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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

On September 17, 2016, I posted about the Psi Encyclopedia, a project organized by Robert McLuhan on behalf of the Society for Psychical Research (for my blog click here). Since then, several other entries have been added, as you can see below.

Psi Encyclopedia

Robert Mcluhan 4

Robert McLuhan

The following are some of the new additions. I have arranged them by title (in alphabetical order).

Karen Wehrstein:  Adult Past-Life Memories Research

Stephen E. Braude: Antonia (Case Study Analysis)

Steve Braude 4

Stephen E. Braude

Peter Hallson: Ghosts and Apparitions in Psi Research (Overview)

Leslie Price: The Hodgson Report (Theosophy)

Carlos S. Alvarado: Human Radiations

Caroline Watt: Koestler Parapsychology Unit

Caroline Watt 2

Caroline Watt

Karen Wehrstein: James Leininger

Annekatrin Puhle: Extraordinary Light Phenomena

Annekatrin Puhle: Lucid Dreaming

Karen Wehrstein: Ma Tin Aung Myo

Lance Storm: Meta-Analysis in Parapsychology

Lance Storm

Lance Storm

Karen Wehrstein: Nazih Al-Danaf

Bernard Carr and Caroline Watt: Parapsychology PhDs in the UK (list)

Carlos S. Alvarado: The Phenomena of Astral Projection (1951)

James G. Matlock: Patterns in Reincarnation Cases

james-g-matlock

James G. Matlock

Renaud Evrard: Psi Research in France

Stephan Schwarz: Remote Viewing

James G. Matlock: Replacement Reincarnation

Carlos S. Alvarado: Richet’s ‘La Suggestion Mentale’

Carlos S. Alvarado 10

Carlos S. Alvarado

Rupert Sheldrake (compiled by Guy Hayward): The Sense of Being Stared At – Experimental Evidence

Rupert Sheldrake (compiled by Guy Hayward): The Sense of Being Stared At – Implications for Theories of Vision

Rupert Sheldrake

Rupert Sheldrake

Lance Storm: The Sheep-Goat Effect

Stephen E. Braude: The Super-Psi Hypothesis

Michael Nahm: Terminal Lucidity

Michael Nahm 2

Michael Nahm

Karen Wehrstein: Sharada

Stephen E. Braude: Transplant Cases Considered as Evidence for Postmortem Survival

As you can see the Encyclopedia keeps growing. I am glad to see more entries about important concepts such as the super-psi hypothesis and basic phenomena (ghosts and apparitions), not to mention topics from experimental parapsychology (sheep-goat effect, meta-analysis).

As I said before, there is a need for coverage of more experimental topics and modern researchers. But bear in mind this is work in progress. I am aware that the Encyclopedia editor, Robert McLuhan, is trying to get writers for many other topics, something that is not easy because, for various reasons, not everyone can write for the project.

I would like to end citing some comments Robert McLuhan sent to me in a recent email:

“The reincarnation section is developing strongly, which I’m pleased about, as I think this constitutes some exceptional evidence. We also have good recent pieces from Stephan Schwarz on Remote Viewing and from Adrian Parker on the Ganzfeld, and there will be more on the experimental side during the course of the year (DMILS, Experimenter Effects, Stargate, Replication Issues, etc). One project which I’ve been giving some thought to is to include profiles of contemporary researchers, which I hope will start to happen later in the year. “

“On the development side, there’ll be a few minor additions, for instance a function that lists articles written by particular contributors, and another that gives a handy citation for articles that authors can cut and paste into their writings. Now that we’ve built up a fairly substantial library of images, I’ve been giving thought to redeveloping the home page, making it more reflective of recent additions.”

“We’re not as busy on the publicity side as I’d like, simply for lack of time. So please do spread the word in any way you can, linking to articles on your posts, tweeting, etc. And I’m always happy to hear from people in the psi research community with comments and ideas.”

Ideas and suggestions may be sent to Mr. McLuhan here.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

The last issue of the Journal of Scientific Exploration has a report authored by Alejandro Parra and Paola Giménez Amarilla entitled “Anomalous/Paranormal Experiences Reported by Nurses in Relation to Their Patients in Hospitals” (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2017, 31, 1–28).

Alejandro Parra

Alejandro Parra

Paola Gimenez Amarilla

Paola Giménez Amarilla

Here is the abstract:

“Using existing reports of Anomalous/Paranormal Experiences (APE) by nurses in hospital and health center settings, the aim was to determine the extent of occurrence of certain types of anomalous perceptual experiences and their relationship to the nurses’ job stress, proneness to hallucination, and psychological absorption. From the total number of 130 participants recruited from nursing departments, we received 100 usable questionnaires from eight hospitals and health centers in Argentina. Using the Anomalous/Paranormal Experiences in Nurse & Health Workers Survey (which measures frequency of paranormal/anomalous experiences) (see Appendix), 54 experiencer nurses (APE) and 46 control (non-experiencer nurses) were reclustered. All of them also filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Hallucinations Experiences Questionnaire, and the Tellegen Absorption Scale. While nurses reporting such experiences did not tend to experience greater job stress, those who reported a combination of hallucination perceptual experiences and a high level of psychological absorption tended to score higher for anomalous/paranormal experiences compared with those who did not report such experiences.”

The authors write in their conclusion:

“The aim of this study was to determine the degree of occurrence of certain unusual perceptual experiences in hospital settings and their relationship to job stress and psychological absorption. The study was based on a comparison of the degree of job stress and absorption in nurses having these experiences with nurses not having these experiences. Results showed that of the 100 nurses surveyed, 55 of them reported having had at least one anomalous experience in the hospital setting, the most common being the feeling of ‘presences,’ hearing strange noises, voices, or dialogues, noticing the tears or groans of patients, and intuitively ‘knowing’ what disease patients have.”

“In this study, nurses who reported these experiences tended to score higher on psychological absorption . . . Absorption may also indicate a more habitual use of or recurrent desire to engage in absorbed mental activity, such that habitually poor reality monitoring becomes an enduring aspect of one’s cognitive style. Although the nurses who had APEs tended to show a higher proneness to hallucinate and scored higher in the six subscales on hallucination, this need not mean that all APEs are pure hallucinatory fantasies produced by job stress, since some could still be potentially veridical . . .”

“Hence, in the context of this study, the distinction between purely subjective experiences and those considered paranormal (veridical APE) is irrelevant. Even veridical experiences may depend on the same psychological predispositional factors as do non-veridical experiences . . .”

“Approximately 24% of the 100 respondents knew of such experiences by others, but had not had any themselves. The most common experiences reported by patients were near-death experiences (NDE, 19%). About 18% also mentioned an anomalous recovery through a religious intervention (18%) . . . In relation to anomalous experiences with children (15%), these experiences in general play an adaptive and protective function, which can decrease the level of anxiety around death and loss, and can relieve tension related to a memory . . .”

“Generally speaking, the information that most people have about these experiences and their association with psychiatric disorders leads to prejudice and resistance to providing data. Thus there are a number of drawbacks connected with this research in hospital settings as they are conservative institutions, unlikely to be open about their population and even more so with respect to providing information relating to the subject of this investigation. The nurses did reveal their personal and professional experiences and those of their patients, noting that they considered experiences of paranormal phenomena within a hospital setting not to be infrequent or unexpected. They were not frightened by their patients’ experiences, or their own, and exhibited a quiet confidence in the reality of the experiences for themselves and the dying person. Acceptance of these experiences, without interpretation or explanation, characterized their responses. By reassuring them that the occurrence of paranormal phenomena was not uncommon and was often comforting to the dying person, we may assist nurses to be instrumental in normalizing a potentially misunderstood and frightening experience.”

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Many articles, and a few books, have appeared about various aspects of the historical relationship between psychology and parapsychology. This includes many of my papers.

Alvarado, C.S. (2002). Dissociation in Britain during the late nineteenth century: The Society for Psychical Research, 1882-1900. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3, 9-33.

Abstract

This paper reviews the Society for Psychical Research’s (SPR) work on dissociation carried out between 1882-1900. The work of such SPR researchers and theorists as Edmund Gurney and Frederic W.H. Myers on hypnosis and mediums was part of nineteenth-century efforts to understand dissociation and the workings of the subconscious mind. It is also argued that the SPR’s openness to these phenomena represented the first institutionalized attempt in Britain to study dissociation in a systematic manner. An analysis of the dissociation papers published in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research shows that hypnosis was the most frequently discussed phenomena. Attention to the contribution of psychical researchers will expand our understanding of the factors that have affected the development of the concept of dissociation and of the subconscious mind.

PSPR 1882 Table of Contents

Table of Contents Proceedings of the SPR, 1882-1883

 

Alvarado, C.S. (2009). Psychical research in the Psychological Review, 1894-1900: A bibliographical note. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 23, 211-220.

Abstract

While there was much conflict during the 19th century between psychology and psychical research, the latter was occasionally discussed in psychology journals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide to existing discussions of psychical research and related topics in the American journal Psychological Review. Many of the discussions were authored by individuals favorably disposed to psychical research, such as William James and James H. Hyslop, but also by such skeptics as James McKeen Cattell and Joseph Jastrow. With a few exceptions, the majority of the authors were critical of psychical research. This reflected the hostility on the topic shown by many psychologists at the time.

Alvarado, C.S. (2010). Classic text No. 84: ‘Divisions of personality and spiritism’ by Alfred Binet (1896). History of Psychiatry, 21, 487-500.

Abstract

During the nineteenth century such individuals as Alfred Binet (1857–1911), who is the author of this Classic Text, conducted clinical and research work that led to the development and refinement of ideas about the subconscious mind and dissociation. The work concentrated on hysterical blindness, hypnosis, spontaneous somnambulism, and double and multiple personality. Another phenomenon that focused thinking on the topic was mediumship. The Classic Text is an excerpt from Binet’s writings that illustrates how a representative of French abnormal psychology used mediumship to defend his particular ideas about the mind. The excerpt is taken from the English language translation, published in 1896, of Binet’s Les Altérations de la personnalité (1892).

