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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here are some important books about experimental ESP studies published between 1930 and 1958 that are freely available online.

Carington, W. (1945). Telepathy: An Outline of its Facts, Theory, and Implications (2nd Ed.). London: Methuen.

Whately Carington

Whateley Carington

Humphrey, B.M. (1948). Handbook of Tests in Parapsychology. Durham, NC: Parapsychology Laboratory.

image of sequence 7

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Pratt, J.G., et al. (1940). Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. New York: Henry Holt.

Pratt Rhine ESP 60 title page

Rhine, J.B. (1935). Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston Bruce Humphries.  (First published in 1934)

image of page i

image of page iii

Rhine, J.B., & Pratt, J.G. (1957). Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

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J.B. Rhine 1956

J.B. Rhine

J.G. Pratt

J.G. Pratt

Schmeidler, G.R., & McConnell, R.A. (1958). ESP and Personality Patterns. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gertrude Schmeidler

Gertrude Schmeidler

Robert McConnell

Robert McConnell

Sinclair, U. (1930). Mental Radio. Pasadena, CA: Author.

image of page iii

Upton Sinclair

Upton Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair Upton’s wife, tested for telepathy

Sinclai Results of telepathy drawing test

Results of telepathy drawing test

Soal, S.G., & Bateman, F. (1954). Modern Experiments in Telepathy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Soal Bateman Modern Experiments Telepathy

Warcollier, R. (1938). Experimental Telepathy. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.

Rene Warcollier

René Warcollier

Telepathic Drawing Experiments (Target Above, Response Below)

 

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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

A recent issue of the psychoanalysis journal IMÁGÓ Budapest (2017, No. 4), edited by Júlia Gyimesi, is entitled “Psychoanalysis and the Occult: Transference, Thought-Transference, Psychical Research.” Here is the table of contents:

Júlia Gyimesi: Introduction

Júlia Gyimesi

Júlia Gyimesi

Renaud Evrard, Claudie Massicotte, Thomas Rabeyron: Freud as a Psychical Researcher: The Impossible Freudian Legacy

Sigmund Freud constantly attempted to distinguish psychoanalysis from occultism by explaining allegedly paranormal phenomena (such as so-called prophetic dreams) as the results of unconscious processes. His attitude towards the paranormal, however, evolved according to his increasing interest in the possibility of thought transference. In 1925, he reproduced Gilbert Murray’s experiments associating telepathy and free associations. Then, he became convinced of the reality of thought transference and shared his conviction in “The Occult Significance of Dreams.” Yet, Ernest Jones, his biographer and then president of the International Psychoanalytic Association, was reluctant to associate psychoanalysis with psychical research and therefore worked to marginalize Freud’s interest. This article aims to retrace the context of this rarely discussed text and the experiments that preceded it in order to reexamine their role in ulterior definitions of the Freudian legacy and the association of psychoanalysis with experimental research on telepathic dreams.

Sigmund Freud 3

Sigmund Freud

Gilbert Murray

Gilbert Murray

Júlia Gyimesi: The Unorthodox Silberer

Herbert Silberer

Herbert Silberer

The aim of the article is to explore the reasons why the theory of symbol-formation turned out to be an important scene of the process of demarcation in psychoanalysis. The debate on the theory of symbol-formation is illuminated by the examination of the work of the Viennese psychoanalyst, Herbert Silberer. Silberer’s life-work is an outstanding example of the encounter of psychoanalysis and the so-called occult. He made a most honest and unique attempt to integrate the “mystical” into the psychoanalytic edifice in a nonreductive but still psychoanalytic way. The conflicts that emerged due to the integration of the occult by Silberer did not lie between materialistic and spiritualistic worldviews. Rather, they originated in theoretical oppositions. Today, functional symbolism is what experts refer to most often when discussing the investigations of Silberer. In fact, his theory on functional symbolism was developed in connection with his experiences in the field of occultism, mysticism, alchemy, etc., and inevitably led to tension between his viewpoint and the basic principles of psychoanalysis. Silberer’s oeuvre shows that considering occultism and mysticism a valid psychological language could lead to a radically new form of psychology.

Bartholomeu Vieira: Deleuze’s Animal Magnetism as a Theoretical Parallel for the Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique

Joseph P.P. Deleuze

Joseph P.F. Deleuze

Ferenczi’s studies on the occult both inspired, and made important contributions to, the theory of psychoanalytic technique. The theory and practice of animal magnetism raises several questions and inspire new approaches that might help psychoanalysts understand how empathy works in the contemporary clinic. The field of animal magnetism has been seminal in the theoretical development of theories of the unconscious. It is the purpose of this article to examine the elements within the doctrine of animal magnetism that shed light on the Freudian-Ferenczian affirmation of supposed unconscious communication. The article will first of all look at the debate between Freud and Ferenczi on the reality of telepathy. It will then make some brief observations on the subject of magnetism. Because of the broad scope of this subject, I will narrow the focus of this study to Joseph P. Deleuze’s statements about his methodology.

