new project this year, on aspects of “energy medicine.”

Selected Bibliography

Books and Edited Volumes

Radin, D. I. (2013). Supernormal: Science, yoga, and the evidence for extraordinary psychic abilities. New York: Random House. (Translations to: French, Russian, and Chinese)

Mitchell, E. D., White, J., Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. (Eds.). (2011). Psychic exploration: A challenge for science, understanding the nature and power of consciousness. New York: Cosimo Books.

Radin, D. I. (2009). The noetic universe: Scientific evidence for psychic phenomena. London: Corgi Books.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Entangled minds: Extrasensory experiences in a quantum reality. New York: Paraview Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster. (Translations to: Arabic, Bulgarian, French, Japanese, Latvian, and Portuguese)

Martin, M. with Radin, D. I. & Schlitz, M. J. (2006). ESP: Extrasensory Perception. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

Radin, D. I. (1997). The conscious universe. San Francisco: HarperCollins. (Translations to: Chinese, French, Italian, Korean, and Turkish)

Weiner, D. H. & Radin, D. I. (1986). Research in parapsychology 1985, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Reynolds, R. E. & Radin, D. I. (1977). Using evaluation in the classroom. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Company.

Book Chapters

Radin, D. I. & Pierce, A. (in press). Psi and psychophysiology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz, (Eds.), Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Radin, D. I. & Pierce, A. (in press). Physiological methods in psi research. In E. May & S. Marwaha (Ed.), Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism, and Science. Praeger.

Radin, D. I. (in press). Forward. In L. Storm & A. Rock (Ed.). Searching for psi.

Radin, D. I. (2012). Seeing and not seeing eternity. In S. Kakar & J. Kripal (Ed.). Seriously strange: Thinking anew about psychical experiences. New York: Penguin/Viking.

Radin, D. I. (2011). Predicting the unpredictable: 75 years of experimental evidence. In D. P. Sheehan (Ed.). Quantum retrocausation: Theory and experiment. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, AIP Conference Proceedings.

Radin, D. I. (2011). Intuition and the noetic. In. M. Sinclair (Ed.) Handbook of intuition research. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Radin, D. I., Stone, J., Levine, E., Eskandarnejad, S., Schlitz, M., Kozak, L., Mandel, D., & Hayssen, G. (2011). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. In E. Bragdon, J. Lake (Eds). Practices from Spiritist Centers and Spiritist Psychiatric Hospitals in Brazil. Philadelphia PA, Singing Dragon.

Radin, D. I. (2010). Beyond the boundaries of the brain. In Perry, Elaine, Daniel Collerton, Fiona E.N. LeBeau and Heather Ashton (eds.), New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Radin, D. I. (2010). A brief history of science and psychic phenomena. In S. Krippner & Harris Friedman (Ed)., Debating psychic experience: Human potential or human illusion? New York: Praeger .

Radin, D. I. (2010). The critic’s lament. In S. Krippner & Harris Friedman (Ed)., Debating psychic experience: Human potential or human illusion? New York: Praeger .

Radin, D. I. (2010). Psychophysiology of psi. In J. Millay (Ed.) Radiant Minds. Millay Publishing.

Radin, D. I. (2010). Children of the world, keep asking the hard questions. In W. Murtha (ed.). 100 words: Two hundred visionaries. San Francisco: Conari Press, pp. 302-303.

Radin, D. I. (2009). The challenge of psi. In S. Martin (Ed.), Cosmic Conversations. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books.

Radin, D. I. (2009). Mind over time. In S. Marohn, Audacious aging. Santa Rosa, CA: Elite Books.

Radin, D. I. (2007). A brief history of the potential future. In T. Pfeiffer & J. E. Mack (Eds)., Mind before matter. Washington, Winchester, UK: O Books.

Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. I. (2007). Prayer and intention in distant healing: Assessing the evidence. (Chapter 9). In I A. Serlin, K. Rockefeller & S. Brown (Eds). Whole person healthcare. Volume 2: Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, pp. 177-190. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Psychophysiological evidence of possible retrocausal effects in humans. In D. Sheehan (Ed)., Frontiers of Time: Retrocausation Experiment and Theory. American Institutes of Physics.

Radin, D. I. (2005). Science and psychic phenomena. In D. J. Brown (Ed.) Conversations on the edge of the apocalypse. New York: Palgrave/Macmillian.

Radin, D. I. (2005). What’s ahead? In M. A. Thalbourne and L. Storm (Eds.) Parapsychology in the 21st Century: The Future of Psychical Research, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. I. (2003). Telepathy in the ganzfeld: State of the evidence. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (2003). Meta-analysis of mind-matter interaction experiments: 1959 – 2000. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences, 39-48.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (2003). FieldREG experiments and group consciousness: Extending REG/RNG research to real-world situations. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (2001). Statistically robust anomalous effects: Replication in random event generator experiments. In Rao, K. R. (Ed.) Basic research in parapsychology. Second edition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Radin, D. I. (2001). Seeking spirits in the laboratory. Chapter in Houran, J. & Lange, R. (Ed.), Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Radin, D. I. (2001). Forward to Atwater, F. H., Captain of my ship, master of my soul. Charlottesville, VA, Hampton Roads Publishing Co.

Bierman, D. & Radin, D. I. (2000). Anomalous unconscious emotional responses: Evidence for a reversal of the arrow of time. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak, & D. Chalmers (Eds.) Towards a science of consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Radin, D. I. (2000). Can science seek the soul? What is parapsychology? Can ESP affect your life? In R. L. Kuhn (Ed.) Closer to truth: Challenging current belief. New York: McGraw Hill.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1988). Repeatable evidence for anomalous human-machine interactions. In M. L. Albertson, D. S. Ward, & K. P. Freeman (Eds.), Paranormal Research, Fort Collins, CO.: Rocky Mountain Research Institute, 306 – 317.

Ortony, A. & Radin, D. I. (1987). SAPIENS: Spreading activation processor for information encoded in network structures. In N. Sharkey (Ed.), Review of cognitive science. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Press.

Radin, D. I. (1984). Effects of command language punctuation on human performance. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Human-computer interaction, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Journal Publications

Radin, D. (2015). Meditation and the nonlocal mind. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 1, 82-84.