Alfred Binet 2

Alfred Binet

Alvarado, C.S. (2012). Psychic phenomena and the mind-body problem: Historical notes on a neglected conceptual tradition. In A. Moreira-Almeida and F.S. Santos (Eds.), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship (pp. 35-51). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Abstract

Although there is a long tradition of philosophical and historical discussions of the mind–body problem, most of them make no mention of psychic phenomena as having implications for such an issue. This chapter is an overview of selected writings published in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries literatures of mesmerism, spiritualism, and psychical research whose authors have discussed apparitions, telepathy, clairvoyance, out-of-body experiences, and other parapsychological phenomena as evidence for the existence of a principle separate from the body and responsible for consciousness. Some writers discussed here include individuals from different time periods. Among them are John Beloff, J.C. Colquhoun, Carl du Prel, Camille Flammarion, J.H. Jung-Stilling, Frederic W.H. Myers, and J.B. Rhine. Rather than defend the validity of their position, my purpose is to document the existence of an intellectual and conceptual tradition that has been neglected by philosophers and others in their discussions of the mind–body problem and aspects of its history.

Alvarado, C.S. (2014). Mediumship, psychical research, dissociation, and the powers of the subconscious mind. Journal of Parapsychology, 78, 98–114.

Abstract

Since the 19th century many psychiatrists and psychologists have considered mediumship to be related to the subconscious mind and to dissociative processes produced mainly by internal conventional processes of the medium’s mind. However, some psychologists and psychical researchers active between the last decades of the 19th century and the 1920s expressed a different view. Individuals such as Théodore Flournoy, Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Morselli, Frederic W. H. Myers, Julian Ochorowicz, Charles Richet, Eleanor Sidgwick, and Eduard von Hartmann, argued that some mediums combined dissociation with supernormal phenomena such as knowledge acquired without the use of the senses, and the production of physical effects seemingly beyond the normal bodily capabilities. Depending on the theorist, other issues such as pathology and discarnate agency were also part of the discussions. The supernormal was never accepted by science at large and today is rarely mentioned in the dissociation literature. But ideas related to the supernormal were part of this literature. A complete history of dissociation, and of the subconscious mind, should include consideration of this body of work.

Alvarado, C.S. (2016). Classic Text No. 107: Joseph Maxwell on mediumistic personifications. History of Psychiatry, 27, 350-366.

Abstract

The study of mediumship received much impetus from the work of psychical researchers. This included ideas about the phenomena of personation, or changes in attitudes, dispositions and behaviours shown by some mediums that supposedly indicated discarnate action. The aim of this Classic Text is to reprint passages about this topic from the writings of French psychical researcher Joseph Maxwell (1858–1938), which were part of the contributions of some psychical researchers to reconceptualize the manifestations in psychological terms. Maxwell suggested these changes in mediums were a production of their subconscious mind. His ideas are a reflection of previous theorization about secondary personalities and a particular example of the contributions of psychical researchers to understand the psychology of mediumship.

Maxwell Metapsychical Phenomena

Alvarado, C.S. (2017). Telepathy, mediumship, and psychology: Psychical research at the International Congresses of Psychology, 1889–1905. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 31, 54-101.

Abstract

The development of psychology includes the rejection of concepts and movements some groups consider undesirable, such as psychical research. One such example was the way psychologists dealt with phenomena such as telepathy and mediumship in the first five international congresses of psychology held between 1889 and 1905. This included papers about telepathy and mediumship by individuals such as Gabriel Delanne, Léon Denis, Théodore Flournoy, Paul Joire, Léon Marillier, Frederic W. H. Myers, Julian Ochorowicz, Charles Richet, Eleanor M. Sidgwick, and Henry Sidgwick. These topics were eventually rejected from the congresses, and provide us with an example of the boundary-work psychologists were engaging in during that period to build their discipline. The height of such presentations took place at the 1900 congress, after which there was a marked decline in discussion on the topic which mirrored the rejection science at large showed for psychical research during the period in question.

Congres international psychologie 1889

Alvarado, C.S., & Krippner, C.S. (2010). Nineteenth century pioneers in the study of dissociation: William James and psychical research. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17, 19-43.

Abstract

Following recent trends in the historiography of psychology and psychiatry we argue that psychical research was an important influence in the development of concepts about dissociation. To illustrate this point, we discuss American psychologist and philosopher William James’s (1842-1910) writings about mediumship, secondary personalities, and hypnosis. Some of James’s work on the topic took place in the context of research conducted by the American Society for Psychical Research, such as his early work with the medium Leonora E. Piper (1857-1950). James Following recent trends in the historiography of psychology and psychiatry we argue that psychical research was an important influence in the development of concepts about dissociation. To illustrate this point, we discuss American psychologist and philosopher William James’s (1842-1910) writings about mediumship, secondary personalities, and hypnosis. Some of James’s work on the topic took place in the context of research conducted by the American Society for Psychical Research, such as his early work with the medium Leonora E. Piper (1857-1950). James’s work is an example of the influence of psychical research on several aspects of psychology such as early models of the unconscious and of dissociation’s work is an example of the influence of psychical research on several aspects of psychology such as early models of the unconscious and of dissociation.

Alvarado, C.S., Maraldi, E. de O., Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2014). Théodore Flournoy’s contributions to psychical research. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 78, 149-168.

In this paper we review the main contributions of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy (1854–1920) to psychical research. Flournoy always advocated the scientific study of psychic phenomena as an important area that should not be ignored. After a short discussion of Flournoy’s attitudes to psychic phenomena we focus on his main work, his study of Hélène Smith (1861–1929) published in  Des Indes à la Planète Mars (1900), in which he summarized communications about previous lives in France and India, as well as those coming from the planet Mars, which Flournoy attributed to subconscious abilities involving imagination and cryptomnesia. In addition, we review his other investigations of mental mediums, observations of physical mediums, and writings about telepathy and precognition. We argue that Flournoy’s work with mental mediums made him a significant contributor to the study of the capabilities of the subconscious mind, work that was important to the theoretical concerns of both dynamic psychology and psychical research.

Theodore Flournoy 3

Théodore Flournoy

Brancaccio, M.T. (2014). Enrico Morselli’s Psychology and “Spiritism”: Psychiatry, psychology and psychical research in Italy in the decades around 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 48 (Part A), 75-84.

Abstract

This paper traces Enrico Morselli’s intellectual trajectory from the 1870s to the early 1900s. His interest in phenomena of physical mediumship is considered against the backdrop of the theoretical developments in Italian psychiatry and psychology. A leading positivist psychiatrist and a prolific academic, Morselli was actively involved in the making of Italian experimental psychology. Initially sceptical of psychical research and opposed to its association with the ‘new psychology’, Morselli subsequently conducted a study of the physical phenomena produced by the medium Eusapia Palladino. He concluded that her phenomena were genuine and represented them as the effects of an unknown bio-psychic force present in all human beings. By contextualizing Morselli’s study of physical mediumship within contemporary theoretical and disciplinary discourse, this study elaborates shifts in the interpretations of ‘supernormal’ phenomena put forward by leading Italian psychiatrists and physiologists. It demonstrates that Morselli’s interest in psychical research stems from his efforts to comprehend the determinants of complex psychological phenomena at a time when the dynamic theory of matter in physics, and the emergence of neo-vitalist theories influenced the theoretical debates in psychiatry, psychology and physiology.

Morselli Psicologia

Charet, F. X. (1993). Spiritualism and the Foundations of C.G. Jung’s Psychology. Albany: State University of New York Press.

“Charet uncovers some of the reasons why Jung’s psychology finds itself living between science and religion. He demonstrates that Jung’s early life was influenced by the experiences,beliefs, and ideas that characterized Spiritualism and that arose out of the entangled relationship that existed between science and religion in the late nineteenth century. Spiritualism, following it inception in 1848, became a movement that claimed to be a scientific religion and whose controlling belief was that the human personality survived death and could be reached through a medium in trance. The author shows that Jung’s early experiences and preoccupation with Spiritualism influenced his later ideas of the autonomy, personification, and quasi-metaphysical nature of the archetype, the central concept and one of the foundations upon which he built his psychology.” (from http://www.sunypress.edu/p-1417-spiritualism-and-the-foundation.aspx)

Carl G. Jung

Carl G. Jung

 

Coon, D. J. (1992). Testing the limits of sense and science: American experimental psychologists combat spiritualism, 1880–1920. American Psychologist, 47, 143–151.

Abstract

American psychologists faced great difficulty at the turn of the century as they tried to erect and maintain boundaries between their science and its “pseudoscientific” counterparts—spiritualism and psychic research. The public solicited their opinions regarding spiritualism, and a few psychologists wanted to conduct serious investigations of spiritualistic and psychic phenomena. However, many psychologists believed that such investigation risked the scientific reputation of their infant discipline. Because they could not readily avoid the topic, some psychologists studied spiritualistic and psychic phenomena in order to prove them fraudulent or explain them via naturalistic causes, and others developed a new subdiscipline, the psychology of deception and belief. This article argues that psychologists used their battles with spiritualists to legitimize psychology as a science and create a new role for themselves as guardians of the scientific worldview.

Crabtree, A. (1993). From Mesmer to Freud: Magnetic Sleep and the Roots of Psychological Healing. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Abstract

“The discovery of magnetic sleep—an artificially induced trance-like state—in 1784 marked the beginning of the modern era of psychological healing. Magnetic sleep revealed a realm of mental activity that was not available to the conscious mind but could affect conscious thought and action. This book tells the story of the discovery of magnetic sleep and its relationship to psychotherapy. Adam Crabtree describes how in the 1770s Franz Anton Mesmer developed a technique based on “animal magnetism,” which he felt could cure a wide variety of ailments when the healer directed “magnetic fluid” through the body of the sufferer. In 1784 Mesmer’s pupil the marquis de Puysegur attempted to heal a patient with this method and discovered that animal magnetism could also be used to induce a trance in the subject that revealed a second consciousness quite distinct from the normal waking state. Puysegur’s discovery of an alternate consciousness was taken up and elaborated by practitioners and thinkers for the next hundred years. Crabtree traces the history of the discovery of animal magnetism, shows how it was brought to bear on physical healing, and explains its relationship to paranormal phenomena, hypnotism, psychological healing, and the diagnosis and investigation of dissociative phenomena such as multiple personality. He documents how the systematic investigation of alternate consciousness reached its height in the 1880s and 1890s, fell into neglect with the appearance of psychoanalysis, and is now experiencing renewed attention as a treatment for multiple personality disorders that may arise from childhood sexual abuse.” (from: http://yalebooks.com/book/9780300055887/mesmer-freud)

Crabtree From Mesmer to Freud

Fodor, N. (1971). Freud, Jung and Occultism. New Hyde Park, NY: University Books.