Csilla Hunya, Péter Aszalós: Telemarketing

The aim of living is to be born again and again and to make one’s essence realized. According to Moreno and some object-relation and relational psychoanalysis theorists, the self develops itself in relationships, more closely in encounters where two beings meet. As Moreno pointed out, an integral part of these encounters is tele, a prerequisite of a common creative act. In this paper we aim to heighten the awareness of the reader of the value of encounters in life, and understand tele by anchoring it with well-known psychoanalytic terms. In the first part we review some of the relevant literature of psychodramatists and others and connect it conceptually to psychoanalytic terms. In the second part we look closer to the tele as a process embedded into encounters. Our emphasis is on how tele contributes to the rebirth of the soul during the encounter and after it.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

My article “Morselli’s ‘Psicologia e Spiritismo’ ” was recently posted in the Psi Encyclopedia. It is about Italian psychiatrist Enrico Morselli’s two volume work Psicologia e “Spiritismo:” Impressioni e Note Critiche sui Fenomeni Medianici di Eusapia Paladino (Psychology and “Spiritism”: Impressions and Critical Notes  about the Mediumistic Phenomena of Eusapia Paladino; 2 vols. Turin: Fratelli Bocca, 1908).

 Morselli Psicologia

 

Enrico Morselli 2

Enrico Morselli

Here is the summary:

“Enrico Morselli (1852-1929), an Italian psychiatrist, contributed to the study of the mediumship of Eusapia Palladino, notably regarding its clinical and psychological aspects. This work is contained in his 1908 two-volume book, little known to English-language writers, Psicologia e ‘Spiritismo’ (Psychology and ‘Spiritism’) on which this article is largely based (the original Italian edition can be read online). Morselli adopts an anti-survival stance, rejecting discarnate agency in favour of fraud, psychological processes, or psychic means involving human agency.”

Eusapia Palladino side dress

Eusapia Palladino

Morselli became convinced of the phenomena of medium Eusapia Palladino. In his view mediumship  was “an abnormal fact of the human physio-psychic personality which, like all other abnormalities and individual abnormalities . . . is directly linked to the normal somatic, physiological and mental conditions of the Homo sapiens animal. . .” Palladino was believed to be a hysteric, but a hysteric that could produce movement of objects, materializations, and other physical manifestations. This view was shared by another Italian psychiatrist, Cesare Lombroso.

Most of the book is about reports of séances with Palladino. “This is not a scientific report, but rather a compilation of summaries and impressions of séances attended by Morselli during the 1900s, by which time she had been studied by several scientists and scholars . . . The séances took place at the Circolo Scientifico Minerva (Scientific Circle Minerva), in Genoa, a private group that included psychical researcher Ernesto Bozzano, astronomer Francesco Porro and journalist Luigi Arnaldo Vassallo.” He reported that in his first séance, held in 1909, the medium was seated at the head of the table and was controlled by two persons. Morselli wrote: “The table was in motion: it was bowing now from one side, it went up on two feet and on one, and in the end I saw it stand up to 10-15 centimeters, remain suspended for a few seconds below the hands that protruded in the chain, and then, as if suddenly the thrust that pushed it or the strength that supported it lessened, it fell noisily on the floor.”

Morselli listed that the following physical phenomena took place in the séances:

Parakinesis (movement of objects with some physical contact)

Telekinesis

Changes of weight in objects or the medium

Thermal-radiant phenomena (such as breezes and cold areas)

Sounds, including voices

Hyloplastic phenomena (production of marks or tracings)

Zollnerian phenomena such as apports and knots on cords

Tangible teleplasty (materializations)

Simple telephany (luminous phenomena)

Visible, active and tangible teleplasmy (materialized forms and limbs)

 

Sketches of Materialized Forms Observed in Seances in which Morselli was Present

Morselli Palladino form 2

Morselli Palladino form 4

Morselli Palladino materialization sketch

There is much in the book about the medium’s psychological and medical aspects. “Morselli noticed that Palladino perspired profusely during trance. She told him her menstrual period was more copious and erratic when she held many séances. Coming out of trance, she sometimes was amyosthenic (muscular weakness), and experienced paralysis in her limbs, mainly on the right side.”

The phenomena were believed by Morselli to be caused by a force exteriorized from the medium’s body. Morselli wrote: “We say that everything happens as if the medium’s body exteriorizes its bio-psychic force . . .  This fact of exopsychicity is not more unintelligible than electricity which propagates at a distance without conductors and produces movement, chemical, luminous, [and] sonic phenomena . . .”

In addition, Morselli presents two useful bibliographies.  One is about Spiritism and psychic phenomena in general, while another is a list of publications about Paladino. Both include materials in French, and Italian that are usually missed by English-speaking students of her mediumship (on these bibliographies see an article here, starting on page 1900.