Mossbridge, J. Tressoldi, P. Utts, J., Ives, J., Radin, D., Jonas, W. (2014). Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00146.

Radin, D. (2014). Out of one’s mind or beyond the brain: The challenge of interpreting near-death experiences. Missouri Medicine, 111 (1), 22- 26.

Delorme, A., Beischel, J., Michel, L., Boccuzzi, M., Radin, D. & Mills, P. (2013). Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased. Frontiers in Psychology.

Radin, D. I., Delorme, A.., Michel, L., Johnston, J. (2013). Psychophysical interactions with a double-slit interference pattern: Experiments and a model. Physics Essays. 26 (4), 553-566.

Shiah, Y-J & Radin, D. I. (2013). Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: Testing the roles of intention and belief on mood when drinking tea. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9, 355-360.

Radin, D. (2012). Psi-mediated optimism and the future of parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 76 (Supplement), 45-46.

Schlitz, M., Hopf, H. W., Eskenazi, L., Vieten, C., & Radin, D. (2012). Distant healing of surgical wounds: An exploratory study. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 8: 223-230.

Radin, D. I., Michel, L, Wendland, P., Rickenbach, R., Delorme, A., Galdamez, K. (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments. Physics Essays, 25 (2), 157-171.

Radin, D. I., Vieten, C., Michel, L., & Delorme, A. (2011). Electrocortical activity prior to unpredictable stimuli in meditators and non-meditators. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 7, 286-299.

Patrizio E. Tressoldi, P. E., Storm, L. & Radin, D. I. (2010). Extrasensory perception and quantum models of cognition. Neuroquantology, 8 (4), S81-87.

Radin, D. I. & Borges, A. (2009). Intuition through time: What does the seer see? Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing.

Radin, D. I., & Atwater, F. H. (2009). Entrained minds and the behavior of random physical systems. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Radin, D. I., Lund, N., Emoto, M. & Kizu, T. (2009). Triple-blind replication of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Radin, D. I. (2008). Superpowers and the stubborn illusion of separation. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, (19) 1, 29-42.

Radin, D. I., Stone, J., Levine, E., Eskandarnejad, S., Schlitz, M., Kozak, L., Mandel, D., & Hayssen, G. (2008). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 4 (4), 235-243.

Radin, D. I. (2008). Testing nonlocal observation as a source of intuitive knowledge. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 4(1), 25-35.

Radin, D. I. & Lobach, E. (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: Investigating a possible retrocausal factor. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13, 733–739.

Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G & Walsh, J. (2007). Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 3(5), 485-492.

Radin, D. I. (2007) Finding or imagining flawed research? The Humanistic Psychologist, 35(3).

Mason, LI, Patterson, RP, and Radin, DI. (2007). Exploratory study: The random number generator and group meditation. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 21 (2), 295–317.

Radin, D. I., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. & Houtkooper, J. (2006). Assessing the evidence for mind-matter interaction effects. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 20 (3), 361-374.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Experiments testing models of mind-matter interaction. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 20 (3), 375-401.

Schiltz, M., Wiseman, R., Watt, C. & Radin, D. I. (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 313-322.

Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G., Emoto, M. & Kizu, T. (2006). Double-blind test of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 2 (5), 408-411.

Radin, D. I., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. & Houtkooper, J. (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis: Commentary on the Bösch, Steinkamp and Boller meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 529–532.

Radin, D. I. (2005). Commentary on May et al.’s “Anomalous Anticipatory Skin Conductance Response to Acoustic Stimuli.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11 (4), 587-588.

Radin, D. I. (2005). The sense of being stared at: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (6), 95-100.

Radin, D. I. & Schlitz, M. J. (2005). Gut feelings, intuition, and emotions: An exploratory study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11 (4), 85-91.

Radin, D. I. (2004). On the sense of being stared at: An analysis and pilot replication. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 68, 246-253.

Radin, D. I. (2004). Electrodermal presentiments of future emotions. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 18, 253-274.

Radin, D. I. (2004). Event related EEG correlations between isolated human subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 315-324.

Radin, D. I., Taft, R. & Yount, G, (2004). Possible effects of healing intention on cell cultures and truly random events. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 103-112.

Schlitz, M., Radin, D. I., Malle, B. F., Schmidt, S., Utts, J. & Yount, G. L. (2003). Distant healing intention: Definitions and evolving guidelines for laboratory studies. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9 (3), A31-A43.

Radin, D. I. (2003). Thinking about telepathy. Think, 3, 23-32.

Nelson, R.D., Radin, D. I., Shoup, R., Bancel, P. (2002). Correlation of continuous random data with major world events. Foundations of Physics Letters, 15 (6), 537-550

Radin, D. I. (2002). Exploring relationships between random physical events and mass human attention: Asking for whom the bell tolls. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 16 (4), 533-548.

Radin, D. I. (2002). A dog that seems to know when his owner is coming home: Effects of geomagnetism. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 16 (4), 579-592.

Radin, D. I. (2002). Exploratory study of relationships between physical entropy and global human attention. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 20 (2), 690-694.

Radin, D. I., Machado, F. and Zangari, W. (2000). Effects of distant healing intention through time and space: Two exploratory studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 11 (3) 207-240.

Radin, D. I. (2000). What’s ahead? Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 353-364.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1998). Seeking psi in the casino. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 62 (850), 193-219.

Nelson, R, Boesch, H., Boller, E., Dobyns, Y., Houtkooper, J., Lettieri, A., Radin, D., Russek, L., Schwartz, G., & Wesch, J. (1998). Global Resonance of Consciousness: Princess Diana and Mother Teresa. The Electronic Journal of Parapsychology, eJAP. Available at http://noosphere.princeton.edu/rdnelson/diana.html (as of May 2010).

Bierman, D. J. & Radin, D. I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 689-690.

Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11 (2), 163-180.

Dalton, K. S., Morris, R. L., Delanoy, D., Radin, D. I., & Wiseman, R. (1996). Security measures in an automated ganzfeld system. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 129-147.

Rebman, J. M., Wezelman, R. Radin, D. I., Hapke, R. A. & Gaughan, K. (1996). Remote influence of the autonomic nervous system by focused intention. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 6, 111-134.

Radin, D. I. (1996). Towards a complex systems model of psi performance. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 7, 35-70.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1996). Are phantasms fact or fantasy? A preliminary investigation of apparitions evoked in the laboratory. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 61 (843), 65-87.