An overview of Freud and Jung’s ideas of and involvement with psychic phenomena.

Junior, A. S., Araujo, S. de F., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2013). William James and psychical research: Towards a radical science of mind. History of Psychiatry, 24, 62–78.

Abstract

Traditional textbooks on the history of psychiatry and psychology fail to recognize William James’s investigations on psychic phenomena as a legitimate effort to understand the human mind. The purpose of this paper is to offer evidence of his views regarding the exploration of those phenomena as well as the radical, yet alternative, solutions that James advanced to overcome theoretical and methodological hindrances. Through an analysis of his writings, it is argued that his psychological and philosophical works converge in psychical research revealing the outline of a science of mind capable of encompassing psychic phenomena as part of human experience and, therefore, subject to scientific scrutiny.

William James 4

William James

Le Malefan, P. (1999). Folie et Spiritisme: Histoire du Discourse Psychopathologique sur la Pratique du Spiritisme, ses Abords et ses Avatars (1850–1950). Paris: L’Hartmattan.

The author documents the appearance of syndromes of spiritist delusions in French psychiatry, thus showing how Spiritism affected the study of mental health during the 19th century, and part of the 20th.

Le Malefan Folie

Le Maléfan, P., & Sommer, A. (2015). Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology. History of Psychiatry, 26, 418-432.

Abstract

Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as ‘psychic sciences’ in France, and ‘psychical research’ in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events.

Le Malefan Sommer Leon Marillier

Mauskopf, S.H., & McVaugh, M.R. (1980). The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Abstract

A study of the development of J.B. Rhine’s research in the United States. There is much information about his interaction with psychologists.

Miranda, P. (2016). Taking possession of a heritage: Psychologies of the subliminal and their pioneers. International Journal of Jungian Studies, 8, 28-45.

Abstract

This essay explores some of the theoretical repercussions of the debate concerning the growth-oriented dimension of the personality that took place in the late nineteenth-century psychologies of transcendence. This terminology refers to the various practitioners of depth psychology who emphasised multiple realities, psychic phenomena, supernormal powers, the mythopoetic function of the unconscious, and transformative mystical experiences. The French–Swiss–English–American psychotherapeutic axis, A name given by the scholar Eugene Taylor to an earlier tradition characterised by the Paris, Cambridge, Geneva/Zürich, and Boston connection, which flourished from about the 1880s to the 1920s. a ‘loose-knit alliance’ of cutting-edge scientists, investigated occult and paranormal phenomena ranging from somnambulism, hypnotic trance states, double consciousness, and multiple personalities to mediumship and pathological schizophrenic fantasies. Their insights into the complex phenomena of psychic dissociation posited a subliminal region that was not only a reservoir of trauma, but also source of a potentiality beyond normal consciousness, a notion which was continued and developed in Jung’s psychology.

Pimentel, M.G., Klaus Chaves Alberto, K.C.,  & Alexander Moreira-Almeida, A. (2016). As investigações dos fenômenos psíquicos/espirituais no século XIX: Sonambulismo e espiritualismo, 1811-1860. História, Sciência, Saúde-Manguinhos, 16, 1113-1131. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/hcsm/v23n4/0104-5970-hcsm-S0104-59702016005000010.pdf

Abstract

In the early nineteenth century, investigations into the nature of psychic/spiritual phenomena, like trances and the supposed acquisition of information unattainable using normal sensory channels, prompted much debate in the scientific arena. This article discusses the main explanations offered by the researchers of psychic phenomena reported between 1811 and 1860, concentrating on the two main movements in the period: magnetic somnambulism and modern spiritualism. While the investigations of these phenomena gave rise to multiple theories, they did not yield any consensus. However, they did have implications for the understanding of the mind and its disorders, especially in the areas of the unconscious and dissociation, constituting an important part of the history of psychology and psychiatry.

Plas, R. (2000). Naissance d’une Science Humaine: La Psychologie: Les Psychologues et le “Merveilleux Psychique.” Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.

Abstract

“At the end of the 19th century in France . . . psychology became autonomous, declared it was a science and obtained the creation of chairs. Laboratories, and journals. However, official history is very discrete about the active participation of is better known psychologists, such as Alfred Binet or Pierre Janet, in research that, in our days, is excluded from academic psychology and belongs to parapsychology” (loose translation from http://www.pur-editions.fr/detail.php?idOuv=598)

Plas Naissance

Plas, R. (2012). Psychology and psychical research in France around the end of the 19th century. History of the Human Sciences, 25, 91-107.

Abstract

During the last third of the 19th century, the ‘new’ French psychology developed within ‘the hypnotic context’ opened up by Charcot. In spite of their claims to the scientific nature of their hypnotic experiments, Charcot and his followers were unable to avoid the miracles that had accompanied mesmerism, the forerunner of hypnosis. The hysterics hypnotized in the Salpeˆtrie`re Hospital were expected to have supernormal faculties and these experiments opened the door to psychical research. In 1885 the first French psychology society was founded. The research carried out by this society may seem surprising: its members – Charles Richet in particular – were interested in strange phenomena, like magnetic lucidity, ‘mental suggestion’, thought-reading, etc. Very quickly, psychologists applied themselves to finding rational explanations for these supposedly miraculous gifts. Generally, they ascribed them to unconscious or subconscious perceptual mechanisms. Finally, after a few years, studies of psychical phenomena were excluded from the field of psychology. However, during the 4th International Congress of Psychology, which took place in Paris in 1900, the foundation of an institute devoted to the study of psychical phenomena was announced, but Pierre Janet and Georges Dumas founded within it the Société Française de Psychologie, from which psychical research was excluded. As for Charles Richet, disappointed by the psychologists, he devoted himself to the development of a new ‘science’ which he called ‘Métapsychique’. Several hypotheses have been put forward to account for this early research undertaken by the French psychologists, pertaining as much to parapsychology as to scientific psychology.

Sommer, A. (2012). Psychical research and the origins of American psychology: Hugo Münsterberg, William James, and Eusapia Palladino. History of the Human Sciences, 25, 23-44.

Abstract

Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent discipline. Analysing the celebrated exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino by German-born Harvard psychologist Hugo Münsterberg as a representative example, this article discusses strategies employed by psychologists in the United States to expel psychical research from the agenda of scientific psychology. It is argued that the traditional historiography of psychical research, dominated by accounts deeply averse to its very subject matter, has been part of an ongoing form of ‘boundary-work’ to bolster the scientific status of psychology.

Hugo Munsterberg

Hugo Münsterberg

Sommer, A. (2013). Formalizing the Supernormal: The Formation of the “Gesellschaft Für Psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), c. 1886–1890. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 49, 18–44.

Abstract

This paper traces the formation of the German “Gesellschaft für psychologische Forschung” (“Society for Psychological Research”), whose constitutive branches in Munich and Berlin were originally founded as inlets for alternatives to Wundtian experimental psychology from France and England, that is, experimental researches into hypnotism and alleged supernormal phenomena. By utilizing the career trajectories of Max Dessoir and Albert von Schrenck-Notzing as founding members of the “Gesellschaft,” this paper aims to open up novel perspectives regarding extra-scientific factors involved in historically determining the epistemological and methodological boundaries of nascent psychology in Germany.

Sommer, A. (2013). Spiritualism and the origins of modern psychology in late nineteenth-century Germany: The Wundt-Zöllner debate. In C.M. Moreman (Ed.),  The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and Around the World (Vol. 1, pp. 55-72). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Wilhelm Wundt 4

Wilhelm Wundt

 

Sommer, A. (2013). Crossing the Boundaries of Mind and Body: Psychical Research and the Origins of Modern Psychology. PhD thesis, University College of London.

Abstract

This dissertation examines the co-emergence of psychical research and modern professionalized psychology in the late nineteenth century. Questioning conservative historical accounts assuming an inherent incompatibility of these disciplines, this thesis argues that from the early 1880s to ca. 1910, it was often difficult if not impossible to draw a clear distinction between psychology and psychical research. Chapter 1 forms the integrative framework of the thesis through a historiographical review of changing attitudes to ‘occult’ properties of the mind in natural philosophy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Chapter 2 provides a study and comparison of concerns and epistemological presuppositions of the instigators and leading representatives of psychical research in England, France, Germany and the USA. Chapter 3 outlines competing methodological maxims in early experimental psychology, explores the work of the Society for Psychical Research in England and psychological societies conducting psychical research in Germany, and discusses the active involvement of the ‘father’ of modern American psychology, William James, in psychical research. Formulations of transcendental-individualistic models of unconscious or subliminal cognition by Carl du Prel in Germany and Frederic W. H. Myers in England, which informed the mature psychological thought of James in America and Théodore Flournoy in Switzerland, are discussed as landmarks in the history of concepts of the unconscious. Chapter 4 presents case studies of early professional psychologists repudiating psychical research from the territories of fledgling psychology, identifies recurring rhetorical patterns in these controversies, and connects them to wider cultural and historiographical developments studied in Chapter 1.

Takasuna, M. (2012). The Fukurai affair: Parapsychology and the history of psychology in Japan. History of the Human Sciences, 25, 14-164.

Abstract

The history of psychology in Japan from the late 19th century until the first half of the 20th century did not follow a smooth course. After the first psychological laboratory was established at Tokyo Imperial University in 1903, psychology in Japan developed as individual specialties until the Japanese Psychological Association was established in 1927. During that time, Tomokichi Fukurai, an associate professor at Tokyo Imperial University, became involved with psychical research until he was forced out in 1913. The Fukurai affair, as it is sometimes called, was not documented in textbooks on the history of Japanese psychology prior to the late 1990s. Among earlier generations of Japanese psychologists, it has even been taboo for discussion. Today, the affair and its after-effects are considered to have been a major deterrent in the advancement of clinical psychology in Japan during the first half of the 20th century.

Tomokichi Fukurai

Tomokichi Fukurai

Taves, A. (2014). A tale of two congresses: The psychological study of psychical, occult, and religious phenomena, 1900–1909.  Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 50, 376-399.