Morselli Bibliography

Finally, in the encyclopedia entry I also presents examples of the book’s reception, among them a negative one by Eleanor M. Sidgwick (Review of Psicologia e “Spiritismo.” Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1909, 21, 516-525).

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In a previous blog I interviewed Dr. Dean Radin, Chief Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, about his career and general ideas regarding parapsychology. I interview him here about his new book, Real Magic: Ancient Wisdom, Modern Science, and a Guide to the Secret Power of the Universe (New York: Harmony Books, 2018).

Dean Radin 4

Dean Radin

Radin Real Magic

Here is the table of contents:

  1. Beginnings
  2. Science and Magic?
  3. Magical Potpourri
  4. Origins of Magic
  5. Practice of Magic
  6. Scientific Evidence
  7. Merlin-Class Magicians
  8. Toward a Science of Magic
  9. Concluding Thoughts

Interview

Can you give us a brief summary of the book?

Real Magic reviews the history and concepts of the Western esoteric tradition to see if that domain might provide clues about how psi works. I found that it does. The book also compares lore about magical practices with what parapsychology has learned about psi. ​After the superstitions and theatrical excesses associated with ceremonial magic ​are stripped away, magic and psi are found to involve the same underlying phenomena, with the same modulating factors. In sum, what did ancient magicians know about psi that we are struggling to understand today?

 

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of the book specifically?

​I’ve been involved part or full-time in empirical psi research for 42 years. I’ve been interested in the history and practices of Eastern and Western esoteric traditions for at least that long.​

 

What motivated you to write this book?

Like many who are convinced by experience or experiment that psi is real, I want to know how it works and what it implies about the nature of reality. Theoretical models in our field have not advanced nearly as fast as the empirical work, which suggests that there might be a problem with our starting assumptions. So I decided to seriously consider if the esoteric traditions, which are saturated with magic and psi, might shed some light on this problem. After reviewing the relevant history (which is vast), I’ve come to believe that the metaphysical basis of the esoteric cosmologies (in the philosophical sense of metaphysics) provides a better explanation than the metaphysics underlying today’s scientific worldview. In the book I provide a suggestion that views today’s scientific worldview as a special case of a more comprehensive worldview. The expanded worldview maintains everything known by science today, but it recasts psi, magic, and mystical experience from bizarre, inexplicable anomalies into phenomena that are natural and obvious.

 

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?

I ​ hope to show that a calm consideration of​ magic and psi does not represent a regression to a superstitious, pre-scientific past, but rather it is a forecast of the future of science. All of my popular books have been part of a long-term effort to crack the taboo that has prevented serious discussions of psi experiences, what they are, how they work, and what they imply about the nature of consciousness. Real Magic is the latest step along this path, one designed to appeal to a (large) audience interested in both science and esoterica. As evidence that this topic is (or should be) of high interest to science, Real Magic gained endorsements from two Nobel Laureates, a former program director from the National Science Foundation, an astrophysics medal winner from the National Academy of Sciences, and many prominent academics from mainstream disciplines at mainstream universities.

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

A recent issue of the journal Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice has discussions of precognition by various authors. The discussion opens with an editorial by Erik Woody and Steven Jay Lynn (“Perspectives on Precognition.” Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2018, 5, 1–2). They write:

“The balance of this issue consists of five articles addressing what has variously been termed precognition, precognitive ability, and retrocausal or retroactive influences . . . In the first article, Schooler, Baumgart, and Franklin (2018) address how to strike the most appropriate and productive relation between Sagan’s “seemingly contradictory attitudes,” drawing an important distinction between entertaining versus endorsing anomalous phenomena like precognition. In the second article, Mossbridge and Radin (2018b) present a comprehensive review of existing empirical research on precognition, making the case that this body of work warrants scientists being open to this possibility despite its “bizarre or counterintuitive” qualities. The next two articles, by Schwarzkopf (2018) and by Houran, Lange, and Hooper (2018), are invited critiques of Mossbridge and Radin’s (2018b) review, applying the “most ruthless skeptical scrutiny” in pointing out what these critics believe are crucial conceptual and methodological flaws in the research. A response from Mossbridge and Radin (2018a) follows these critiques.”

The editorial was followed by Jonathan W. Schooler, Stephen Baumgart, and Michael Franklin’s “Entertaining Without Endorsing: The Case for the Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Cognition” (2018, Vol. 5, 63–77. Here is the abstract:

Johnattan Schooler

Johnattan Schooler

“Empirical reports in mainstream journals that human cognition extends in ways that challenge the current boundaries of science (anomalous cognition) has been viewed with dismay by many who see it as evidence that science is broken. Here the authors make the case for the value of conducting and publishing well-designed studies investigating anomalous cognition. They distinguish between the criteria that justify entertaining the possibility of anomalous cognition from those required to endorse it as a bona fide phenomenon. In evaluating these 2 distinct thresholds, the authors draw on Bayes’s theorem to argue that scientists may reasonably differ in their appraisals of the likelihood that anomalous cognition is possible. Although individual scientists may usefully vary in the criteria that they hold both for entertaining and endorsing anomalous cognition, we provide arguments for why researchers should consider adopting a liberal criterion for entertaining anomalous cognition while maintaining a very strict criterion for the outright endorsement of its existence. Grounded in an understanding of the justifiability of disparate views on the topic, the authors encourage humility on both the part of those who present evidence in support of anomalous cognition and those who dispute the merit of its investigation.”