Radin, D. I. (1996). Geomagnetic field fluctuations and sports performance. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 6 (3), 217-226.

Radin, D. I., Rebman, J. M. & Cross, M. P. (1996). Anomalous organization of random events by group consciousness. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 10 (1), 143-168.

Radin, D. I., Taylor, R. D. & Braud, W. (1995). Remote mental influence of human electrodermal activity: A pilot replication. European Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 19-34.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1994). Lunar correlates of normal, abnormal and anomalous human behavior. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 5 (3), 209-238.

Radin, D. I. (1994). On complexity and pragmatism. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 8 (4), 523-534.

Radin, D. I., McAlpine, S. & Cunningham, S. (1994). Geomagnetism and psi in the ganzfeld. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59 (834), 352-363.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Environmental modulation and statistical equilibrium in mind-matter interaction. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 4 (1), 1-30.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Neural network analyses of consciousness-related patterns in random sequences. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 7 (4), 355-374.

Radin, D. I. (1992). Beyond belief: Exploring interactions among mind, body and environment. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 2 (3), 1 – 40.

Radin, D. I. (1990-1991). Statistically enhancing psi effects with sequential analysis: A replication and extension. European Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 98 – 111.

Radin, D. I. & Ferrari, D. C. (1991). Effects of consciousness on the fall of dice: A meta-analysis. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 5, 61-84.

Hix, D., Radin, D. I., Siochi, A. C. & Benel, D. (May, 1991). Computer analysis of user session transcripts for evaluation of the human-computer interface. Conference Proceedings – IEEE SouthEastCon, Volume 2, 1991, Pages 1011-1015.

Radin, D. I. (1990). Testing the plausibility of psi-mediated computer system failures. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 1-19.

Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for “signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction research: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 185-200.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physics, 19, 1499-1514.

Radin, D. I. & Utts, J. M. (1989). Experiments investigating the influence of intention on random and pseudorandom events. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 65-79.

Radin, D. I. (1988). Effects of a priori probability on psi perception: Does precognition predict actual or probable futures? Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 187 – 212.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (1987). When immovable objections meet irresistible evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 600-601.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1987) On statistics for “psientists” and skeptics. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81, 277-290

Radin, D. I. (1985). Pseudorandom number generators in psi research. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 303-328.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1985) Response distributions in a computer-based perceptual task: Test of four models. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 79, 453-483.

Radin, D. I. (1984). A possible proximity effect on human grip strength. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 887-888.

Goetz, E. T., Reynolds, R. E., Schallert, D. L. & Radin, D. I. (1983). Reading in perspective: What real cops and pretend burglars look for in a story. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 500-510.

Radin, D. I. (1982). Experimental attempts to influence pseudorandom number sequences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 76, 359-374.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I first met Dr. Wellington Zangari in 1993 when he visited the Institute for Parapsychology in Durham, NC. Since then Wellington has become a close friend who I have been able to visit twice in São Paulo, Brazil, where my wife and I stayed in his, and his wife Dr. Fatima R. Machado’s, home. From the beginning of our relationship I had many long and fascinating conversations with Wellington about parapsychology, including aspects of the field in his country, Brazil. I remember his early dreams of bringing parapsychology to a university environment, a dream that has come true.

Dr. Wellington Zangari

Dr. Wellington Zangari

Wellington has a Masters in Sciences of Religion from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (1996), and a PhD in Social Psychology from the University of São Paulo (2003). He is currently a Professor in the Department of Social and Occupational Psychology, which is part of the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo, where he teaches and conducts research. He currently supervises the theses of students at the masters and doctoral level. Among other things, Wellington is the Vice-Coordinator of the Laboratorio of Social Psychology of Religion, and the Coordinator of INTER PSI – Laboratory of Anomalistic Psychology and Psychosocial Processes of the university. His main work centers within the areas of social psychology, psychology of religion, anomalistic psychology, hypnosis and altered states of consciousness, and the philosophy of mind.

Institute of Psychology University of São Paulo

Institute of Psychology
University of São Paulo

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology? 

My interest started when I was very young, at 11 years of age. I was interested in fantastic realism, and in science fiction and New Age books. At that time I bought the book Telepsiquia a Distância, by Paul-Clement Jagot. In the book there was a description of a quick way to induce hipnosis. I did this with a friend. When I looked at him he had his eyes closed, with the head leaning to one side. I asked him some simple questions and when he woke up I said to him “3, 2, 1, 0”! He looked at me and asked: “Are you going to hypnotize me?” Then I told him that he had his eyes closed and that he answered some questions. He did not remember. Then I read to him the replies he gave me. While I was telling him what he told me his eyes kept opening more and more until, with a face full of fear, he stood up and ran out! This was an impactful experience in my life. This defined my career and the things I have chosen.

I was lucky that my friend was probably highly susceptible to hypnosis. The experience raised my curiosity about what happened and I started to read everything I could find about hypnosis. But coming back to the book, which was about telepathy (telepsychism at a distance, as Jagot called it), the author proposed the possibility that hypnotic commands could be given mentally, without verbal means. Around that time, I practiced hypnosis with my friends. I always tried to send mental commands to them but only one out of many individuals I hypnotized seemed to have the capacity to respond to mental commands. I imagined his right arm was raised, and it went up. I asked for the name of his maternal grandmother and he answered without any word from me.

This experience led me to search for things to read about parapsychological phenomena. I soon began to take courses and because I read what was available in Portuguese in the libraries, I started reading books published in other languages (English, Spanish, French and Italian) to obtain further information.

Today I have a different view from what I had at the beginning. I currently follow psychological models of the experiences. But my early experiences affected me greatly and led me to hypnosis, parapsychology and anomalistic psychology. 

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I am currently interested in mediumship and in deception. My degrees, Masters in the Scientific Study of Religion, and my doctoral degree and post-doctoral work in social psychology, were about aspects of mediumship. Basically in the Masters I attempted to understand the importance of paranormal experiences for the construction of religion, particularly Kardecist Spiritism and Catholicism, two religions that are very influential in Brazil. In my doctorate I analyzed possession mediumship in Umbanda, a Brazilian religion, and what it means to be a medium from the point of view of mediums themselves.

