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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I was saddened to learn from an email sent to me by Dr. Massimo Biondi that Silvio Ravaldini, from Italy, passed away on November 24 this year. For many years he was the main editor of the journal Luce e Ombra  as well as the Director of the Fondazioni Biblioteca Bozzano-De Boni. He is probably unknown to most of the readers of my blog, but he is worth remembering. Details about his life appear below in a short obituary that Massimo sent to me.

Silvio Ravaldini

Silvio Ravaldini

I first met Silvio in 1995 when my wife Nancy L. Zingrone and I went to Italy. We met him in a conference in Riccione. But even nicer than the conference, was meeting Silvio, and what followed.

Silvio & Teresa Ravaldini at Biondi'a Wedding 1993

Silvio and his wife Teresa, at Massimo Biondi’s wedding in 1993

After the conference was over Nancy and I took a train to Bologna, where we stayed overnight at Silvio and Teresa’s apartment. We were both struck by Silvio’s good nature and his giving and positive personality. That night we all watched a video of the Three Tenors Caracalla concert and had a great time even though neither of us spoke Italian. I was able to understand some of what Silvio said because of the similarities between Spanish and Italian, and Silvio was able to understand some of what I said. Other than that we were gesturing and using words we all knew in English or Italian. It was interesting how well we could communicate. At one point in the evening we understood Silvio to say that he had in his computer a bibliographical database of thousands of entries about psychic phenomena and related topics formed mainly from the annotations that Ernesto Bozzano made in his books. He playfully asked us to give him a topic to search the database.  At the time Nancy was interested in  apparitions and she suggested that topic. Silvio left us for 10 minutes or so and then returned holding what Nancy remembers to have been 42 pages of closely printed references about apparitions mainly from the Italian, French, and English spiritualist and psychical research literatures. This unique source has been published in print in several volumes.

I will never forget Silvio’s face with a big smile and an amazing sense of pleasure, when he saw how absorbed I got during my visit to the Bozzano-De Boni Library. The experience, almost intoxicating, was remarkable, because the collection houses many rare Italian and French books and journals, many of which I had never seen. Somehow I escaped momentarily from my altered state and saw Silvio’s reaction and that made my experience even better.

Bozzano De Boni Library

Bozzano-De Boni Library

Over the years I have had occasional contacts with Silvio, some of them through other persons. He wrote many articles and a number of books. I particularly remember his study of Bozzano, Ernesto Bozzano e la Ricerca Psichica (Ernesto Bozzano and Psychical Research; Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 1993), which I reviewed for an American journal.

Ravaldini Ernesto Bozzano

Massimo refers to Silvio’s work and bibliography in his comments below. For my part and for Nancy, in addition to his work, we will always remember him for two attributes, his great kindness, and his keen dedication to the foundation and its work. We are sure Massimo feels the same.

Online Interview with Silvio Ravaldini About Mediumship (in Italian)

Massimo Biondi 2

Dr. Massimo Biondi

Silvio Ravaldini: A Relevant Figure in the History of Spiritism and Psychical Research in Italy

Massimo Biondi

The name and the person of Silvio Ravaldini (December 5, 1925-November 24, 2015) are probably little known to the psychical researchers outside Italy, but they are certainly familiar to many spiritualists all over the world. Because, as a child, he attended séances performed with a non-professional medium in his parents’ home, early in his life he accepted spiritist beliefs, and later became a firm advocate of that belief as well as developed a strong interest in the history of spiritism and psychical research.

When he was forced to move to Bologna (from his native Tuscany), he got in touch with Gastone De Boni, Ernesto Bozzano’s protégé and the leader of Italian spiritualists. At the time in Verona De Boni was the director of the quarterly Luce e Ombra and, occasionally, published books by Bozzano and other authors in the field of spiritualism. De Boni owned all the materials (books, volumes and issues of journals and magazines, letters, documents, photos, etc.) that had previously belonged to Bozzano. The first task De Boni assigned Ravaldini was to write down a report of his old private séances. Afterwards De Boni asked Ravaldini to take part in all of De Boni’s publishing activities. So in 1982, it was natural that when De Boni died, Ravaldini became the proprietor of all the papers and the books of Bozzano and De Boni, as well as the director of Luce e Ombra, a position he continued to hold until his death.