The target article, by Julia Mossbridge and Dean Radin, was “Precognition as a Form of Prospection: A Review of the Evidence” (2018, Vol. 5, No. 1, 78–93). Abstract:

Julia mossbridge 6

Julia Mossbridge

Dean Radin 4

Dean Radin

“Prospection, the act of attempting to foresee one’s future, is generally assumed to be based on conscious and nonconscious inferences from past experiences and anticipation of future possibilities. Most scientists consider the idea that prospection may also involve influences from the future to be flatly impossible due to violation of common sense or constraints based on one or more physical laws. We present several classes of empirical evidence challenging this common assumption. If this line of evidence can be successfully and independently replicated using preregistered designs and analyses, then the consequences for the interpretation of experimental results from any empirical domain would be profound.”

This is followed by two critiques of Mossbridge and Radin’s paper, and by their reply.

D. Samuel Schwarzkopf, “On the Plausibility of Scientific Hypotheses: Commentary on Mossbridge and Radin (2018)” (2018, 5, 94–97).

“Mossbridge and Radin reviewed psychological and physiological experiments that purportedly show time-reversed effects. I discuss why these claims are not plausible. I conclude that scientists should generally consider the plausibility of the hypotheses they test.”

James Houran, Rense Lange, and Dan Hooper “Cross-Examining the Case for Precognition: Comment on Mossbridge and Radin (2018) ‘ (2018, 5, 98–109).

James Houran

James Houran

“Based on a review and meta-analyses of empirical literature in parapsychology, Mossbridge and Radin (2018) argued for anomalous replicable effects that suggest the possibility of precognitive ability or retrocausal phenomena. However, these conclusions are refuted on statistical and theoretical grounds—the touted effects are neither meaningful, interpretable, nor even convincingly replicable. Moreover, contrary to assertions otherwise, the possibility of authentic retrocausation is discredited by modern theories in physics. Accordingly, Mossbridge and Radin’s interpretations are discussed in terms of misattribution biases that serve anxiolytic functions when individuals confront ambiguity, with potential reinforcement from perceptual–personality variables such as paranormal belief. Finally, we argue that research in human consciousness should be multidisciplinary, and notably, leverage informed investigators in the physical sciences to advance truly valid and cumulative theory building.”

Julia A. Mossbridge and Dean Radin, ‘Plausibility, Statistical Interpretations, Physical Mechanisms and a New Outlook: Response to Commentaries on a Precognition Review” (2018, 5, 110–116).

“We address what we consider to be the main points of disagreement by showing that (a) scientific plausibility (or lack thereof) is a weak argument in the face of empirical data, (b) the statistical methods we used were sound according to at least one of several possible statistical positions, and (c) the potential physical mechanisms underlying precognition could include quantum biological phenomena. We close with a discussion of what we believe is an unfortunate but currently dominant tendency to focus on reducing Type-I statistical errors without balancing that approach by also paying attention to the potential for Type-II errors.”

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Germana Paretti published an interesting article about Hans Driesch entitles “Hans Driesch’s Interest in the Psychical Research: A Historical Study” (Medicina Historica, 2017, 1, 156-162; author’s address germana.pareti@unito.it).

Hans Driesch

Hans Driesch

Here is the abstract:

“In recent times the source of interest in psychical research in Germany has been subject of relevant studies. Not infrequently these works have dealt with this phenomenon through the interpretation of the various steps and transformations present in Hans Driesch’s thought, from biology and medicine to neovitalism, and finally to parapsychology. However these studies identified the causes of this growing involvement in paranormal research either in the historical context of “crisis” of modernity (or “crisis” in psychology), or in an attempt to “normalize” the supernatural as an alternative to the traditional experimental psychology. My paper aims instead at throwing light on the constant effort by Driesch to conceive (and found) psychical research as a science of the super-normal, using the methodology successfully adopted by the scientific community (especially German) in the late nineteenth century.”

Driesch Vitalismus
Driesch Gesgische Vitalismus

According to Pareti:

“Asked to lecture on his conception of vitalism at Cambridge University, [Driesch] . . . met there Henry Sidgwick and he became interested in the research on psychic phenomena. He joined the Society for Psychical Research of London (SPR) in 1913, and he was its president in 1926-27. When he wanted to investigate psychic phenomena further in Oslo in 1935, the Nazis denied his passport, so he did not pursue this work further. Invited to lecture on philosophy by many universities (in Europe, United States, South America and the Far East), Driesch had the opportunity to work with some pioneers in the field of psychic research: Walter Franklin Pierce in Boston, Gustav Geley and Eugène Osty in Paris, Oliver Lodge in Britain and Albert von Schrenck-Notzing in Germany. He sat with mediums such as “Margery,” Mrs. Osborne Leonard and Willi and Rudi Schneider. Although impressed by Mrs. Leonard and the Schneiders, Driesch was not always convinced of the genuineness of mediumistic phenomena.”