The first part of my thesis was a phenomenological evaluation in which I gave mediums the chance to speak without any psychological analysis. In the second part I evaluated the medium’s narratives from a psychosocial perspective using the role theory proposed by a Swedish psychologist, Hjalmar Sunden. With this evaluation I was able to build a model of mediumship that other researchers in Brazil are using to understand various religious manifestations in general as well as with mediums.

One of my students, Ricardo Ribeiro, for example, is comparing three other mediumistic religions (Kardecist Spiritism, Santo Daime, and Vale do Amanhecer) using the same model. Two other students have studied other aspects of mediumship. Everton Maraldi completed a psychosocial analysis of mediumship while Jeverson Reichow is studying psychopathology in mediums and non-mediums.

In post doctoral research I analyzed one of the phenomena reported by mediums, precognition. I did an experiment, following the technique of Daryl J. Bem called precognitive habituation. I invited more than 50 mediums to participate in the precognition experiment.

Some of my students did experimental precognition projects. Vanessa Corredato tested children for precognition and Fabio Eduardo da Silva studied the presentiment effect. I have also studied personality variables of mediums and other persons who claimed to have had paranormal experiences. Other students are following up on this line of research, among them Leonardo Breno Martins, who analyzed personality and psychopathological variables of persons claiming to have had different types of contact with aliens. Suely Mizumoto and Livea Martins did the same with members of a religious group called Sainto Daime that uses ayahuasca in its rituals in which both adults and children participate.

A fourth topic of interest is the incidence and social relevance of anomalous/paranormal experiences of Brazilians. This goes back to the 1980s when Fatima Regina Machado and I did the first survey with university students in Brazil. She continued to explore this in her doctoral research, enlarging the number and range of the respondents so that the sample did not consist solely of students. Two other students of mine are following up this line of research, but with different samples. Alessandro Shimanbucuru is surveying faculty at the University of São Paulo, and Camila Torres is comparing conventional protestant groups to neo-Pentecostal groups.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important? 

Parapsychology is important for various reasons. First, is important for its historical contributions. Much of psychology’s and psychiatry’s concepts and theories were supported and developed by the pioneers of psychical research. Several of these pioneers were also pioneers in psychology and in psychiatry. In the old days there were no clear separations between these fields as there are now. The study of seemingly psychic claims led to knowledge about the mind.

Second, parapsychology is important for methodological reasons. Experimental research in psychology and in other fields had their origins, and various of its techniques were developed, in the context of psychical research. Parapsychology researchers did much to develop controls over fraud and double blind techniques.

Another important issue is that the psi hypothesis may be the correct one! Although I personally have doubts about its existence and prefer more “simple” and common hypotheses to account for claims of the paranormal, it is not possible to ignore the results of many meta-analyses that favor the existence of psi. The evaluation of such results should not be rhetorical, but empirical! These results enlarge our understanding of the limits of human beings. So, even if future results are not favorable to the psi hypothesis, parapsychology has taught us much about the scientific process and other fundamental epistemological issues. Parapsychology prepares us for the revolutionary. It suggests things not considered by other sciences. This subversive aspect, of considering a scientific anomaly as a hypothesis, is a lesson that parapsychology gives to other sciences that are afraid of looking beyond what their theories can see!

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field? 

From the epistemological point of view, one problem is its proto-scientific character. By this I mean its lack of a wide enough theory that has been empirically demonstrated and generally accepted. If psi exists it is something so elusive that it does not fit rigid models.

From the practical, cultural, and Brazilian point of view—although this is not solely a Brazilian occurrence—, there is a problem with pseudoscientists who use the term “parapsychology” to sell mind development techniques, parapsychological therapies, and all sorts of false science. This keeps away scientists who have a serious interest in the field, and makes productive contact between parapsychology and academia much harder. Not being in universities means having less contact with students who may be interested in conducting research, which diminishes the number of investigators in the field. This may also lead to a lack of financial resources for serious reseachers. Without resources there will be less studies, less publications, and less conventions in the field.

On the other hand, in spite of these difficulties, parapsychology has been able to survive. The resilience of researchers in the field is amazing! These limitations have not been able to extinguish the field. On the contrary, currently we see continuous progress in the field, especially in Europe, with the growth of laboratories in important universities. Today, parapsychology and anomalistic psychology are in various universities of Europe, as well as in Brazil, something that shows that academia is not totally closed to the psi hypothesis nor to the study of psychological variables related to paranormal claims. At this point instead of focusing on problems we should recognize that the problems do not stop scientific research on the topic.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

Still in the topic of religion, I have studied how religion helps mediums cope with stress. One of my students, Mônica Huang, did the same, but with a group of immigrant Protestant Chinese women.

Recently I returned to work with hypnosis, mainly because of interest in the topic by one of my students, Guilherme Raggi, who is translating into Portuguese and adapting the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale to use with Brazilians.

It is important to say that with these students, and other investigators from other universities (such as Gabriel Medeiros from the Federal University of São Paulo, who studies phenomenological aspects of out-of-body experiences), we are active in our laboratory at the University of São Paulo (Inter Psi – Laboratory of Anomalistic Psychology and Psychosocial Processes) and we offer various courses, including graduate ones, at the University’s Institute of Psychology.

Selected Bibliography

Books and Anthologies

MACHADO, Fatima Regina; ZANGARI, W.; CHIRIACHI, Roberto (Eds.). Caderno da 9ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos e Third Advanced Seminar on Peirce´s Philosophy and Semiotics. 1. ed. São Paulo: Centro de Estudos Peirceanos/COS/PUCSP, 2006.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina; ZANGARI, W.; CHIRIACHI, Roberto (Eds.). Caderno da 8ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos. 1. ed. São Paulo: Centro de Estudos Peirceanos/COS/PUCSP, 2005.

