Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation 

Here is an English-language bibliography about mental mediumship published between 2000 and 2019. I am not including here publications about sociological and anthropological aspects of mediumship, not of the effects of mediumship on bereavement.


Bastos Jr., M.A.V., et al. (2015). Mediumship: Review of quantitative studies published in the 21st century. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 129-138.

Beischel, J. (2018). Mental mediumship research. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research.

Beischel, J., & Zingrone, N.L. (2015). Mental mediumship. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson- Clavertz (Eds.), Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century (pp. 301-313). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Braude, S.E. (2003). Immortal Remains: The Evidence for Life After Death. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Chapters 2 and 3.

Rock, A.J. (Ed.). (2013). The Survival Hypothesis: Essays on Mediumship. Jefferson, CA: McFarland.


Alvarado, C.S. (2014). Mediumship, psychical research, dissociation, and the powers of the subconscious mind. Journal of Parapsychology, 78, 98-114.

Alvarado, C.S. (2016). Classic Text No. 107: Joseph Maxwell on mediumistic personifications. History of Psychiatry, 27, 350-366. Abstract

Alvarado, C. S. (2016). Classic Text No. 105: “Report of the Committee on Mediumistic Phenomena,” by William James (1886). History of Psychiatry, 27, 85–100. Abstract

Alvarado, C.S., & Biondi, M. (2017). Classic Text No. 110: Cesare Lombroso on Mediumship and Pathology. History of Psychiatry, 28, 225–241. Abstract

Alvarado, C.S., Nahm, M., & Sommer, A. (2012). Notes on early interpretations of mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 26, 855-865.

Anderson, R.I. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives and Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary with Bibliographies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Blum, D. (2006). Ghost Hunters: William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death. New York: Penguin Press.

Crabtree, A. (2015). Mesmerism and the psychological dimension of mediumship. In C. Gutierrez (Ed.), Handbook of Spiritualism and Channeling (pp. 7-31). Leiden: Brill.

Fryer, C. (2012). Geraldine Cummins: An Appreciation. White Crow Books.

Hamilton, T. (2017). Arthur Balfour’s Ghosts: An Edwardian Elite and the Riddle of the Cross-Correspondence Automatic Writings. Exeter: Imprint Academic.

Hazelgrove, J. (2000) Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

Le Maléfan, P., Evrard, R., & Alvarado, C.S. (2013). Spiritist delusions and spiritism in the nosography of French psychiatry (1850-1950). History of Psychiatry, 24, 477-491.

Leonard, T.J. (2005). Talking to the Other Side: A History of Modern Spiritualism and Mediumship: A Study of the Religion, Science, Philosophy and Mediums that Encompass this American-Made Religion. New York: iUniverse.

Maraldi, E. de O., & Alvarado, C.S. (2018). Classic Text No. 113: Final chapter, From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia, by Théodore  Flournoy (1900). History of Psychiatry, 29, 110-125. Abstract

Massicotte, C. (2017). Trance Speakers: Femininity and Authorship in Spiritual Séances, 1850–1930. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Moreira-Almeida A., Almeida, A. A. S., & Lotufo Neto, F. (2005). History of spiritist madness in Brazil. History of Psychiatry, 16, 5-25.

Robertson, B.A. (2017). Science of the Seance: Transnational Networks and Gendered Bodies in the Study of Psychic Phenomena, 1918-40. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Shamdasani, S. (2015). ‘S.W.’ and C.G. Jung: Mediumship, psychiatry and serial exemplarity. History of Psychiatry, 26, 288-302. Abstract

Tymn, M. (2013). Resurrecting Leonora Piper: How Science Discovered the Afterlife. Guildford, UK: White Crow Books.


Veridical tests

Beischel, J., Boccuzzi, M., Biuso, M., & Rock, A. J. (2015). Anomalous information reception by research mediums under blinded conditions II: Replication and extension. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science & Healing, 11, 136-142.

Beischel, J., & Schwartz, G.E. (2007). Anomalous information reception by research mediums demonstrated using a novel triple-blind protocol. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science & Healing, 3, 23-27.