Driesch Science Philosophy Organism

His vitalistic writings included the concept of entelechia. “Derived from a biological-metaphysical context, it denoted a vital agent, an internal perfecting non-mechanical principle existing in all living organisms, ‘a unifying, non-material, mind-like something’ . . ., and Driesch sustained that ‘we have an interaction in the purely natural sphere, i.e. between entelechy and the matter of my body.’ Nevertheless, the working of entelechia had to be parallel to that of the soul: ‘the working of my soul … and [its] certain states are ‘parallel’ to ‘my conscious havings’ . . . He admitted that, in fact, in the normal morphogenesis we do not know as entelechy acts, but it could regulate organic development and explain several paraphysical actions. Above all, paraphysical phenomena are cases of a kind of ‘enlarged’ vitalism, a ‘supervitalism’ . . . Although he complained that some critics erroneously mixed his psychology with his vitalism, Driesch was sure that vitalism represented ‘a fundamental breach’ in the normal science, being a bridge connecting normal (scientific) and psychical research. Therefore he refuted any psychophysical (or psychomechanical) parallelism, conceiving mind as an independent entity, ‘enthroned by the side of the physical body.’ Its physiological effects are well known, since a lot of bodily symptoms can be mentally produced (inflammation, pregnancy, stigmata etc.).”

“Neverthless Driesch did not deny matter and its role. ‘Matter is everywhere in the space,’ and the vital agent makes a constructive use of it, or, the mental part of the individual acts purposely on matter. Its influence is visible in the simplest of supernormal phenomenon, in which matter is under the influence of assimilation, an established process highlighted by Justus von Liebig in his organic chemistry. Materialisation and its varieties (telekinesis and levitation) constitute a kind of organized assimilation, a kind of supernormal embriology. So, if regarded as vitalistic actions, or forms of ‘behaviour’ of some unconscious entity, paraphysical phenomena lose their negative character of absurdity, since they respect the principle of economy or of parsimony, according to which no phenomenon may be considered fundamental if it can be reduced to another.”

The article also has interesting sections about other topics. This include Driesch’s ideas regarding methodology in parapsychology, and his mention of other researchers in his work.

Interestingly, the last issue of the Paranormal Review has an article about Driesch by John Poynton: “President’s Letter: The SPR’s Philosopher-Presidents: Hans Driesch.” Paranormal Review, 85, 4-5).

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Ohkado Masayuki has just published a paper entitled “Same-Family Cases of the Reincarnation Type in Japan” (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2017, 31, 551-571). here is the abstract:

Ohkado Masayiki 2

Ohkado Masayuki

“This article reports five same-family cases of the reincarnation type occurring in contemporary Japan. The discussion will be within a set of widely adopted operative assumptions set out by Dr. Ian Stevenson and his colleagues: Streams of consciousness survive death of body and become associated with another body at another time, During the intermission period between lives, the discarnate mind retains the ability for psi perceptions and interactions, and may exercise choice in the selection of parents. The theoretical part of the present paper is with the limitation concerning auxiliary assumptions (Sudduth 2016), and the interpretations of the data adopted here (the survival and reincarnation hypotheses) are open to alternative analyses (notably, the Living Agent Psi hypothesis) as pointed out by Braude (1997, 2003, 2013) and Sudduth (2009, 2013, 2016), but it is beyond the scope of the present paper to deal with these issues. Of the five cases, the first three involve a deceased child appearing to be reborn to the same mother. One of the remaining two is a skipped-generation case, in which a deceased mother appears to have been reborn as a child of her daughter. The other is a case in which a deceased child appears to have been reborn as a daughter of his elder brother. This case also involves an “experimental birthmark.”

It is stated in the conclusion: “The present investigation raises an interesting question, which is to be pursued in future research: How common are same-family cases in Japan in comparison with other cases including stranger cases? Stevenson (1986:209–211) and Haraldsson and Matlock (2016:222–223) demonstrated that the percentages of same-family and other cases differ significantly from country to country (or culture to culture). According to the figures reported in Haraldsson and Matlock (2016:223), the lowest percentage of same-family cases is that of India (16%) and the highest is that of the Gitxsan of British Columbia (100%). As discussed in Yanagita (2013), skipped-generation reincarnation might have been considered “normal” in some areas in prewar Japan. With the assumption stated in the Introduction that culturally prescribed ideas about reincarnation would be carried into death and would influence decisions made in the postmortem state, the incidence of same-family cases is expected to be relatively high in such areas.”