PAIVA, Geraldo Jose de ; ZANGARI, W. (Eds.). A Representação na Religião: Perspectivas Psicológicas. 1ª. ed. São Paulo: Loyola, 2004.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina; ZANGARI, W.; CHIRIACHI, Roberto; BACHA, Maria de Lourdes (Eds.). Caderno da 7ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos e Second Advanced Seminar on Peirce´s Philosophy and Semiotics. 1. ed. São Paulo: Centro de Estudos Peirceanos/COS/PUCSP, 2004.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina; ZANGARI, W. (Eds.). Caderno da 6ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos. 1. ed. São Paulo: Centro de Estudos Peirceanos/COS/PUCSP, 2003.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina; BACHA, Maria de Lourdes; ZANGARI, W. (Eds.). Caderno da 5ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos e First Advanced Seminar on Peirce´s Philosophy and Semiotics. 1. ed. São Paulo: Centro de Estudos Peirceanos/COS/PUCSP, 2002.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina . Conversando sobre Hipnose. São Paulo: Paulinas, 1996.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. Conversando sobre Aparições e Fantasmas. São Paulo: Paulinas, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina . Conversando sobre Parapsicologia. 1ª. ed. São Paulo: Paulinas, 1995.

MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. Conversando Sobre Casas Mal-Assombradas. São Paulo: Paulinas, 1995.

Chapters in Books

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; KRIPPNER, S. Anomalous Mental and Physical Phenomena of Brazilian Mediums: a review of the scientific literature. In: Jack Hunter; David Luke. (Eds.). Talking with the Spirits: Ethnographies From Between the Worlds. Brisbane: Daily Grail Publishing, 2014, p. 259-301.

MARTINS, LEONARDO BRENO ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Possibilidades darwinistas para o estudo de experiências anômalas. In: Clarissa de Franco; Rodrigo Petronio. (Eds.). Possibilidades darwinistas para o estudo de experiências anômalas. São Leopoldo: UNISINOS, 2014, p. 127-154.

ZANGARI, W. Alteração de consciência numa cultura globalizada: o caso da mediunidade de incorporação como exemplo de ?permanência fenomenológica”.. In: Marta Helena de Freitas; Geraldo José de Paiva; Célia de Moraes. (Eds.). Psicologia da Religião no mundo ocidental contemporâneo: desafios da interdisciplinaridade. 1ed.Brasília: UNIVERSA, 2013, v. II, p. 375-406.

ZANGARI, W. ; MARALDI, E. O. ; MARTINS, L. B. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Estados Alterados de Consciência e Religião. In: João Décio Passos; Frank Usarski. (Org.). Compêndio de CIência da Religião. 1ed.São Paulo: Paulinas, Paulus, 2013, v. 1, p. 423-435.

TOFOLI, L. F. ; MOREIRA-ALMEIDA, Alexander ; Menezes. A. ; ZANGARI, W. . Transtornos Dissociativos e Conversivos. In: Jair Mari; Christian Kieling. (Eds.). Psiquiatria na prática clínica. Barueri: Editora Manole, 2013, v. 1, p. 111-131.

MOREIRA-ALMEIDA, Alexander ; ALVARADO, C. S. ; ZANGARI, W. . Transtornos dissociativos (ou conversivos). In: Mario Rodrigues Louzã Neto; Hélio Elkis. (Eds.). Psiquiatria Básica. 2ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2007, v. 1, p. 285-297.

PAIVA, Geraldo Jose de ; ZANGARI, W. . Apresentação. In: Geraldo José de Paiva; Wellington Zangari. (Eds.). A representação na religião: perspectivas psicológicas. São Paulo: Edições Loyola, 2004, v. 1, p. 7-9.

Articles

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. Théodore Flournoy’s contributions to Psychical Research. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 78, 149-168, 2014.

MARTINS, LEONARDO BRENO ; ZANGARI, W. Fatores da personalidade e experiências anômalas contemporâneas. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 33, p. 162-178, 2013.

MARALDI, E. O;  ZANGARI, W. Individual and group dialectics in the study of mediumship: a psychosocial perspective. Paranormal Review, No. 66, p. 14-18, 2013.

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. . Funções projetivas e terapêuticas das práticas dissociativas em contexto religioso. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 32, p. 424-452, 2012.

MARTINS, LEONARDO BRENO ; ZANGARI, WELLINGTON . Relações entre experiências anômalas tipicamente contemporâneas, transtornos mentais e experiências espirituais. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, v. 39, p. 198-202, 2012.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . The paradoxal disappearance of parapsychology in Brazil. Journal of Parapsychology, v. 76, p. 66-67, 2012.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina . Science and spirit. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 25, p. 419-426, 2011.

MARALDI, Everton de Oliveira ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. A psicologia das crenças paranormais: Uma revisão crítica. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 31, p. 394-421, 2011.

MARALDI, Everton de Oliveira ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. Importance of a psychosocial approach for a comprehensive understanding of mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 24, p. 181-186, 2010.

ZANGARI, W. ; MARALDI, Everton de Oliveira. Psicologia da mediunidade: do intrapsíquico ao psicossocial. Boletim. Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 77, p. 233-252, 2009.

PAIVA, Geraldo Jose de; ZANGARI, W. ; VERDADE, Marisa Moura ; PAULA, Jose Rogerio Machado de ; FARIA, David Gaspar Ribeiro de ; GOMEZ, Denise ; FONTES, Fátima ; RODRIGUES, Catia Cilene Lima ; TROVATO, Maria Luisa ; GOMES, Antonio Maspoli de Araujo. Psicologia da religião no Brasil: a produção em periódicos e livros. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, v. 25, p. 441-446, 2009.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. ; ZINGRONE, N. L. . Perspectivas históricas da influência da mediunidade na construção de idéias psicológicas e psiquiátricas. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, v. 34, p. 42-53, 2007.

ZANGARI, W. Experiências anômalas em médiuns de Umbanda: uma avaliação fenomenológica e ontológica. Boletim. Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 2/07, p. 67-86, 2007.

MACHADO, Fátima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. Review of Proceedings of the Third Psi Meeting: Real-life Implications and Applications of Psi. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 21, p. 624-628, 2007.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Review of Behind and Beyond the Brain. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 20, n.2, p. 312-315, 2006.

ZANGARI, W. Uma leitura psicossocial do fenômeno de incorporação na Umbanda. Boletim. Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 3, n.05, p. 70-88, 2005.

RADIN, D. I. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. . Effects of distant healing intention through time & space: Two exploratory studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine v. XI, n.3, p. 207-240, 2002.

ZANGARI, W. . Aspectos psicossociais das experiências psicológicas anômalas na religião: O caso do Espiritismo e da percepção extra-sensorial. Anuário Brasileiro de Parapsicologia 2002, Recife, p. 237-266, 2002.