Jensen, C.G., & Cardeña, E. (2009). A controlled long-distance test of a professional medium. European Journal of Parapsychology, 24, 53-67.

Kelly, E.W., Arcangel, D. (2011). An investigation of mediums who claim to give information about deceased persons. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 11-17.

O’Keeffe, C., & Wiseman R. (2005). Testing alleged mediumship: Methods and results. British Journal of Psychology, 96(Pt 2), 165-179. Abstract

Rocha,. AC., Paraná, D., Freire, E.S., Lotufo Neto, F., Moreira-Almeida A. (2014). Investigating the fit and accuracy of alleged mediumistic writing: A case study of Chico Xavier’s letters. Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing, 10, 300-308. Abstract

Rock, A. J., & Beischel, J. (2008). Quantitative analysis of mediums’ conscious experiences during a discarnate reading versus a control task: A pilot study. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 157-179.

Rock, A. J., Beischel, J., Boccuzzi, M., & Biuso, M. (2014). Discarnate readings by claimant mediums: Assessing phenomenology and accuracy under beyond double-blind conditions. Journal of Parapsychology, 78(2), 183-194.

Roy, A. E., & Robertson, T. J. (2001). A double- blind procedure for assessing the relevance of a medium’s statements to a recipient. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 161–174. Abstract

Roy, A.E., Robertson, T.J. (2004). Results of the application of the Robertson-Roy protocol to a series of experiments with mediums and participants. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68, 161-174.

Schwartz, G.E., Geoffrion. S., Jain, S., Lewis, S., Russek, L.G. (2003).  Evidence of anomalous information retrieval between two mediums: Replication in a double-blind design. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67, 115-130.

Schwartz, G.E., & Russek, L. (2001). Evidence of anomalous information retrieval between two mediums: Telepathy, network memory resonance, and continuance of consciousness. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 257-275.

Schwartz, G. E. R., Russek, L. G. S., Nelson, L. A., & Barentsen, C. (2001). Accuracy and replicability of anomalous after-death communication across highly skilled mediums. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 65, 1–25.

Schwartz, G.E., with Simon, W.L. (2002). The Afterlife Experiments: Breakthrough Scientific Evidence of Life After Death. New York: Pocket Books.

Schwartz, G.E., & Simon, W.L. (2005). The Truth About Medium: Extraordinary Experiments with the Real Allison DuBois of NBC’s Medium and other Remarkable Psychics. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads.

Storm, L.C., & Rock, A.J. (2015). Testing telepathy in the medium/proxy-sitter dyad: A protocol focusing on the source-of-psi problem Journal of Scientific Exploration, 29, 565-584.

Physiological tests

Bastos, M. A. V., Jr.; Bastos, P. R. H. de O. Osório, I. H. S., Muass, K. A. R. C., Iandoly, D., Jr.; Lucchietti, G. (2016). Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and mediumship: A comparative study between spiritist mediums and controls. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 43, 20–26.

Beischel, J., Tassone, S., & Boccuzzi, M. (2019). Hematological and psychophysiological correlates of anomalous information reception in mediums: A preliminary exploration. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science & Healing, 15, 126–133. Abstract

Delorme, A., Beischel. J., Michel, L., Boccuzzi, M., Radin, D., & Mills, P. J. (2013). Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 834. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00834

Hageman, J. H., Peres, J. F. P., Moreira-Almeida, A., Caixeta, L., Wickramasekera, I. II, & Krippner, S. (2010). The neurobiology of trance and mediumship in Brazil. In S. Krippner & H. L. Friedman (Eds.), Mysterious minds: The neurobiology of psychics, mediums, and other extraordinary people (pp. 85-111). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Abstract

Peres, J.F, Moreira-Almeida, A., Caixeta, L., Leao, F., & Newberg, A. (2012). Neuro-imaging during trance state: A contribution to the study of dissociation. PLoS One;7(11)

Psychological tests

Moreira-Almeida, A., Neto, F.L., & Cardeña, E. (2008). Comparison of Brazilian spiritist mediumship and dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental, 196, 420-424.