Abstract

In so far as researchers viewed psychical, occult, and religious phenomena as both objectively verifiable and resistant to extant scientific explanations, their study posed thorny issues for experimental psychologists. Controversies over the study of psychical and occult phenomena at the Fourth Congress of International Psychology (Paris, 1900) and religious phenomena at the Sixth (Geneva, 1909) raise the question of why the latter was accepted as a legitimate object of study, whereas the former was not. Comparison of the Congresses suggests that those interested in the study of religion were willing to forego the quest for objective evidence and focus on experience, whereas those most invested in psychical research were not. The shift in focus did not overcome many of the methodological difficulties. Sub-specialization formalized distinctions between psychical, religious, and pathological phenomena; obscured similarities; and undercut the nascent comparative study of unusual experiences that had emerged at the early Congresses.

Timms, J. (2012). Phantasms of Freud: Nandor Fodor and the psychoanalytic approach to the supernatural in interwar Britain. Psychoanalysis and History, 14, 5-27.

Abstract

The paper examines the appearance of “psychoanalytic psychical research” in interwar Britain, notably in the work of Nandor Fodor, Harry Price and others, including R. W. Pickford and Sylvia Payne. The varying responses of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones to the area of research are discussed. These researches are placed in the context of the increasingly widespread use of psychoanalytic and psychological interpretations of psychical events in the period, which in turn reflects the penetration of psychoanalysis into popular culture. The saturation of psychical research activity with gender and sexuality and the general fascination with, and embarrassment about, psychical activity is explored.

Nandor Fodor 3

Nandor Fodor

Valentine, E.R. (2012). Spooks and spoofs: Relations between psychical research and academic psychology in Britain in the inter-war period. History of the Human Sciences, 25, 67-90.

Abstract

This article describes the relations between academic psychology and psychical research in Britain during the inter-war period, in the context of the fluid boundaries between mainstream psychology and both psychical research and popular psychology. Specifically, the involvement with Harry Price of six senior academic psychologists: William McDougall, William Brown, J. C. Flugel, Cyril Burt, C. Alec Mace and Francis Aveling, is described. Personal, metaphysical and socio-historical factors in their collaboration are discussed. It is suggested that the main reason for their mutual attraction was their common engagement in a delicate balancing act between courting popular appeal on the one hand and the assertion of scientific expertise and authority on the other. Their interaction is typical of the boundary work performed at this transitional stage in the development of psychology as a discipline.

Zingrone, N. L. (2010). From Text to Self: The Interplay of Criticism and Response in the History of Parapsychology. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.

The thesis examines the history of criticism and response in scientific parapsychology by bringing together the tools of history, rhetoric of science, and discursive psychology to examine texts generated in the heat of controversy. Previous analyses of the controversy at hand have been conducted by historians and sociologists of science, focusing on the professionalisation of the discipline, its philosophical and religious underpinnings, efforts of individual actors in the history of the community, and on the social forces which constrict and restrict both the internal substantive progress of the field and its external relations with the wider scientific community. The present study narrows the problem domain from the English-language literature —- an extensive database of over 1500 books and articles —- to the following: (1) a brief history of the development of the field in the U. K. and the U. S. that includes a survey of previous reviews of the controversy; (2) a specific controversy that extended over a 10-year period in the mid-twentieth century; and (3) a solicited debate on parapsychology with two target articles, 48 commentaries, and 3 responses published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences. The thesis is comprised of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the goals and methods of the thesis are described, previous considerations of controversy and closure in science studies are reviewed, the notion of closure is discussed, and the thesis content is described. In Chapter 2, a brief history of the field is provided which emphasises the broad structure and content of the field rather than specific methodology, results, or theory. In Chapter 3, previous reviews of the controversy are examined to provide a sense of the controversy terrain and to examine the extent to which what Gilbert and Mulkay (1984) have called ‘‘contingent’’ and ‘‘empiricist’’ repertoires have been used in criticisms and response. In Chapter 4, case studies on parapsychology that appeared in the science studies literature are reviewed. Rhetoric of science is introduced as a domain from which analytic tools for the present research are drawn. In Chapter 5, a case study tests the hypothesis that differences in style and structure in the two volumes that bracket the most important controversy in the history of American experimental parapsychology may have contributed to the scope and persistence of the controversy. The controversy extended from 1934 to 1944, beginning with the publication of the monograph Extra-sensory Perception (Rhine, 1934) and ending with the publication of Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years (Pratt, Rhine, Smith, Stuart & Greenwood, 1940). In Chapter 6, I justify a turn towards the methodology of discourse analysis by reviewing both the antecedents of modern discursive psychology, and methods that are currently in use. I also review Mulkay’s (1985) The Word and The World as a prelude to the case study in the next chapter. In Chapter 7, a subset of the methods available in discourse analysis, particularly the concepts of formulation, category entitlement and footing are used to analyse a target article, 48 commentaries and two responses to the commentaries that center on James Alcock’s contentions that parapsychology is the search for the soul and that dualism as a philosophical position is incommensurate with science. I show how Alcock’s use of the contingent repertoire in characterising science practise in parapsychology undermines his authority as a scientific interlocutor, and obscures, to some extent, the substantive message he intended his target article to carry. Chapter 8 concludes the thesis by restating the findings of the three methods used, examining the limited use of the methods in this thesis and outlining what a more extended study with the same and/or related materials would look like, while describing other potentially fruitful research that might be done. How these methods should and may contribute to science practise in parapsychology is also discussed with a particular emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of the discipline and the need for a more complete reflexivity.

Zingrone From Text to Self

*I dedicate this series of blogs to the memory of Gerd H. Hövelmann, whose bibliographies of current publications have inspired many of us.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I recently reviewed in an article some old ideas about psychic phenomena and the brain hemispheres. This was an article entitled: “Psychic Phenomena and the Brain Hemispheres: Some nineteenth-century publications” (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2016, 30, 559–585; available from the author carlos@theazire.org).

In the article I summarize the ideas of various authors, among them Catherine Crowe,     F.W.H. Myers, and Cesare Lombroso. They wrote in a historical context. As I stated in the paper:

“The rapid development of neurology in the Nineteenth Century led to an interest in physiological explanations for psychic phenomena and related psychological anomalies such as mediumistic and hypnotic trance, and hysterical dissociation . . . Among the hypotheses presented to explain reports of alleged psychic phenomena, particularly those reported to occur in the presence of mediums, one group of physicians offered a variety of neurologically and psychophysiologically based notions.”

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Photo of Brain, in W. Fuller, Architecture of the Brain (1896)

These developments included what was learned about localization of sensory and motor functions. Particularly important was the work about aphasia (see Reader in the History of Aphasia  and this article.

brocca-aphasia-paper-original-first-page

Paul Broca, “Remarques sur le Siège de la Faculté du Langage Articulé, Suivies d’une Observation d’Aphémie (Perte de la Parole)” [Comments About the Seat of the Faculty of Articulated Language, Followed by an Observation of Aphemia (Loss of Speech)]. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique de Paris, 1861, 36, 330-357.

bastian-treatise-aphasia

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Aphasia Diagram from Bastian’s Book (Above)

“Interest in the brain and in the functions of the hemispheres also flourished during these times. Although some researchers defended a unitary or an equipotential view of the functions of the cerebral cortex . . . , the emphasis on localization began to be more widely accepted with the development of clinical and experimental neurology . . .”

In spite of much controversy, the idea of hemispheric dominance developed, leading to the “acceptance of the concept of left hemispheric dominance and the right hemisphere as the minor one . . . However, and regardless of dominance, the concept of duality of the brain was a popular subject for discussion during the Nineteenth Century”, as seen in speculations about education, disease and other topics. A famous early work of the period was Arthur Ladbroke Wigan’s A New View of Insanity: The Duality of the Mind  (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844).

 wigan-a-new-view-of-insanity

English novelist Catherine Crowe was familiar with Wigan’s ideas but, as I wrote, she rejected his “speculations about déjà vu and pointed out that presentiments of future things were particularly difficult to explain in this way.” Crowe stated: “The theory of one-half of the brain in a negative state, serving as a mirror to the other half, if admitted at all, may answer as well, or better, for those waking presentiments, than for clear-seeing in dreams.” She wrote about this in her famous book The Night-Side of Nature (London: T.C. Newby, 1848, Vol. 1).

catherine-crowe

Catherine Crowe

crowe-night-side-of-nature

Myers also wrote about the topic in relation to automatic writing. “He considered the similarities between ‘supernormal’ automatic writing and the ‘writing performed by patients who have . . . only the partially untrained half of the brain to rely on,—those centres which habitually initiate the graphic energy having been destroyed or rendered temporarily useless by accident or disease’. . . This is what many clinicians called agraphia, but which Myers preferred to call agraphy. In making this comparison, Myers pointed out that in both conditions the subject was occasionally unable to write and that sometimes repetition of letters or senseless words appeared. Transposition of letters and mirror writing were also considered as pointers to right-hemispheric action in writing problems . . .”

by Eveleen Myers (nÈe Tennant), albumen print, late 1890s

Frederic W.H. Myers

myers-automatic-writing-pspr-1885

F.W.H. Myers, “Automatic Writing—II.” by Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1885, 3, 1–63.

These are only some of Myers ideas. His writings have much more detail, which is also the case with other writers I will not discuss here who touched on the relationship between the hemispheres and mediumship.

I concluded:

“The ideas discussed here may be considered an interesting but forgotten chapter of the history of hemispheric functions and attempts to explain or find physiological correlates of psychic phenomena. They were certainly influenced by the Nineteenth Century interest in finding specific cerebral localizations of diverse functions, and particularly by concepts and discussions on the duality of the brain . . .  While these ideas may be interpreted as part of the trend of Nineteenth Century science to conceptualize the phenomena of consciousness in natural terms, it was also an example of how spiritualists and psychical researchers appropriated neurological concepts as part of the workings of the supernormal . . . Of the examples discussed here, Myers is of special interest in that he attempted to put his speculations into the context of knowledge of aphasia and agraphia in the 1880s.”

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here is a new article about conceptual aspects of research:

Alexander Moreira-Almeida and Francisco Lotufo-Neto, “Methodological Guidelines to Investigate Altered States of Consciousness and Anomalous Experiences”   (International Review of Psychiatry, 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2017.1285555).