Ravaldini’s first accomplishment, over a few years of intensive activity, was to revive the fortunes of the journal, growing the subscribership. He also arranged for the restorations of the books, collected new papers and documents, and created a “library on the occult” for scholars, students and friends. Luce e Ombra attracted many people with different levels of involvement in parapsychology and spiritism from Italy and other countries around the world. In time, Ravaldini had developed a host of friends and colleagues, among them many well-known people in the field in Italy such as Piero and Brunilde Cassoli, Enrico Marabini, Paola Giovetti, Giovanni Iannuzzo, Alfredo Ferraro, Iacopo Comin, and Ettore Mengoli, and myself. In addition, Ravaldini knew well many Italian mediums such as Roberto Setti, Corrado Piancastelli, Demofilo Fidani, and Marcello Bacci. His list of colleagues outside of Italy included Ian Stevenson, William G. Roll, Hubert Larcher, Erlendur Haraldsson, and Carlos S. Alvarado.

From the 1960s, Ravaldini regularly attended séances with the medium Corrado Piancastelli, and adhered to the “philosophy” of that circle. With some friends he transcribed the tapes of recorded communications of the “spirit” of the circle, publishing bimonthly excerpts of those discourses. In the meantime, from the 1970s he published many articles and book reviews in Luce e Ombra and other Italian “psychic” journals and magazines, recounting both his own experiences in mediumship as well as covering both historical and contemporary topics of psychical research. Moreover, he gave lectures, participated in parapsychological meetings and contributed many chapters to books. His complete bibliography, including published and unpublished writings, amounts to approximately 150 items.

During the Eighties, under my suggestion and that of Ian Stevenson, Ravaldini tried to solve some “drop-in cases” that had occurred during the séances held in his home many years before. His hope was to identify some of the unknown “spirits” who manifested by giving their names or a few fragmentary details. He employed two detective agencies, but only one of those cases was solved, thanks to information discovered by Ian Stevenson in the United States.1

Toward the end of the Twentieth Century, with the financial and entrepreneurial aid of the textile manufacturer Silvana Pagnotta, Ravaldini managed to create a Library Foundation so as to guarantee a future home for Bozzano and De Boni materials. The same day Mrs. Pagnotta died, the “Bozzano-De Boni Library” was inaugurated in Bologna, governed by the Foundation with Ravaldini acting as its first President.

Ravaldino Progetto

The last fifteen years of his life were occupied with work designed to strengthen the Library (developing catalogs and indexes and fundraising), with the publication of Luce e Ombra, and with providing news, books, and copies of documents to scholars in Italy and abroad, as well as with supporting students engaged in master theses on “occult” topics. In addition to this Ravaldini answered questions that came in from all over the world and compiled new books that were destined to be published by different publishers, among these, anthologies of excerpts from old issues of Luce e Ombra (with his prefaces),2-4 a biography of Ernesto Bozzano5 (the only of Ravaldini’s books to be included in the Library of Congress in the United States), a summary of the séances that he attended in his early years,6 a “spiritual” autobiography,7 the communications recently received through a (currently active) medium,8 and a collection of a long series of old lectures on classical mediumship.9 He worked at his usual activities until the last weeks of his life. His last essay, an article on the psychic abilities of animals, was published in the third volume of Luce e Ombra in 2015.10

Ravaldini Realta e Mistero

  1. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M., Stevenson, I. The case of Giuseppe Riccardi: An unusual drop-in communicator in Italy. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 1990, 56, 257-265.
  2. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. Le tracce dell’anima, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1901-1925 [Traces of the soul. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1901-1925]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 1998.
  3. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. La realtà dell’anima, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1926-1950 [The Reality of the soul. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1926-1950]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 1999.
  4. Ravaldini, S., Biondi, M. Il potere dello spirito, scelta di brani dalla rivista Luce e Ombra, 1951-1975 [Powers of the spirit. Excerpts from Luce e Ombra, 1951-1975]. Rome: GSE Edizioni, 2000.
  5. Ravaldini, S. Ernesto Bozzano e la ricerca psichica: Vita e opere di un pioniere della parapsicologia [Ernesto Bozzano and psychical research: Life and work of a pioneer of parapsychology]. Edizioni Mediterranee, Roma 1993.
  6. Ravaldini, S. Realtà e mistero: Esperienze di vita vissuta a contatto con i fenomeni paranormali [Reality and mystery: Life experiences in contact with paranormal phenomena]. Bologna: Casa Editrice Conti, 1988.
  7. Ravaldini, S., with Dotti, L. Il progetto della mia anima: Una vita a contatto con la medianità [My soul’s project. A life in contact with mediumship]. Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 2015.
  8. Dotti, L., Ravaldini, S. Colloqui con le anime: Grandi personaggi ci parlano [Talks with souls: Great personalities communicate with us]. Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, 2014.
  9. Ravaldini, S. La medianità 1840-2000. I medium, i fenomeni prodotti e gli studi fatti su di loro. [Mediumship 1840-2000: Mediums, their phenomena, and studies done on them]. Unpublished.
  10. Ravaldini, S. I misteri del mondo animale, [Mysteries of the animal world]. Luce e Ombra 2015, 115(3), 223-232.



Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

An important new meta-analysis of ESP experiments has been published, “Feeling the Future: A Meta-analysis of 90 Experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future Events,” by Daryl Bem, Patrizio Tressoldi, Thomas Rabeyron, and Michael Duggan (F1000Research, 2015, 4,1188 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7177.1).

Daryl Bem

Daryl Bem

A non technical summary of this article has been prepared by the authors. My thanks to Daryl Bem for allowing me to reproduce it here:

“In 2011, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology published a report of nine experiments by Cornell Professor Daryl Bem purporting to demonstrate that an individual’s cognitive and emotional responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made, a generalized form of the phenomenon traditionally denoted by the term precognition (Bem, 2011).”

“Each of the experiments modified a well-established psychological phenomenon by reversing the usual time-sequence of stimulus-response events so that an individual’s responses were obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events had occurred. The hypothesis in each case was that the time-reversed or precognitive version of the experiment would produce the same result as the standard non-time-reversed experiment. For example, one of psychology’s oldest and well-established phenomena is that individuals are more likely to make a response that had been rewarded in the past than one that had not been rewarded. The time-reversed version of this phenomenon tested whether individuals are more likely to make a response that would be rewarded in the near future.”

“On each trial of the experiment, the participant was presented with two curtains displayed side by-side on a computer screen. The participant was told that an erotic photograph was behind one of the curtains and a blank wall was behind the other. The participant’s challenge was to select the curtain that concealed the erotic photograph. Actually however, the computer waited until the participant had already made his or her choice before it randomly selected the curtain that would conceal the erotic photograph. If the participant had selected that curtain then it opened to reveal an erotic photograph and the trial was scored as a hit; if the participant had selected the other curtain, a blank gray wall appeared and the trial was scored as a miss. A participant’s final score was the percentage of hits achieved. This experiment was titled “Precognitive detection of erotic stimuli.” Several other well-established psychological phenomena were tested using the time reversed procedure; all showed the predicted precognitive effects.”

“The controversial nature of these results prompted the Journal’s editors to publish an accompanying editorial justifying their decision to publish the report and expressing their hope that attempts at replication would follow. Most scientists agree that the critical test of controversial findings is whether or not independent investigators can successfully replicate them, and the major analytic tool for answering this question is called meta-analysis: Whereas the analysis of a single experiment summarizes and evaluates observations across trials or participants, a meta-analysis summarizes and evaluates results across experiments.”

“Several years before the formal publication of the 2011 article, Bem began to encourage such replications by offering free, comprehensive packages that included detailed instructions for conducting the experiments, computer software for running the experimental sessions, and programs for collecting and analyzing the data. As a result, two years after the publication of Bem’s experiments, we were able to locate 69 independent replications of those experiments and a few related precognition experiments that were not designed to be replications of those experiments. When Bem’s own experiments are included, the complete database comprises 90 experiments from 33 different laboratories located in 14 different countries. A total of 12,406 individuals participated in these experiments.”

“Statistical Analysis of the Results

In evaluating the results of an experiment or set of experiments, two quantities are of prime interest: Its “effect size”: How big is the observed effect? And its “statistical significance,” the probability that the observed effect might simply be due to chance.”

Effect Size. Expressing the effect size achieved by an experiment is sometimes quite straightforward. For example, in the erotic detection experiment described above, a participant chooses between two equally-likely curtains on each trial. If there is no precognition operating in the experiment—if only chance is operating—than we would expect participants to achieve an average hit rate of 50%. The hit rate actually observed in Bem’s original experiment was 53%.”