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In an article I co-authored with Everton de Oliveira Maraldi we reprinted the last chapter of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy’s From India to the Planet Mars (1900) in the journal History of Psychiatry (“Classic Text No. 113: Final chapter, From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia, by Théodore Flournoy (1900).” History of Psychiatry, 2018, 29, 110-125). Flournoy’s book is generally recognized as a classic of both psychology and psychical research.

Everton Maraldi

Everton de Oliveira Maraldi

 

Flournoy From India 2

Here is the abstract.

“Among the many attempts to explain mediumship psychologically at the turn of the century were the efforts of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy (1854–1920). In his well-known book Des Indes à la Planète Mars (1900), translated as From India to the Planet Mars (1900), Flournoy analysed the mediumistic productions of medium Hélène Smith (1861–1929), consisting of accounts of previous lives in France and in India, and material about planet Mars. Flournoy explained the phenomena as a function of cryptomnesia, suggestive influences, and subconscious creativity, analyses that influenced both psychology and psychical research. The purpose of this Classic Text is to reprint the conclusion of Flournoy’s study, whose ideas were developed in the context of psychological attention to mediumship and secondary personalities.”

Theodore Flournoy

Théodore Flournoy

 

Hélène Smith was the pseudonym of Catherine Élise Müller. “Hélène claimed to be the reincarnation of an Indian princess of the fifteenth century called Simandini, and also of Marie Antoinette, queen of France at the end of the seventeenth century. Furthermore, she claimed to travel spiritually to the planet Mars, from where she presented information, through drawings, descriptions and automatic writings, about the lifestyle of the Martians and the language they allegedly used.”

Flournoy Leopold Writing

Leopold (Spirit Control) Writing Top: Leopold; Below: Medium’s writing

Flournoy Martian Script 2

Martian Script

Flournoy Martian Buildings

Martian Buildings

Flournoy Martian Landscape and Plants

Martian Landscape and Plants

Regarding the medium, we wrote:

“Hélène’s mother as well as her grandmother also reported visions and experiences of presentiment, while one of her brothers ‘it appears, could easily have become a good medium’ . . . Additionally, Flournoy pointed to the fact that Hélène was ‘more or less visionary from her childhood’ . . . and spiritist practices only exploited, moulded and directed her predispositions through specific suggestions and doctrinal beliefs.”

Our introduction to Flournoy’s chapter placed the topic in historical context. We considered such topics as the psychology of mediumship and aspects of Flournoy’s career. We wrote, Flournoy “summarizes the main psychological findings of his study with Hélène Smith, and discusses the limitations and strengths of his investigation. He acknowledges the importance of future studies on the neurophysiological basis of mediumship, and discusses the implications of mediumistic phenomena to nosology and psychopathology, as well as to the study of supernormal faculties or processes.”

Flournoy wrote in the chapter we present in the article:

“From the psychological point of view, the case of Mlle. Smith, although too complex to be reduced to a single formula, is explicable grosso modo by some recognized principle, the successive or concurrent action of which has engendered her multiple phenomena. There is, in the first place, the influence, so often verified, of emotional shocks and of certain psychic traumatisms upon mental dissociation. By means of these the birth of hypnoid states may become the germ either of secondary personalities more or less strongly marked . . . or of somnambulistic romances . . .”

“We must also take into consideration the enormous suggestibility and auto-suggestibility of mediums, which render them so sensitive to all the influences of spiritistic reunions, and are so favorable to the play of those brilliant subliminal creations in which, occasionally, the doctrinal ideas of the surrounding environment are reflected together with the latent emotional tendencies of the medium herself . . .”

“And, finally, we must note the phenomena of cryptomnesia, the awakening and setting to work of forgotten memories, which easily account for the elements of truth contained in the great preceding constructions and in the incarnations or casual visions of Mlle. Smith in the course of her seances. But besides this general explanation how many points of detail there are which remain obscure!”

Flournoy’s book was praised at the time by such figures as F.W.H. Myers and Théodule Ribot, who were students of the capabilities of the human mind and its hidden regions. Others, including several believers in survival of death, were highly critical of Flournoy’s arguments. Today the book is considered a classic example of the studies of the creative functions of the subconscious mind.

Theodule Ribot

Théodule Ribot

We also stated:

“Flournoy’s ideas on the subconscious mind took advantage of the psychiatric and psychological knowledge available at the time, and were applied to the understanding of the so-called mediumistic phenomena that, in turn, expanded and complemented the available theories in the light of mediumistic processes. In this scenario, Hélène Smith played an important role, highlighting the influence that exemplary cases may have on the development of ideas and research programs, especially for the emerging field of multiple personalities, dissociation and hypnosis, deeply interconnected with the spiritualist beliefs of the time . . .”

Flournoy From India to the Planet Mars outside cover

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In my recent recommendations of readings about the history of parapsychology (click here and here) I neglected to mention the biographies of psychical researchers available in the Psi Encyclopedia, a project sponsored by the Society for Psychical Research that I have discussed here before (click here and here).