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Alexander Moreira-Almeida

francisco-lotufo-neto

Francisco Lotufo Neto

Here is the abstract:

“Anomalous experiences (AE) (uncommon experiences or one that is believed to deviate from the usually accepted explanations of reality: hallucinations, synesthesia, experiences interpreted as telepathic…) and altered states of consciousness (ASC) have been described in all societies of all ages. Even so, scientists have long neglected the studies on this theme. To study AE and ASC is not necessary to share the beliefs we explore, they can be investigated as subjective experiences and correlated with other data, like any other human experience. This article presents some methodological guidelines to investigate these experiences, among them: to avoid dogmatic prejudice and to ‘pathologize’ the unusual; the value of a theory and a comprehensive literature review; to utilize a variety of criteria for pathology and normality; the investigation of clinical and non-clinical populations; development of new appropriate research instruments; to be careful to choose the wording to describe the AE; to distinguished the lived experience from its interpretations; to take into account the role of culture; to evaluate the validity and reliability of reports and, last but not least, creativity and diversity in choosing methods.”

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

While there are earlier accounts of Palladino’s mediumship, probably the most important of the early investigations were those conducted by what has been called the Milan Commission. These sittings took place at Milan in 1892 and were first published in the newspaper Italia del Popolo. They were important due to the men involved in the investigation, individuals such as once Councilor to the Czar, Alexander Aksakof (1832-1903), and others such as  astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910), philosophers Angelo Brofferio (1846-1894) and Carl du Prel (1839-1899), and physicists Giuseppe Gerosa (1857-1910), Giorgio Finzi (1868-1958) and Giovanni Battista Ermacora (1858-1898). In some seances both physiologist Charles Richet (1850-1935), and psychiatrist Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) were also present.

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Giovanni Schiaparelli

aksakof

Alexander Aksakof

carl-du-prel-3

Carl du Prel

Charles Richet 10

Charles Richet

The séances were also published in other places, such as in the influential Annales des Sciences Psychiques (Aksakof, A., Schiaparelli, G., du Prel, C., Brofferio, A., Gerosa, G., Ermacora, G. B., & Finzi, G. (1893). Rapport de la commission réunie à Milan pour l’étude des phénomènes psychiques [Report of the commission gathered at Milan to study psychic phenomena]. Annales des Sciences Psychiques, 3, 39–64). Here I am using the English translation that appeared in the Psychical Review (The psychical experiments at Milan. Psychical Review, 1893, 2, 45-64).

aksakof-et-al-asp-ep

The report was divided in two sections, observations with good lighting and in darkness. Below I present part of the introduction of the report and the section of phenomena observed when the séance room was illuminated. Notice that the translation in the Psychical Review uses the word “psychic” to refer to Palladino, while the French report in the Annales des Sciences Psychiques uses the word “medium.”

“We held in all seventeen sittings . . . The psychic, who was invited to come to these sittings by Professor Aksakow, was presented by Signor Chiaia, who was present at only a third of the sittings, and generally during the first and least important part of them …”

“Before entering upon the subject, however, it will be well to say at once that the results of the experiments did not always correspond to our expectations. Not that we have not had, in great abundance, facts which were apparently or really important and marvellous; but in the greater number of cases it was impossible for us to apply to the same those rules of experimental art which in other fields of experiment are considered necessary for arriving at sure and incontestable results. Among these rides, one which is most important is to vary, one by one, the circumstances of experiment in such a way as to isolate the true causes, or at least the true conditions, of every fact. Now it is precisely in this regard that our experiments seem to us only too deficient. It is true that many times the psychic, in order to prove her good faith, spontaneously offered to change certain details of the experiments, and from time to time introduced such changes of her own accord; but these were concerning circumstances which were of trifling importance according to our way of thinking. On the other hand, the changes which in our judgment seemed necessary, in order to remove every doubt, were either not accepted by the psychic, or, if they were put into effect, resulted usually in rendering the experiment null, or at least were conducive to results which were not clear.”

“We do not consider ourselves as having the right to interpret this fact by injurious suppositions, which to many seems the simplest way. We think, rather, that this has to do with phenomena of an unknown nature, and confess that we do not know the necessary conditions for their production . . . Admitting all this . . . , the fact still remains that the said impossibility of varying the experiments as we wished singularly diminished the value and interest of the experiments performed, taking away, in many cases, that demonstrative rigor to which in facts of this nature we have the right and also the duty to aspire. Therefore, in many cases, ours were not true experiments, but simply observations of that which happened under given circumstances, not fixed, indeed not wished for, by us.”

“For that reason we will not mention those experiments which seemed to us not to be sufficiently demonstrated, and we will touch lightly upon those regarding which the conclusions could easily be diverse among the various investigators. We will note more minutely the circumstances in those where, in spite of the obstacles above mentioned, it seems to us we have arrived at a degree of certainty.”

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Palladino with Aksakof at Milan, 1892

“I. PHENOMENA OBSERVED IN THE LIGHT.”

“1. Inexplicable mechanical movements with only direct contact with the hands.”

“(a.) Lifting of a table laterally beneath the hands of the psychic seated at one of its ends.”

“We employed for this experiment a pine table, three feet seven inches long, two feet eight inches in height, weighing twenty pounds. Among the several movements of the table, by which answers to questions were given, it was impossible not to observe especially the motion made during the raps; two legs of the table were raised simultaneously beneath the hands of the psychic, without the slightest preceding lateral oscillation of the table, forcibly, rapidly, and several times in succession, as if the table had been glued to the psychic’s hands — a motion more remarkable from the fact that the psychic was always seated at one end of the table, and we did not release her hands and feet for an instant. As this phenomenon is produced usually with the greatest ease, to observe it better we, on the evening of October 3, left the psychic alone at the table, with both her hands above it completely, and her sleeves rolled to the elbow. We stood around the table, and the space above it and below it was brightly illuminated. Under these conditions the table raised itself to an angle of thirty or forty degrees and remained in that position several minutes, while the psychic held her legs stretched out and beat her feet one against the other. Then producing a pressure with our hands upon the raised side of the table, we felt a very considerable elastic resistance.”

“(b.) Measure of force applied in raising the table laterally.”

“For this experiment the table was suspended by one of its ends to a dynamometer attached to a rope fastened to a small beam which rested upon two wardrobes. If the end of the table was lifted to a height of six inches, the dynamometer indicated a pressure of about eight pounds. The psychic was seated at that end of the table with her hands completely above it, at the right and at the left of the point at which the dynamometer was attached. Our hands made a chain upon the table without making a pressure upon it; for that matter our .hands could not in any case have acted in any way except to augment the pressure exerted upon the table. The wish was expressed that the pressure should diminish, and soon the table began to raise itself up- from the side of the dynamometer. Signor Gerosa, who was watching the indicator, announced the diminutions marked by the successive indications, as seven, five, three pounds, and then nothing, after which the lifting was such that the dynamometer rested upon the table horizontally.”

“Then we reversed the conditions, placing our hands under the table, the psychic putting her hands not only under the edge of the table, where she would have been able to touch the framework of it and exert an action from below, but even underneath the framework uniting the legs. She did not touch this with the palms of the hands, but with the backs of them. Thus none of the hands could have done other than diminish the tension upon the dynamometer. Having expressed the wish that the tension should increase instead of diminish, very soon Signor Gerosa informed us that the indications marked an increase from eight to fifteen pounds. During the whole of the experiment both feet of the psychic were under the feet of those at the right and at the left of her.”

Drawing sitters with EP

“(c.) Complete lifting of the table.”

“It was natural to conclude that if the table could lift itself on one side, against every law of gravity, it could also lift itself entirely. In fact this occurred. This lifting is one of the most common phenomena with Eusapia, and permits the most satisfactory examination. It is produced usually under the following conditions. The persons seated around the table laid their hands upon it, forming a chain. Each of the psychic’s hands was held by the hands of those seated next her, and each foot under the foot of her neighbor. More than that, they pressed her knees with theirs. As usual, the psychic was seated at the end of the table, the position most unfavorable to raising it mechanically. In a few moments the table made a movement laterally; it lifted itself to the right and then to the left, and finally raised itself completely, with its four legs in the air horizontally, as if floating in a liquid, to a height of from four to eight inches (at times from twenty-four to twenty-eight inches), then fell to the floor on its four legs simultaneously. Sometimes it remained in the air several seconds and made fluctuating movements, during which we could examine thoroughly the position of the feet beneath it. During the lifting of the table the right hand of the psychic often left the table, locked in that of her neighbor, and remained in the air above it. Throughout the experiment the face of the psychic was contorted, the hands contracted, she groaned and seemed to suffer, as was usually the case when a phenomenon was about to take place.”

“In order to examine better the facts in question, we withdrew from the table one by one, having discovered that the chain of hands on the table was no longer necessary, either in this or other phenomena. Finally there was but one person left at the table with the psychic. That person rested his foot upon both Eusapia’s feet, and placed one hand upon her knetfs. With his other hand he held the left hand of the psychic. Her right hand was laid on the table in plain sight, or even raised above it in the air while the table was elevated.”

“As the table remained in the air for several seconds, it was possible to take a number of photographs of the phenomenon. Up to this time this had never been done. Three photographic outfits acted at the same time in different parts of the room. The light necessary was produced by a magnesium light thrown on at the opportune moment. There were twenty-one photographs obtained, several of which were excellent. In one of them, the first one made, Professor Richet is seen holding one hand, one foot, and the knees of the psychic; her other hand is held by Professor Lombroso. The table is being raised horizontally, which is shown by the space between the extremity of each leg and the extremity of its respective shadow.”

“In all the preceding experiments our chief attention was turned to controlling the hands and feet of the psychic, and as regards them we feel ourselves able to say that they played no part in the phenomena. Nevertheless, for the sake of exactness, we cannot pass over a fact which became evident to us only on the fifth of October, but which probably existed in the previous experiments also. It consists in this, that all four of the legs of the table could not be said to be entirely isolated during the raising of the table, for at least one of them came in contact with the dress of the psychic. On that evening we noticed that, shortly before the elevation of the table, the left side of the skirt of Eusapia’s gown began to puff out so that it touched the table leg. One of us having tried to prevent such contact, the table did not rise as usual, and we found that it did so only when the observer allowed such contact. This is seen in the photograph taken from that side, and also in those where the leg in question is visible in its lower extremity. It is noticeable that at the same time the hand of the psychic is placed on the surface of the table on that side, so that that part of the table was under the influence of the psychic from the lower portion by means of the gown as well as from the upper part by means of her hand. Nothing could be verified as to the degree of pressure exerted by the hand of the psychic at that moment upon the table, nor was it possible to discover, the elevation of the table being so brief, what part the simple contact of the gown (which appeared to be applied laterally) could have had in sustaining the weight of the table. We tried to avoid the contact of the gown by requiring the psychic and all others at the table to stand up, but the experiment did not succeed. We proposed putting the psychic at one of the long sides of the table, but the psychic opposed this, saying it was impossible. We are obliged, therefore, to acknowledge that we did not succeed in obtaining a complete uplifting of the table, with all four of its legs absolutely free from contact, and there is reason to fear that an analogous difficulty may have taken place in the lifting of the two legs which were on the side of the psychic.”