ZANGARI, W. . Uma reflexão sobre o ceticismo. Fator Psi, v. II, n.2, p. 119-121, 2001.

PAIVA, Geraldo José de ; FARIA, D.G.R. ; GOMEZ, D.M. ; GOMEZ, M.L.T. ; LOPES, R. ; NUNES, L.C. ; VERDADE, M.M. ; ZANGARI, W. . Processos psicológicos da conversão religiosa: imaginário e simbólico, categorização e prototipicalidade. Revista de Psicologia da Puc Rj, Rio de Janeiro, v. 12, n.2, p. 151-169, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Parapsychology in Brazil: A science entering young adulthood. Journal of Parapsychology, v. 65, p. 351-356, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. . Charles Sanders Peirce e a pesquisa psíquica. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, v. 1, p. 15, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. . Estudos psicológicos da mediunidade: Uma breve revisão. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Incidência e relevância social de experiências psi de estudantes universitários brasileiros. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

MACHADO, Fátima Regina; ZANGARI, W. Percepção extra sensorial: Uma breve revisão dos estudos e algumas reflexões. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. O estatudo científico da Parapsicologia. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. Psicopatologia e experimentos psi: Dr. Tart desmente Pe. Quevedo. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. Pe. Quevedo: Os melhores livros de parapsicologia do mundo? Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

MACHADO, Fátima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. A psicologia do poltergeist. Revista Virtual de Pesquisa Psi, São Paulo, 2001.

ZANGARI, W. Estudos psicológicos da mediunidade: Uma breve revisão. Revista Portuguesa de Parapsicologia, Braga, Portugal, v. VII, n.58, p. 8-12, 2000.

ZANGARI, W. The poltergeist in Brazil: A review of the literature in context. International Journal of Parapsychology, v. XI, n.1, p. 113-143, 2000.

ZANGARI, W. Experiências psicológicas anómalas. Revista Portuguesa de Parapsicologia, Braga-Portugal, v. VII, n.62, p. 04-05, 2000.

ZANGARI, W. Contra a parapsicologia. Boletim Informativo da Aipa Associación Iberoamericana de Parapsicología, v. 3, n.1-2, p. 7-9, 1999.

BARRIONUEVO, V. L. ; PALLÚ, T. R. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. . Tributo a Nancy Zingrone. Boletim Informativo da Aipa Associación Iberoamericana de Parapsicología, v. 3, n.1-2, p. 19-20, 1999.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Brazil: The adolescent parapsychology. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, v. XX, n.23, p. 233-239, 1998.

MACHADO, Fátima Regina; ZANGARI, W. ESP: Uma breve revisão das pesquisas e algumas reflexões (Partes 1 a 5). Revista Portuguesa de Parapsicologia, v. 51, p. 11-20, 1998.

ZANGARI, W. . Émile Durkheim, a origem das crenças religiosas e as experiências psicológicas anômalas. Anuário Brasileiro de Parapsicologia, v. 1, p. 319-247, 1997.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina . A psicologia do Ganzfeld. Jornal de Parapsicologia, v. 36, p. 4-8, 1997.

MACHADO, Fátima Regina ; ZANGARI, W. A psicologia do poltergeist. Jornal de Parapsicologia, v. 36, p. 8-12, 1997.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Incidencia e importancia social de las experiencias psiquicas en los estudiantes universitarios Brasileños. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal, v. 7, n.1, p. 19-35, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, Fatima Regina. Survey: incidence and social relevance of Brazilian university students’s psychic experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, v. 12, p. 75-87, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. ;MACHADO, Fatima Regina. A psicologia do poltergeist. Jornal de Parapsicologia, v. V, n.12, p. 13-19, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. . Por que paranormal? Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, v. 2, p. 14-19, 1993.

ZANGARI, W. . Uma introdução ao estudo das experiências parapsicológicas. Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, v. 1, p. 4-9, 1992.

ZANGARI, W. . Parapsicologia: Técnica psicológica? Jornal do Conselho Regional de Psicologia 6º Região, v. 66, p. 8-8, 1990.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am glad to present an interview with Dr. Marilyn Schlitz, who I believe I first met in a Parapsychological Association Convention. Marilyn, who has a PhD in anthropology, has held various positions at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, among them President, Chief Executive Officer, and Director of Research. She is also a Senior Scientist at the California Pacific Medical Center and the founder and CEO of Worldwide Enterprises, “established to create and distribute multi-media education programs on worldview appreciation, health and healing, death awareness, and contemplative practices.” See her website here.

 Marilyn is the recipient of several awards, among them: Professional of the Year in Science, Executive Professionals and Entrepreneurs of the Year (2014); Gutsy Gals Film Writers Award (2014); Bronze Medal, Telly Award for Best Documentary (2014); and Silver Medal, Telly Award for Best Spirituality and Religion Documentary (2014).

In parapsychology Marilyn is well known for several contributions over the years. One that comes to mind when I think about her is a well-known ESP study with artists: Schlitz, M. & C. Honorton. (1992). A ganzfeld ESP study within an artistically gifted population. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 86, 83-98. But there have been many other contributions, such as: Wiseman, R. & M. Schlitz, (1997). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring. Journal of Parapsychology, 61,197-207; and Schlitz, M., Wiseman, R., Watt, C. & Radin, D. (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 313-322. See the bibliography below for many other examples.

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I was born and raised in Detroit, Michigan during the 1960’s and 70’s. This was a time and place of great social and political unrest. I was restless and wished I could change things. But as a teenager, there was not much to be done. When I entered Wayne State University, I discovered two books that profoundly impacted my life and my career. The first was The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn. This now classic book showed me that we live in a paradigm and that paradigms shift. This gave me hope and a sense of purpose.  In particular, Kuhn’s focus on science led me to think this would be an arena in which I might make a difference. The second book was Psychic Exploration by Edgar Mitchell and John White. Coming on the heels of Kuhn’s ideas, I felt that parapsychology was just the place in which to help foster a paradigm shift. From this book, and the many that I read after, I was impressed that a group of serious minded scientists and scholars were approaching psi with rigor and discernment, even if mainstream scientists considered it heresy. I wanted to be part of the revolution that could change our paradigm from strict materialism to one that pointed to our fundamental interconnectedness and vast human potentials. Decades later, I can say it’s been a fascinating and remarkable ride.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I began my laboratory research in the area of free response psi testing.  I conducted an early replication of Targ and Puthoff’s remote viewing protocol. This was done as a student of Robert Morris  at the University of California, Irvine.  Moving to the Institute for Parapsychology, now the Rhine Research Center, I expanded this research over long distances and produced the strongest statistical evidence for remote viewing under controlled conditions in the literature. My work with the ganzfeld method led to a now classic study of psi among artists at the Juilliard School of the Performing Arts. This was done in collaboration with Chuck Honorton and was the last study to be reported out of the Psychophysical Research Laboratory. It has been replicated in several other laboratories.