The Psi Encyclopedia, still under construction, has several useful biographies of past figures involved in various ways with psychical research. An interesting entry, by Etzel Cardeña, is Eminent People Interested in Psi. He presents lists of individuals from various areas interested in psychic phenomena. Some of them are: Hans Berger, Jorge Luis Borges, Andre Breton, Rudolph Carnap, Alexis Carrell, Marie Curie, Jacques Derrida, Mircea Eliade, Aldous Huxley, Margaret Mead, Max Planck, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Alan Turing, Mark Twain, and W.B. Yeats.

Marie Curie

Marie Curie

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida

Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead

Mark Twain

Mark Twain

Long biographies are presented of individuals who have worked in parapsychology, such as the following ones:

John Beloff (by Melvyn Willin)

John Beloff.3

John Beloff

Henri Bergson (Renaud Evrard)

Henri Bergson

Henri Bergson

Ernesto Bozzano (Carlos S. Alvarado)

Ernesto Bozzano 5

Ernesto Bozzano

William Braud (Marilyn Schlitz)

William Braud

William Braud

C.D. Broad (Stephen E. Braude)

C.D. Broad

C.D. Broad

Eric Dingwall (Melvin Willin)

Eric John Dingwall

Eric J. Dingwall

C.J. Ducasse (Stephen E. Braude)

C.J. Ducasse

C.J. Ducasse

Jule Eisenbud (Stephen E. Braude)

Jules Eisenbud

Jule Eisenbud

Théodore Flournoy (Carlos S. Alvarado)

Theodore Flournoy

Théodore Flournoy

David Fontana (Guy Lyon Playfair)

David Fontana

David Fontana

Hamlin Garland (Michael Tymn)

Hamlin Garland

Hamlin Garland

Gustave Geley (Renaud Evrard)

H407/0191

Gustave Geley

Joseph Glanvill (John Newton)

joseph Glanvil

Joseph Glanvil

Edmund Gurney (Andreas Sommer)

edmund-gurney

Edmund Gurney

Richard Hodgson (Michael Tymn)

Richard Hodgson

Richard Hodgson

James Hyslop (Michael Tymn)

James H. Hyslop

James H. Hyslop

William James (Carlos S. Alvarado)

William James 2

William James

Andrew Lang (Melvyn Willin)

Andrew Lang

Andrew Lang

Oliver Lodge (Michael Tymn)

Oliver Lodge younger

Oliver J. Lodge

Frederic W.H. Myers (Trevor Hamilton)

Frederic Myers 4

Frederic W.H. Myers

Frank Podmore (Melvyn Willin)

Frank Podmore

Frank Podmore

JB Rhine (Sally R. Feather & Barbara Ensrud)

J.B. Rhine 1956

J.B. Rhine

Charles Richet (Carlos S. Alvarado)

Charles Richet 10

Charles Richet

Eleanor Sidgwick (Alan Gauld)

by Eveleen Myers (nÈe Tennant), platinum print, 1890s

Eleanor Sidgwick

Samuel Soal  (Donald West)

Samuel G. Soal

Samuel G. Soal

René Sudre (Renaud Evrard)

Rene Sudre

René Sudre

Herbert Thurston (Michael Potts)

Herbert Thurston

Herbert Thurston

René Warcollier (Renaud Evrard)

Rene Warcollier

René Warcollier

Readers are encouraged to keep checking the Encyclopedia. This work, edited by Robert McLuhan, is constantly growing. As time goes on the Psi Encyclopedia will have many other relevant biographies.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am presenting here an excerpt from a book by Morgan Knudsen discussing the psychic activities of her great great grandfather Albert Durrant Watson (1859-1926), described in the Dictionary of Canadia  Biography as a “physician, astronomer, author, and psychical researcher.” (Click here)

Albert Durrant Watson

Albert Durrant Watson

According to this biographical entry Dr. Watson “successfully practised medicine for more than four decades, serving on staff at three hospitals, including Toronto Western.”

Here is the excerpt.

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The Beginning of Psychical Research in Canada 

Excerpt from Teaching The Living: From Heartbreak to Healing in a Haunted Home (2018) by Morgan Knudsen

Morgan Knudsen

Morgan Knudsen

The idea that we have a say in what turns up in our reality has been tossed around a lot in the last number of years and in the early 1900’s, Albert Durrant Watson, my great great grandfather, was no exception. The subject matter comes up repeatedly in his book The Twentieth Plane and Birth Through Death, as both books were allegedly transcripts of the channeling sessions with a strange, then unknown fellow, Louis Benjamin.

image of sequence 7

A.D. Watson was born in 1859 in Mississauga, Ontario. He was a member of the Euclid Avenue Church in Toronto, the Toronto Conference, the General Conference, the Board of Missions, and the executive of the Methodist Social Union of Toronto, and he served as treasurer of the church’s department of temperance and moral reform. His involvement in the church was about to change, unbeknownst to him, when he fell down the rabbit hole of the paranormal. Despite his church involvement, Albert was a man of science. He earned an MD from Victoria College, Cobourg, in 1883. In 1890 he would receive another, ad eundem, from the University of Toronto in recognition of his graduation as a licentiate from the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1883 and he practiced medicine for over twenty years. Watson’s life was far from boring.