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Seance at Milan, 1892 Standing: Angelo Brofferio, Sitting: Carl du Prel

“In what manner the contact of a thin gown with a leg of a table (at the lower part of it, moreover) would be able to aid in the lifting of the table we are not able to say. The hypothesis that the gown may have hidden a solid prop, introduced to serve as a momentary support to the leg of the table, is not plausible. To maintain the entire table held up on that one leg by means of an attrition which a single hand can make applied on the upper surface of a table would require that the hand should exert an enormous pressure, such as we are not able to believe Eusapia could exert, even for three or four seconds. Of this we are convinced by attempts made by us upon the same table. The only movements of the table not subject to this cause of uncertainty are those where the two legs of the table most distant from the medium are lifted; but this kind of movement is easily produced by a light pressure of the hands of the psychic on the sides of the table next her, and it is not possible to give to this the slightest demonstrative value. The same may be said of the lateral lifting of it on the legs to the right or left of the psychic, which she could produce by the pressure of even one hand.”

“(d.) Variation of pressure exerted by the whole body of the psychic seated upon a balance.”

“This experiment was very interesting, voluntary or involuntary, but very difficult, because, as can easily be understood, every movement of the psychic upon the platform of the scales would cause an oscillation of the platform and also of the steelyard. In order to have the experiment conclusive, it would be necessary that the steelyard, when it had changed position, should remain stationary for a few seconds, to permit one to suspend the weights on the steelyard for measuring. With this hope we made the attempt. The psychic was made to sit upon a chair placed upon the platform of the scales, and we found that the weight marked for both was one hundred and sixty-three pounds. After a few oscillations there occurred a decided descent of the steelyard, which lasted several seconds, and which allowed Signor Gerosa to measure the weight immediately. It indicated one hundred and thirty pounds-—-that is to say, a diminution of thirty-three pounds. The desire being expressed that the opposite phenomenon should occur, the extreme end of the steelyard immediately arose, indicating an augmentation of twenty-five pounds. This experiment was repeated several times and at five different sittings. Once it did not succeed, but the last time a registering apparatus enabled us to obtain two curves of the phenomenon. We tried to produce the same deflections ourselves, and were not able to produce them except by several of us standing on the platform and bearing first on one, then on the other side of it near the edge, swaying our bodies violently, a movement which we never saw in the psychic, and which was impossible in her position on the chair. Notwithstanding, we recognize that the experiment cannot be said to be absolutely satisfactory until we complete it with what will be described in 3 c.”

“In this experiment with the scales it was noticed also that its success seemed to depend upon the contact of the psychic’s dress with the floor upon which the scales were placed. This was verified with an opposite experiment on the evening of October 9. The psychic was placed upon the scales. The one of us who was appointed to watch her feet saw the lower folds of her dress swelling out and protruding over the edge of the platform. Whenever we tried to prevent this (which was certainly not produced by the feet of the medium), the levitation did not take place; but as soon as we permitted the hem of the dress to touch the floor, the repeated levitations took place and were marked by broad curves on the registering dial. Once we tried the levitation of the psychic, placing her upon a broad pallet, extended upon the platform. The pallet prevented the contact of the dress with the floor, and the experiment did not succeed.”

“Finally, on the evening of October 13, another balance was prepared, a Roman balance, with the platform isolated completely from the floor, and distant from it one foot. Carefully watching, and not permitting contact of any sort between the platform and the floor, not even by means of the hem of Eusapia’s dress, the experiment failed. On the other hand, in similar circumstances, a slight result seemed to be obtained on October 18, but on that occasion the experiment was not certain, there being a chance that the mantle which Eusapia requested should be wrapped about her head and shoulders had touched the arm of the balance during the incessant agitation of the psychic. We conclude, therefore, that no levitation succeeded with us while the psychic
was completely isolated from the floor.”

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Levitation of Table at Milan, 1892. Sitting: Lombroso (left) and Richet

“2. Mechanical movements with indirect contact of the psychic’s hands, so arranged as to render any mechanical action by her impossible.”

“(a.) Horizontal movement of the table with the psychic’s hands upon a small board on three balls, or on four wheels, which were placed between the board and table.”

“For this difficult but conclusive experiment the feet of the table were provided with rollers. A board twelve inches wide and fifteen inches long was placed on three wooden balls about one and one half inches in diameter, which were placed on the table. The psychic was asked to put her hands on the middle of the board. Her sleeves were rolled to the elbows; those seated beside her placed their feet on her feet and their knees against hers, thus forming, with their legs and those of the psychic, two angles, in the opening of which the two legs of the table stood isolated. Under these conditions the table moved several times, forwards and backwards, to the right and left, parallel to itself, four to ten inches, together with the board which, although on the balls, appeared to be of a piece with the table. In a second experiment of the same kind, the balls, which in the former experiment easily escaped from under the board, were replaced by four movable wheels fastened to the four corners of the board, which gave greater stability without making the movements more difficult. The results were the same as before.”

“(b.) Lateral raising of the table with a board on three balls, or four wheels, interposed between it and the psychic’s hands.”

“This phenomenon, obtained in the first experiment, was repeated with the board on wheels under the conditions stated above. The table rose laterally on the side of the psychic and under her hand, together with the board on the balls or wheels, to a height of four to six inches, without any displacement of the board, and fell again with it. By these experiments, irrefutable proof was obtained that lateral and vertical movements of the table can take place independently of any force whatsoever from the hands of the psychic. In these experiments, the control was limited to that of the hands and feet of the psychic, and as the table was surrounded by several persons, there was no opportunity of seeing whether there was any contact of the legs of the table with the psychic’s skirt, which in the other experiments was found to be a necessary condition of success. The same observation is applicable to the experiment described below in 3 b. To remove every trace of doubt in this respect, a covering of pasteboard was prepared which enveloped the psychic and her chair, in the form of a vertical cylinder, and prevented any external contact with the floor up to a height of about two feet. As soon as the psychic saw this, however, she declared that standing in it would take away all her power, and we were therefore forced to give it up. We made use of it a single time, but under circumstances which rendered its use of no particular value.”

  1. Movement of objects at a distance without any contact with the persons present.

“(a.) Spontaneous movements of objects.”

“These phenomena were observed on several occasions during the sittings. Often a chair placed for this purpose, not far from the table, between the psychic and her neighbor, began to move and approached the table. A remarkable instance occurred during the second sitting. This took place in full light. A chair weighing twenty-five pounds, which was at a distance of a yard behind the psychic, approached Signor Schiaparelli, who was sitting near the psychic. He arose and put it back in its former place, but when he was seated again the chair came up to him a second time.”

“(b.) Movement of the table without contact.”

“It was desirable to obtain this phenomenon experimentally. For this purpose the table was placed on rollers, the feet of the medium were controlled as stated in 2 a, and all present made a chain of hands, including those of the psychic. When the table began to move, all raised their hands without breaking the chain, and the table alone by itself made several movements as in the
second experiment. This experiment was repeated several times.”

“(c.) Movement of the steelyard of the scales.”

“After having noted the influence that the body of the psychic exerted upon the scales while seated on it, it was interesting to see if this could be effected while she was at a distance. To that end the scales were placed behind the back of the psychic, seated at the table, in such a way that the platform came to within about four inches of her chair. First we placed the hem of her dress in contact with the platform. The steelyard began to move. Professor Brofferio got down upon the floor and held the hem of the dress with his hand, but ascertaining that there was not the least tension, he resumed his seat. The movement of the balance continuing with much force, Professor Aksakow got down upon the floor behind the psychic, took the dress away entirely from the platform, and assured himself with his hands that there was nothing between the platform and her chair, nevertheless the steelyard continued to beat violently against the restraining crosspieces. This we all saw and heard.”

“A second time the same experiment was performed, at the sitting of September 26, in the presence of Professor Richet. In a few minutes the steelyard began to move in full view of all, and was beating violently against the bars, whereupon Professor Richet immediately left his place near the psychic and assured himself by passing his hand in the air and on the floor between the psychic and the platform that all that space was free from any communication either by a thread or any other contrivance.”

“4. Raps and reproductions of sounds in the table.”

“These raps were always produced during the sittings to signify “Yes” or “No.” Sometimes they were loud and distinct and seemed to resound in the wood of the table; but, as is well known, it is very difficult to localize a sound, and we could not try any experiments in this direction, except by making rhythmical raps and various rubbing sounds on the table, which seemed to be faintly reproduced inside of the table.”

In the conclusion it was stated:

“In making public this brief and incomplete account of our experiences, we must again express our convictions, namely: —”

“1. That, under the circumstances given, none of the manifestations obtained in a more or less intense light could have been produced by any artifice whatever.”

“2. That the same conviction can be affirmed in regard to the greater number of the phenomena taking place in darkness.:

“For the rest, we recognize that from a strictly scientific point of view our experiments still leave much to be desired. They were undertaken without the possibility of our knowing what we should need, and the instruments and different appliances which we were obliged to use had to be improvised. Nevertheless, that which we have seen and verified is sufficient in our eyes to prove that these phenomena are most worthy of scientific attention.”

Richet published a separate account of his experiences in the Milan seances: “Expériences de Milan” (Annales des Sciences Psychiques, 1893, 3, 1–31). He was impressed by some of his experiences, but still had doubts. He wrote: “However, the formal proof, irrefutable, that this is not a fraud on the part of Eusapia and an illusion on our part, this formal proof is lacking.”