Beginning in the early 1980’s, I was drawn to studies of healing.  They offered a practical application for what are often abstract studies. In particular, I worked for a decade with William Braud at the Mind Science Foundation to develop an experimental protocol for studying healing intention under randomized, controlled conditions. Now known as DMILS (Distant Mental Interactions with Living Systems), the protocol monitors physiological outcomes in response to healing intentions from another person in a distant room and with no sensory communication. The results of our studies showed significant differences in the intention periods as compared to the control trials. This experimental protocol has now been replicated in many laboratories across the world, subjected to critical evaluations and meta-analyses, and provides one of the most reliable data sets in the field of psi research.  I established a laboratory at the Institute of Noetic Sciences that allowed this work to continue, now under the direction of Dean Radin.

My studies on experimenter effects began during my time at Wayne State, when I noticed that the experimenters performed better than our subjects in some preliminary research. This interest was further developed years later in my collaborations with parapsychology skeptic, Richard Wiseman. Together we conducted three formal studies over ten years and the summary of these studies showed a psi effect in my data but not in Richard’s. This provocative work also established the feasibility of building collaborations between skeptics and psi proponents, which I think are important for the future of the field.

I also have a long standing interest in the discourse of the skeptic/proponent debate, including work done when I held the Thomas Welton Stanford Fellowship for Psychical Research at Stanford University.  As an anthropologist, I am drawn to the cultural aspects of the debate and how truth is constructed in the context of controversial science. Most recently, I have conducted a meta-experiment with an international team of scientists to study experimenter expectancies using a precognition protocol developed by Daryl Bem.  This work is currently underway.

Today I am focusing on questions of death and the afterlife. I have created a feature length documentary in partnership with Deepak Chopra entitled, Death Makes Life Possible, a companion book and a learning program. We invite people in this work to consider their own worldview about death, what happens after, and why this is important for how they live their lives. The research from parapsychology, together with people’s noetic experiences and different cultural and religious worldviews, provides a rich tapestry of human experience. The goal is to help transform the fear of death into an inspiration for living and dying well.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

Psi experiences have been profound for many people and have stimulated transformations in people’s worldviews and belief systems. Parapsychology offers a way of legitimating these experiences and giving people a framework for understanding anomalous occurrences. In this way, it is a bridge between noetic insights and objective knowing. It is also a field that invites discovery and out of the box thinking. Some of the data from the controlled research forces us to question our assumptions and expand our methods of knowing and being in the world. It is also a nexus for multi-disciplinary pursuits that are often not possible in other areas of study where people become very specialized. From a cultural perspective, psi research is a rich laboratory in which to study beliefs, expectations, and the politics that govern truth construction.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

It is a tough field for many reasons. Funding, credibility, challenges in replication, and the small number of researchers make progress painfully slow. Parapsychology is situated in an odd place, focusing on topics outside the mainstream scientific community while raising questions that many in the general population no long question. Researchers often find themselves betwixt and between. The interesting thing is that psi researchers have been in the vanguard for years, making discoveries in areas such as hypnosis, altered states of consciousness, research methods,  long before the time has come to have these ideas integrated into the prevailing paradigm. This may be happening again today, with quantum physics and studies of entanglement offering a theoretical framework to account for psi phenomena. If this happens and psi results can be replicated by mainstream scientists, parapsychology may find itself within the mainstream scientific camp. For some who are used to living on the edge of the mainstream, this may not be a place of comfort. Time will tell.

Selected Publications

(Mainly About Parapsychology and Related Topics)

Books

Schlitz, M. (in press). Death Makes Life Possible. Revolutionary Insights on Living, Dying and the Continuation of Consciousness. Boulder, CO: Sounds True. For more information click here.

Peterson, K., Schlitz, M., Vieten, C. (2013). Worldview Explorations, Facilitator Guide and Workbook. Petaluma: Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Schlitz, M., C. Vieten, & T. Amorok. (2007) Living Deeply, The Art and Science of Transformation. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger (also published in Spanish and German).

Schlitz, M., T. Amorok. with M. Micozzi, Editors. (2005). Consciousness & Healing: Integral Approaches to Mind Body Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier: Churchill Livingstone.

Schlitz, M. & Zingrone, N.L. (Eds.). (1997). Research in Parapsychology. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press.

Schlitz, M. (1987). Reflections on Medina Lake: 1912-1987. San Antonio: Quadrangle Press.

Book Chapters

Schlitz, M. (2009). Exploring the Akashic Field: Bridging Subjective and Objective Ways of Knowing. In E. Laszlo, The Akashic Experience: Science and the Cosmic Memory Field. Rochester, VT. Inner Traditions Bear.

Schlitz, M. (2007). Prayer and Healing: Assessing the Evidence. In I. Serlin (Ed.), Whole Person Healthcare. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. (2006). Distant Healing: Assessing the Evidence. In Integrative Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Press.

Schlitz, M. & Harman, W. (2004). The Implications of Alternative and Complementary Medicine for Science and the Scientific Process. In M. Schlitz, T. Amorok, with M. Micozzi, (Eds.), Consciousness & Healing: Integral Approaches to Mind Body Medicine. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Schlitz, M. & N. Lewis. (2002). Distant Healing: The Power of Prayer and Intention. In Breast Cancer: Beyond Convention. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Schlitz, M. & W. Harman. (2001). The implications of complementary and alternative medicine for science and the scientific process. In D. Lorimer (Ed.), Thinking Beyond the Brain: A Wider Science of Consciousness. Floris Books: London.