If that wasn’t enough, Watson was fascinated with Astronomy and dove right in. His papers relating to that field include “The reformation and simplification of the calendar” (1896), “Astronomy in Canada” (1917), and “Astronomy: a cultural avocation” (1918). He joined the Astronomical and Physical Society of Toronto in 1892, which would eventually become the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada and he served as first vice-president between 1910 and 1915 and as president in 1916 and 1917. But his life changed when he founded the Association for Psychical Research of Canada. The world wasn’t ready for what he was about to deliver and the public ridicule became relentless.

If you were born around 1970 or 1980, think about our grandmother’s generation: Growing up in the 1930’s and 40’s, the paranormal was never spoken about. In the Victorian era, it was all the rage! If you weren’t holding seances and spooky occasions then you were just missing the social life! But by the time the early 1900’s hit, the public attitude had changed. A lot. My great great grandfather, Albert Durrant Watson, was an extremely well-respected physician and a strict non-believer. He was a man of art and science, a fluent poet, and a wealthy doctor. He was married and had everything going for him with a rich social life that just happened to have a fair bit of interest in the spiritual. Something he did not subscribe to… at first. His mind started to open up when he began allowing his home to be used for channelling sessions with a man named Louis Benjamin. As he began to overhear these sessions which he labelled as hogwash and entertainment, he began to take some interest in the information that the uneducated and simple Mr. Benjamin should not have had access to, including detailed information about the death of Watson’s very own mother.

These repeated sessions ended up being scribed into two books, The Twentieth Plane and it’s sequel, Birth Through Death.

These books were quite a leap from the science and poetry that his colleagues and friends had come to expect from him, and were met with a negative tongue and controversial uproars. Despite this, Watson held on to his position about what he had experienced and didn’t seek the approval of readers. Instead he offered it as information for a coming age and believed people would either accept it or not, admitting his own heavy skepticism towards mediums. Either way, he put his career on the line to stand for what he believed in and my family never spoke of him. I did not learn that this influential and historical figure was the founder of the very first paranormal research association in Canada until I was well into my career, having founded Entityseeker: Paranormal Research and Teachings in 2002.

My family was steeped in paranormal occurrences and stories: all of them bad. It wasn’t until much later I discovered A.D. Watson had very different experiences, that I reshaped my history with the paranormal. The first words my grandmother spoke to my mother upon one of our visits to her place were very simple: “Don’t let Morgan get involved in the paranormal. It’s dangerous, it’s bad, and it will only cause trouble.”

She held this belief for a reason: Her experiences were no short of awful. She rarely spoke about them but when she did talk to my dad (her son) about them, they were terrifying. She spoke of waking up in the night with a hideous face inches from her own, attacks happening mid day and having absolutely no control over what came into or out of her experience. Being an intuitive woman, things would happen to her regularly and it wasn’t long before her younger son, my dad’s younger brother, began dabbling in the paranormal as well.  When he became a teenager, he was knee deep in it, and having the same horrific experiences.

Albert spoke of a very different relationship: A relationship with nonphysical that was helpful, peaceful, enduring, loving, and beautiful. His books reflected kind conversations and simple, easy access to the loved ones we believe we have lost to the death process. The idea of the spirit ‘getting stuck’ disappeared, and words of empowerment directed towards the living came bubbling forth. These weren’t grave warnings, these were uplifting, fun, and artistic messages from a group of entities that called themselves “The Humble Ones”. This was a game changer and this message were the basis for my program, Teaching The Living, although when I designed it in 2002, I had no idea these conversations had ever happened.

I have never been a big believer in coincidences. In the same breath, I am not sure I have an explanation for why or how I ended up on the niche path of paranormal research and parapsychology as a man who I was unaware of for decades. Regardless, Albert Durrant Watson is not only an important part of parapsychological history in my life, but throughout Canada as well.

It was said of A.D. Watson by Lorne Pierce: “He recognized no national, ecclesiastical or any other frontier, but searched the world through for truth… He sifted the philosophies, the religions and the humanities of the world… No man during this generation in Toronto ever entertained so many strange faces, tongues, sects, systems, enthusiasms, artists, poets, fanatics, sages as he did; no home was more the ante-chamber to the universe.”

If we all could embrace this attitude as we head in to this research, it is my belief that the advancement of this field would accelerate in ways, dare I say, that we could only dream about.

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For more information about Dr. Watson see Chapter 6 of Anatomy of a Seance: A History of Spirit Communication in Central Canada (Montreal: McGill’s University Press, 2004), by Stan McMullin.