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Richet’s Article in the Annales des Sciences Psychiques, 1893

Carl du Prel also published a discussion of the séances: “Der Kampf un den Spiritismus in Mailand.” (Psychische Studien, 1892, 19, 546-566).

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Those of you familiar with the history of the Parapsychology Foundation (PF, click here and here) are aware of the rich heritage this organization has and of its contributions to parapsychology. Usually the emphasis of discussions about the PF is its founder, Eileen J. Garrett,  and secondarily, with its second President, Eileen Coly.

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Eileen J. Garrett, PF Founder and First President

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Eileen Coly, Second PF President

My emphasis here, however, is on the organization’s third and current President, Lisette Coly  (granddaughter of Garrett and daughter of Coly). I have known Lisette for many years. The first time I met her was in one of the Parapsychological Association conventions. My wife Nancy L. Zingrone and I worked for the Parapsychology Foundation (PF) since 1999, and we came to New York City to work at the Foundation when Lisette was its Vice-President and Mrs. Eileen Coly was its President.

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Mrs. Coly with Her Daughter Lisette Coly. Video Still From Susan MacWilliams’ The Only Way to Travel

Many were the projects Nancy and I worked on at the PF, some things we are still doing now. In the process, we greatly enjoyed the working relationship Mrs. Coly and Lisette had. I have written elsewhere about Mrs. Coly. Here I would like to place on record the great energy and creativity Lisette always showed, something that she continues to show to this day. There is no question that she is the moving force within the PF today, a force that keeps a balance between PF tradition and new developments, and that is sensitive to the ideas of those around her.

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Lisette Coly

I think this interview is appropriate considering the recent anniversary of the PF. Readers will appreciate the achievements of the PF from an article all of us wrote together a few years back. I asked Lisette in the interview to comment on some of these aspects.

Interview

1. Please summarize the history of PF before you became President.

The PF literally started as a hypnagogic revelation when Eileen J. Garrett describes in her book, Many Voices, that on the periphery of sleep  she heard a voice telling her to get well and build an edifice that would honor the subject that she had devoted her life.  She set to work and in December 1951 the PF came to life. Its early days saw her trying to corral researchers and academicians from diverse disciplines to work in the science of parapsychology.

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With a publications program and an international conference program and building the library that came to be named for her, I believe she did just that and over the years these programs have been augmented and for the most part exist today. For more information about the “wonders” of Parapsychology Foundation I would urge going to our main website.

2. How did you start working at the PF.

It surprises me that I have in hindsight spent my lifetime at PF while  immersed in parapsychology. The immersion is understandable having grown up in my grandmother Eileen J. Garrett’s orbit. As a child and teen the house was invariably full of Garrett’s friends and associates such as Eric Dingwall, Aldous Huxley, Emilio Servadio, never forgetting  PF’s co-founder,  the Honorable Frances P. Bolton,  who was like a second grandmother to me.

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Frances P. Bolton

Frequent visits to the then PF offices at 29 West 57th Street while growing up cemented cherished life-long relationships with others such as Drs. Lawrence LeShan, Ian Stevenson,   and the Rhine family.  My attendance and later coordination of our then  annual PF international  conferences afforded me the benefit of good counsel and revered  friendship with  Drs.  Charles Tart, William Roll, Robert Van de Castle, Stanley Krippner, and with so many others that I have been fortunate to count on for support as I grew to maturity and assumed greater responsibilities.

While at university I was interested in pursuit of a career in  the diplomatic service but had my head turned by sojourns and travels with Garrett in Europe and in the South of France at the then PF  European headquarters at Le Piol in St. Paul de Vence the home of many of PF’s  international conferences.

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PF Meeting at Le Piol in St. Paul de Vence, France

She urged me to leave my classes and take business courses and hone secretarial skills and then with those tools at hand just dig into something that interested me. Garrett seemingly set her net well as I became ensnared by my own interest in the field and recognition that the PF was of value. Garrett envisioned me to be of assistance to my mother, Eileen Coly, who she worried might well be left “holding the bag” in administering the PF at her death with an eye to PF’s continual operation.

I started on staff as the Editorial Assistant but in reality was the grunt of the office in February 1969 with a myriad of chores such as  manning the PBX telephone board—if anyone remembers that relic—as well as taking dictation from Garrett and Allan Angoff, along with tasks such as library book  shelving, filing and stamping mail, all the while working the mimeograph machine and, more often than not, covered in purple ink.

At Garrett’s death in 1970, stating always that I was leaving in six months-time, I realized the value of my education as I was trying to hold my own with academicians and researchers the world over and hence went on to get my BA from Hunter College while working at the PF.  Those were early heady days for me getting to know the leading lights of parapsychology and personalities such as Salvador Dali and assorted other visitors vying for face time with Garrett.  In retrospect perhaps I did assuage my interest in international diplomacy albeit in parapsychology.

3. How would you describe the work that EJG and EC did at the PF?

To answer that question I think it easiest to view the body of work that each accomplished while leading the PF along with a comparison of their personalities which is very telling.  Eileen J. Garrett was the flamboyant multi-faceted trance medium, author and entrepreneur who with her magnetic personality was able to not only draw people to the subject, but thanks to our co-founder Frances P. Bolton’s generosity, to support her vision not only for the organization but truly for the entire field.  I have heard her described in a multitude of ways  referred to as “catnip” or as a python who, once in her presence, rendered her audience positively groggy and eager to join what for her was a crusade to have psychical research taken out of the murky often suspect séance room and out into the clean air of scientific exploration.  She was on the vanguard of parapsychological research coming out of post World War II’s aftermath and she set the agenda and tone for what PF would grow to become.

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My mother, Eileen Coly, came to serve as President in l970 at the death of her mother, in the midst  of the flowering  of the so-called Occult/New Age Movement which was problematic to say the least. As Eileen Coly often laughingly remarked, creative whirlwinds, referencing Garrett, are exciting and dynamic but incredibly messy to clean up after. I believe it took my cool, unflappable and highly practical mother to calmly take the reins and set PF on a secure and structured path. Impartial, as the PF holds no corporate views, Coly was intensely interested in the plight of our researchers who for the large part are sadly unfunded and unrecognized. At heart she was most interested in education, both academic to grow the future of the science, but  also education to  inform  the public at large, who is often misled and confused by misrepresentations as to what the psychic world and parapsychology really define, to promote a better understanding of the psychic elements inherent  in our lives.

These two highly individual personalities not only benefited the growth and continuance of the Parapsychology Foundation  but  also  my own attempts at leadership, as I have been able to draw upon their diverse leadership styles and skill sets while currently managing the organization.  Eileen Garrett certainly gets the credit for creating PF, but Eileen Coly who served as our President much longer than our founder, is the one who has done the most to support the field during her tenure. Both Presidents held fast to the mission of the PF which I myself attempt to maintain.

4. What do you do as PF President?

Simply put I do a little of everything and act as the guardian of the PF flame. Whereas it is understandable that I would seek to continue a tradition maintaining the organization established by my grandmother as in justifiable pride in a family endeavor, I am at heart committed as those who went before me to get answers to the questions raised by psychic functioning that continue to elude us.  In finding if not answers at least a greater understanding of the psychic elements in our lives, it is imperative that our researchers, academicians and students of all rank be supported if not purely financially but in any manner open to us.

Following the financial reverses which very nearly saw the demise of the organization in 2008  I was forced to cut back drastically and very regretfully on our programs. A difficult time,  in hindsight, it was  productive to be forced to really examine our past and determine where and how to best lead the organization in the future. Technology has played a large part in the changes in “how” the PF continues our mission of remaining a worldwide forum for the exploration of psychic phenomena, but the founding vision remains true.

It is a labor of love, well worth the effort, to maintain the Garrett Research Library in Greenport, New York.  It is difficult but rewarding for me to drive the two hours to Greenport from New York City to open the facility to inquiring minds by appointment and to continue to grow the already extensive  collection. The summer months are easier as I maintain a home on the North Fork with the library hours extended. I have found that our patrons, students and researchers, in being forced to focus their energies due to time constraints of availability benefit from a more intense use of the facility.

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Eileen and Lisette Coly at the PF’s Eileen J. Garrett Library, Greenport, Long Island

As I am continually searching for financial support, should the Foundation’s financial health improve, it would be our intention to expand access to the library. The advent of electronic  communication has improved our outreach with our constituents tremendously. The ability to provide immediate feedback is a big improvement from my early days at PF while waiting for the US Postal Service. Making connections and contacts for our constituency is much easier and more immediate, which was not the case years back when people had to travel to visit. Now by pressing “send” they are able to benefit from the PF’s longstanding  position  as a clearinghouse for quality information.

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Unidentified User of the PF Library at Greenport, NY

I have had a large learning curve to appreciate and assimilate the online potential for education and conferences. PF and I owe massive amounts of gratitude to Research Fellows, Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone and Dr. Carlos S.  Alvarado who literally have pushed me kicking and screaming into the internet while holding my hand literally and figuratively as I now grasp its potential for PF’s future activities.

5. What have you accomplished recently at PF?

During PF’s celebratory 65th anniversary in 2016 I was  primarily concerned with the  overhaul, reinstatement and rededication of PF’s programs as well as the addition of new directives. Our revered Perspectives Lecture Series, which was launched in 1998, is now back on occasion in real time and on the internet. We have formalized our PF Lyceum Academy on the WizIQ Platform. Our PF International Affiliate program is thriving having held two recent Affiliate conferences (click here and here ), with Dr. Dean Radin added to its roster representing the USA. We have launched a new online program, “PF’s Book Expo”,  (click here, here, and here) having sponsored three such events to date.

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In addition, we are sponsoring a parapsychology MOOC, and various forums on interest. All of these events are free.

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Our social media presence is growing with our PF Facebook page and that of our Psychic Explorer page along with  Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest, Tumblr, etc. Our five websites are being slowly converted to mobile ready access and being retooled to be more user friendly.

We have formalized both a Research Fellow program with current Fellows, Dr. Carlos S. Alvarado,  Dr. Kathy Dalton, Dr. James Matlock, and Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone, and added  a Research Associate program in which we were pleased to welcome Gonçalo Veiga. I am extremely proud to have introduced PF’s YouTube Channel  which we have been adding to on a weekly basis posting a treasure trove cache of  Classic Perspective Lectures, Face to Face interviews and the recordings of our various Book Expo presentations, Lyceum Forums and conferences –to date totaling over 70 items (for an already dated progress report click here).