Schlitz, M. & Targ, E. (2000). Parapsychological experiences. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, and S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of Anomalous Experience. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Taylor, E. & Schlitz, M. (1998). Meditation. In N. Allison, (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Body Mind Disciplines. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.

Schlitz, M. & May, E. (1998). Parapsychology: Fact or fiction? Replicable evidence for unusual consciousness effects. In S.R. Hameroff, A.W. Kaszniak, & A.C. Scott (Eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II (pp. 691-700). Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Moerman, D., Jonas, W., Bush, P., Edwards, R., Herxheimer, A., Kleijnen, J., Roberts, A., Schlitz, M., Solfvin, J., van der Geest, S., & Watkins, A. (1997). Placebo effects and research in alternative and conventional medicine. In Proceedings of the Alternative Medicine Research Methodology Conference. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Schlitz, M. (1994). Women, power, and the paranormal: A cultural critique. In L. Coly and R. White (Eds.), Women in Parapsychology (pp. 157-174). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Schlitz, M. (1992). Psychic unity: The meeting ground of anthropology and parapsychology. In B. Shapin and L. Coly (Ed.), Psychology, Depth Psychology, and Spontaneous Psi Research. New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Schlitz, M. (1985). The phenomenology of replication. In B. Shapin and L. Coly (Ed.), The Repeatability Problem in Parapsychology (pp. 73-97). New York: Parapsychology Foundation Press.

Hansen, G., Schlitz, M., & Tart, C. (1984). Bibliography: Remote viewing research, 1973-1982. In R. Targ and K. Harary (Eds.), The Mind Race (pp. 265-269). New York: Villard Press.

Schlitz, M. & Gruber, E. (1984). Transcontinental remote viewing: A rejudging. In K. R. Rao (Ed.), Basic Experiments in Parapsychology (pp. 237-42). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Schlitz, M., & E. Gruber, E. (1984). Transcontinental remote viewing. In K. R. Rao (Ed.), Basic Experiments in Parapsychology (pp. 225-236). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Journal Articles

Schlitz, M. (2014). Transpersonal Healing: Assessing the Evidence from Laboratory and Clinical Trials. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 33, 97-101.

Schlitz, M., Hopf, H.W., Eskenazi, L., Vieten, C., Radin, D. (2012). Distant Healing of Surgical Wounds: An Exploratory Study. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 8, 223-230.

Radin, D., Stone, J., Levine, E., Eskandarnejad, S., Schlitz, M., Kozak, L., Mandel, D., & Hayssen, G. (2008). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. Explore, 4, 235-43.

Vieten, C., Amorok, T., & Schlitz, M. (2006). From I to We: The Study of Spiritual Transformation. Zygon, 41, 915-931.

Schlitz, M. (2005). The Discourse of Controversial Science: The Skeptic-Proponent Debate on Remote Staring. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 101-105.

Schlitz, M., Wiseman, R., Watt, C., & Radin, D. (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 313-322.

Radin, D. I. & Schlitz, M.J. (2005). Gut feelings, intuition, and emotions: An exploratory study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 85-91.

Schlitz, M. (2004). Intentional Healing: Exploring the Extended Reaches of Consciousness. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, 14(1): 1-18.

Schlitz, M., Radin, D.I., Malle, B.F., Schmidt, S., Utts, J., & Yount, G.L. (2003). Distant healing intention: Definitions and evolving guidelines for laboratory studies. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9 (3), A31-A43.

Wiseman, R. &, Schlitz, M. (1999). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring: A replication. Journal of Parapsychology, 63, 232-233.

Schlitz, M. J. & Braud, W.G. (1997). Distant intentionality and healing: Assessing the evidence. Alternative Therapies, 3(6), 62-73.

Schlitz, M. & LaBerge, S. (1997). Covert observation increases skin conductance in subjects unaware of when they are being observed: A replication. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 185-196.

Schlitz, M. (1997). Intentionality: An argument for transpersonal consciousness. World Futures, 48, 115-126.

Wiseman, R. & Schlitz, M. (1997). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring. Journal of Parapsychology, 61, 197-207.

Schlitz, M. (1996). Intentionality and intuition and their clinical implications: A challenge for science and medicine. Advances: The Journal of Mind-Body Health, 12(2), 58-66.

Schlitz, M. (1996). Intentionality: A program of study in five questions on intentionality, science and mind-body medicine—an Advances forum. Advances: The Journal of Mind-Body Health 12(3), 31-32.

Moerman, D., Jonas, W., Bush, P., Edwards, R., Herxheimer, A., Kleijnen, J., Roberts, A., Schlitz, M., Solfvin, J., van der Geest, S., & Watkins, A. (1996). Placebo effects and research in alternative and conventional medicine. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 2(2), 141-148.

Schlitz, M. (1995). Intentionality in healing: Mapping the integration of body, mind, and spirit. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 1(5), 119-120.

Schlitz, M., & Honorton, C. (1992). A ganzfeld ESP study within an artistically gifted population. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86, 83-98.

Braud, W. & Schlitz, M. (1991). Consciousness interactions with remote biological systems: Anomalous intentionality effects. Subtle Energies, 2(1) 1-46.

Targ, R., Braud, W., Stanford, R., Schlitz, M. & Honorton, C. (1991). Increasing psychic reliability. Journal of Parapsychology, 55, 59-83.

Braud, W., & Schlitz, M. (1989). Possible role of intuitive data sorting in electrodermal biological psychokinesis (bio-PK). Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 83, 289-302.

Braud, W., & Schlitz, M. (1989). A methodology for the objective study of transpersonal imagery. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 43-63.

Schlitz, M. & Braud, W. (1985). Reiki plus natural healing: An ethnographic and experimental study. Psi Research, 4, 100-123.

Schlitz, M., & Haight, J.M. (1984). Remote viewing revisited: An intrasubject replication. Journal of Parapsychology, 48, 39-49.

Braud, W., & Schlitz, M. (1983). Psychokinetic influence on electrodermal activity. Journal of Parapsychology, 47, 95-119.

Schlitz, M., & Gruber, E. (1981). Transcontinental remote viewing: A rejudging. Journal of Parapsychology, 45, 233-237.

Schlitz, M. & Gruber, E. (1980). Transcontinental remote viewing. Journal of Parapsychology, 44, 305-317.