Moreira-Almeida A., Lotufo Neto, F., & Greyson, B. (2007). Dissociative and psychotic experiences in Brazilian spiritist mediums. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 57-58.

Negro, P. J., Palladino-Negro, P., & Rodrigues Louza, M. (2002). Do religious mediumship dissociative experiences conform to the sociocognitive theory of dissociation? Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3, 51–73. Abstract

Roxburgh, E.C., & Roe, C.A. (2011). A survey of dissociation, boundary-thinness and psychological wellbeing in spiritualist mental mediumship. Journal of Parapsychology, 75, 279-299. Abstract

Wahbeh, H., & Radin, D. (2018). People reporting experiences of mediumship have higher dissociation symptom scores than non-mediums, but below thresholds for pathological dissociation. F1000 Research 6: 1416.

Other (see also Leonard, 2005 from History section)

Beischel, J., Mosher, C., & Boccuzzi, M. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of mediumistic and psychic experiences. Threshold: Journal of Interdisciplinary Consciousness Studies, 1(2): 51-91.

Emmons, C. F., & Emmons, P. (2003). Guided by Spirit: A Journey into the Mind of the Medium. New York: Writers Club Press.

Leonard, T.J. (2015). A qualitative analysis of mediumship development among ordained Spiritualist ministers: A research study. Bulletin of Fukuoka University of Education, 64, 33-42.

Maraldi, E. de O., & Krippner, S. (2013). A biopsychosocial approach to creative dissociation: Remarks on a case of mediumistic painting. NeuroQuantology, 11, 544-572.

Rock, A. J., Beischel, J., & Cott, C. C. (2009). Psi vs. survival: A qualitative investigation of mediums’ phenomenology comparing psychic readings and ostensible communication with the deceased. Transpersonal Psychology Review, 13, 76-89.

Rock, A. J., Beischel, J., & Schwartz, G. E. (2008). Thematic analysis of research mediums’ experiences of discarnate communication. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 179-192.

Roxburgh, E. C., & Roe, C. A. (2013). Exploring the meaning of mental mediumship from the mediums’ perspective. In C. M. Moreman (Ed.), The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and Around the World (pp. 53-67). California: Praeger Publishers.

Roxburgh, E. C., & Roe, C. A. (2013). “Say from whence you owe this strange intelligence”: Investigating explanatory systems of spiritualist mental mediumship using interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 32(1), 27-42.

Roxburgh, E. C., & Roe, C. A. (2014).  Reframing voices and visions using a spiritual model:  An interpretative phenomenological analysis of anomalous experiences in mediumship. Mental Health, Religion, & Culture, 17, 6, 641-653. Abstract

Wabeh, H., Carpenter, L., & Radin, D. (2018). A mixed methods phenomenological and exploratory study of channeling. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 82, 129-147. Abstract

Other Topics (Mainly Conceptual)

Alvarado, C.S. (2012). Mediumship and dreams. Paranormal Review, No. 64, 8-12.

Alvarado, C.S. (2010). Investigating mental mediumship: Research suggestions from the historical literature. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 24, 197-224.

Beischel, J. (2007). Contemporary methods used in laboratory-based mediumship research. Journal of Parapsychology, 71, 37-68.

Beischel, J., & Rock, A. J. (2009). Addressing the survival vs. psi debate through process-focused mediumship research. Journal of Parapsychology, 73, 71-90.

Braude, S. E. (2000). Dissociation and latent abilities: The strange case of Patience Worth. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1, 13–48.

Braude, S.B. (2017). Mediumship and multiple personality. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research.

Cunningham, P.F. (2012). The content–source problem in modern mediumship research. Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 295-319.

Hunter, J. (2017). Mediumship and spirit possession in a cross-cultural context. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research.

Maraldi, E. de O. (2014). Medium or author? A preliminary model relating dissociation, paranormal belief systems and self-esteem. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 78, 1-24.

Moreira-Almeida, A. (2012). Research on mediumship and the mind-brain relationship In A. Moreira-Almeida, & F.S. Santos (Eds.), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship (pp. 191-213). New York: Springer.

Sudduth, M. (2009). Super-psi and the survivalist interpretation of mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 23, 167–193.