6. What are your plans for the future of PF?

Plans for the future of PF are to stay the course set back in 1951 and to continue to offer quality information, direction and support for those interested in parapsychology around  the world. I am most proud to announce a modest return to our Scholarship and Award program later this year, as without support of newcomers to the field parapsychology’s  future will not shine  bright. The PF You Tube channel will be augmented with more of our classic materials but also with new series such as “PF on the Move” and others in development.

I am enthused to welcome a fourth generation to PF which was not envisioned to be a family foundation but seems to have evolved as such. My daughter, Anastasia Damalas, is presently serving her apprenticeship in much the same way as Eileen Coly and myself were introduced to the field. She is bringing her skills in social marketing and film to the benefit of PF. She too understands as I do the enormous body of work that has gone before us coupled with a deep appreciation for our colleagues and students of the paranormal. We pledge to rededicate in this our 66th year to the advancement of parapsychological research and ask for your support.

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Anastasia Damalas, PF Staff and Daughter of Lisette Coly

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Lisette Coly

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Much has been written about the relationships between psychology and parapsychology. Some general overviews are:

Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (1998). Anomalías de interacción con el ambiente: El estudio de los fenómenos parapsicológicos [Anomalies of interaction with the environment: The study of parapsychological phenomena].Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 11, 99-147. (Abstract)

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Carlos S. Alvarado and Nancy L. Zingrone

Beloff, J. (1982). Psychical research and psychology. In I. Grattan-Guinness (Ed.), Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles and Practice (pp. 303-315). Wellinborough, Northhamptonshire, England: Aquarian Press.

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John Beloff

Burt, C. (1967). The implications of parapsychology for general psychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 31, 1-18.

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Cyril Burt

Burt, C. (1968). Psychology and Psychical Research. London: Society for Psychical Research.

Burt, C. (1975). ESP and Psychology (compiled by A. Gregory).  New York: Wiley.

Child, I.L. (1982). Parapsychology and psychology. In W.G. Roll, R.L. Morris & R.A. White (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1981 (pp. 202-221). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

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Irvin L. Child

Child, I. (1984). Implications of parapsychology for psychology. In S. Krippner, M.L. Carlson, M. Ullman, & R.O. Becker (Eds.), Advances in Parapsychological Research 4 (pp. 165–182). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Schmeidler, G.R. (1988). Parapsychology and Psychology: Matches and Mismatches. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

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Gertrude R. Schmeidler

Van Over, R. (Ed.). (1972). Psychology and Extrasensory Perception. New York: New American Library.

On specific issues and areas of psychology see:

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S.J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.) (2014). Varieties of Anomalous Experiences (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Holt, N., Simmonds-Moore, C., Luke, D., & French, C.C. (2012). Anomalistic Psychology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Murray, C. D. (Ed.). (2009). Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences. New York: Nova Science.

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Rhine, J.B. (1968). Psi and psychology: Conflict and solution. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, 101-128.

Roe, C. A. (2009). Anomalistic psychology. In N. Holt, & R. Lewis (Eds.), A2 Psychology 2009 AQA A Specification: The student’s textbook (pp. 426–463). London: Crown House.

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Chris Roe

Servadio, E. (1974). Psychoanalysis and parapsychology. In A. Angoff & B. Shapin (Eds.),  Parapsychology and the Sciences (pp. 68-76). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

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Emilio Servadio

Tart, C.T. (2002). Parapsychology and transpersonal psychology: “Anomalies” to be explained away or spirit to manifest? Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 31-47.

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Charles T. Tart

Watt, C. (2005). Parapsychology’s contribution to psychology: A view from the front line. Journal of Parapsychology, 69, 215–232.

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Caroline Watt

In later installments I will present other sources to find information about theories, history, clinical issues, and other aspects.

*I dedicate this series of blogs to the memory of Gerd H. Hövelmann, whose bibliographies of current publications have inspired many of us.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Philosopher James H. Hyslop (1854-1920) was an important figure in American psychical research. He was director of the American Society for Psychical Research, and also conducted much research, including tests of the famous Leonora E. Piper. Furthermore he published many articles and books.

James Hyslop, US researcher of psychics

James H. Hyslop

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Leonora E. Piper

One of Hyslop’s books was Science and a Future Life (available here,  and here). As the title indicates, the book was about survival of death, with emphasis on work conducted with Mrs. Piper. The author stated at the beginning: “The elaborate Reports of the Society for Psychical Research seldom get beyond the shelves of its members . . . I have endeavored in the present volume to summarise the most important of the Society’s work, more especially with reference to such matter as might
claim to bear upon the problem of a future life . . . I have not intended that the book should satisfy the more exacting scientific standards, but serve the purpose of inducing the scientific psychologist to go to the detailed records where his demands may be better satisfied, and give the general reader some conception of the complexity of the problem with which we have to deal. Hence I have only given samples of the facts which are accessible for the student . . .”

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Table of Contents of Hyslop’s Science and a Future Life

 

This is an excellent book to obtain information about the work with Piper conducted by Richard Hodgson and Hyslop, among others. As Hyslop stated in his introduction the work summarizes reports found in the pages of the Proceedings f the Society for Psychical Research. In fact, this work is one of the best summaries of the initial work done with Piper in the Nineteenth Century.

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Richard Hodgson

But the work also presents analyses of possible explanations, and Hyslop defended the spirit agency explanation. A particularly interesting chapter is that entitled “Conditions Affecting the ‘Communications.’ ” Here Hyslop writes about confusions and trivialities in the commnunications caused by various interfering processes. “They are (1) the intramediumistic conditions through which the messages have to come, or the physical and mental conditions of the medium; (2) the intercosmic conditions existing between the ‘communicator’ and those of the medium, and (3) the mental condition of the ‘communicators.’ The second of these divides into three classes, those affecting the transmission of a message from the ordinary ‘communicator’ to the ‘control,’ those affecting the ‘control’s’ interpretation of the messages received, and those affecting the ‘control’s’ ability to send them through the medium’s organism.”

This book is highly recommended as a representative of a survival interpretation of Piper’s communications, as well as an able summary of many of the medium’s early performances.

Selected Examples of Other Publications by Hyslop

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Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Resarch, 1901

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1918

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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I received this from the Parapsychology Foundation announcing new online  presentations.

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The Parapsychology Foundation (PF), now in its 66th year of operation this year, the PF has re-dedicated itself to one of its core mission, that of advancing education in parapsychology. In this spirit, the PF Lyceum Academy will offer the second in its series of PF International Affiliates Conferences on WizIQ, “New Faces in The Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena.” Three post-graduate students from around the world have been recommended by members of the elite group of scientists and researchers in the Parapsychology Foundation’s International Affiliates Program. Pursuing advanced degrees and taking up important topics in the field, these young people will present their research and share their enthusiasm for the field and its challenges at this important conference! Join us! (To register click here.)

First a little bit about the Parapsychology Foundation International Affiliates program. Inaugurated in 2000 the program includes 27 extraordinary individuals from 26 different countries around the world. Each of these individuals – such as Professor Caroline Watt of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, Dr. Fatima Machado of the University of São Paulo in Brazil, and Dr. Zoltan Vassy in Hungary – conduct research, mentor graduate students, are active researchers, or active professionals with a deep understanding of the subject matter. In the 2016 PF International Affiliates Conference on WizIQ five international affiliates gave presentations about institutional, educational and research developments in their own countries over the last 40 years. This year we went back to these extraordinary individuals and asked them to nominate a young person in training to take up scientific or academic work in this field. Ana Flores from the University of Edinburgh was nominated by Professor Watt, Csongor Matyi was nominated by Dr. Vassy, and Gabriel Teixeira was nominated by Dr. Machado. A conference of five sessions was built around these young researchers and their work.

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Here are the young researchers who will be speaking at the conference:

  • Ana Flores, a Ph.D. candidate at the University Edinburgh (UE), a member of the Koestler Parapsychology Unit in the Department of Psychology at UE, and a research fellow of the Bial Foundation in Portugal. Flores holds an LLB and an MA in Law, both awarded by the Universidade Autonoma of Lisbon, and worked as a lawyer for a dozen years. She also obtained a Diploma in Psychology from the Universidade Lusofona de Lisboa and an M.Sc. in Transpersonal Psychology and Consciousness Studies at the University of Northampton in England. Her presentation is “A New Light on the Replicability Problem in Parapsychology: Can Non-Local Correlations be an Answer?”  As part of an International Consortium, Flores’ presentation will review her doctoral work testing a new theoretical paradigm first developed by German physicist and scholar Walter von Lucadou.
  • Csongor Matyi received his M.A. from the University of Budapest where he first studied law and then after a year spent in the UK, switched to experimental and cognitive psychology. Taking part in the Paris Euro-PA Convention, he was introduced to the international community of researchers in parapsychology. Currently combining a psychological practice specializing in gifted children with lecturing on the history and methods of parapsychology at Eötvös Loránd University, he is also an active researcher and counselor. His presentation, “An Auto-Ganzfeld Study Conducted in 2011,” will focus on his M.A. thesis research.
  • Gabriel Teixeira received his Masters in Psychology from the Federal University of São Paulo in Brazil and is currently a Ph.D. student at the University of São Paul (USP) in Brazil as well as a member of InterPsi, the Laboratory of Anomalistic Psychology and Psychosocial Processes at USP. His presentation, “Varieties of Out-of-Body Experiences: Comparing OBErs and non-OBEs in a Brazilian Sample,” will review a study done for his masters thesis.

In addition, Lisette Coly, the President of the Parapsychology Foundation, and PF Research Fellows Dr. Carlos S. Alvarado and Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone will conduct the opening and closing sessions for the conference, focusing on the breadth of the PF International Affiliate program, its goals and accomplishments, and, in the closing session, on such upcoming activities as upcoming events and courses in the PF Lyceum Academy on WizIQ.

Individuals who attend or view all the lectures and take part in discussions will come away from the conference with the unique experience of meeting and hearing the work of up and coming new researchers as well as some of the latest research areas in the field. Individuals who attend will also become familiar with the Foundation’s work supporting researchers and students in a wide variety of countries. Because of the question and answer period after each lecture and the discussion forum available on the conference’s main page, attendees will also have the opportunity to meet and talk with others from around the world who share their interests and experiences.

To register click here.