“This effect size may appear trivially small, but it is not. For example, the United States Presidential election of 2008 was considered to be a near-landslide victory for Barack Obama because he won 53% of the popular vote. Another example is the roulette wheel. It contains 36 numbered holes on which a player can place a bet. In addition to betting on a single hole, a player can bet that the ball will land on an even- or an odd-numbered hole or on a red- or black colored hole. To the player, these can appear to be even 50-50 bets. But an American roulette wheel actually contains two additional holes “0” and “00.” If the ball lands on either of these, the casino wins. This means that casinos actually win 53% of these bets—and they’re not complaining. In principle, a roulette player with the same degree of precognitive ability as participants in the erotic-detection experiment could erase the casino’s advantage. European roulette wheels contain only one additional hole, so those casinos win only 51% of the bets.”

“Because different experiments measure many different kinds of variables, psychologists have developed standard measures of an experiment’s effect size that are independent of whatever variable was actually measured. As a rough rule of thumb, a standardized effect size of .8 or greater is considered to be “large.” An example is the obvious average height difference between 13- and 18-year old girls. An effect size of .5 is considered to be “medium,” which is still big enough to be visible to the naked eye of someone with experience observing the variable; an example is the average IQ difference between clerical and semiskilled workers. Finally, an effect size of .2 is considered to be “small,” and is typical of effect sizes in many areas of psychological research (Cohen, 1988). For example, the average effect size of 25,000 social psychological experiments spanning 100 years of research is .21 (Richard, Bond, & Stokes-Zoota, 2003). The 53% result of Bem’s erotic-detection experiment translates into a standardized effect size of .25, and the average effect size across all nine of his experiments is .22.”

“A new method specifically designed for estimating the “true” effect size of experiments in a meta-analysis has recently been developed and tested extensively on pre-existing data (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014). Using this method, the overall effect size of our database is .20, very similar to that of Bem’s original experiments. (The older, more traditional method for estimating the effect size yields a smaller estimate of approximately .10.) If we exclude Bem’s original experiments, then the effect size of the 69 independent replications in our database is .24.”

“Again it is instructive to compare these effect sizes with others from publicly familiar examples. An example is the widely publicized medical study that sought to determine whether a daily dose of aspirin can prevent heart attacks (Steering Committee of the Physicians Health Study Research Group, 1988). That study was discontinued after six years because it was already clear that the aspirin treatment was effective and it was considered unethical to keep the control group on placebo medication. Even though the study was considered a major medical breakthrough, the size of the aspirin effect is only about .07, approximately one third the size of the precognition studies (McCartney & Rosenthal, 2000).”

Statistical Significance. Psychologists have adopted the convention that an effect may be called “statistically significant” if the probability that it would have occurred by chance is less than 1/20 (or 5% or .05). Survey researchers use this same convention: If a survey researcher announces that candidate A is ahead of candidate B, it means that the difference between the two of them is sufficiently large that it would occur less than 5% of the time if only chance were operating. If the difference between the two candidates is too small to satisfy this criterion, they are said to be in a statistical tie or dead heat.”

“The probability that the results of Bem’s original experiments are due to chance is 1011, much smaller than the .05 criterion for statistical significance. In other words, the probability that his results would have occurred by chance is approximately 1 in 100 billion. The significance level for the 69 independent replications of his original experiments in our database is approximately 10-5 or 1 in 100,000, again much smaller that the .05 criterion for statistical significance.”

“The results of our meta-analysis do not stand alone. Bem’s precognitive experiments can be viewed as conceptual replications of what are known as “presentiment” experiments, in which physiological measures of participants’ emotional arousal are monitored as they view a series of pictures on a computer screen. Most of the pictures are emotionally neutral, but on randomly selected trials, a highly arousing erotic or negative image is displayed. As expected, participants show strong physiological arousal when these images appear, but the important “presentiment” finding is that the arousal is observed to occur a few seconds before the picture actually appears on the screen—even before the computer has randomly selected the picture to be displayed. In a meta-analysis of presentiment experiments, the effect size was .21, virtually identical to both Bem’s experiments and those in our meta-analysis (Mossbridge, Tressoldi, & Utts, 2012).”

“The Problem of Missing Studies: The File-Drawer Effect

It is widely acknowledged that successful studies in scientific fields are more likely to be submitted and accepted for publication than unsuccessful studies. As a consequence, conclusions that are drawn from meta-analyses based on the known studies can be misleading because we don’t know how many unsuccessful studies are left languishing in the file drawers of their investigators—hence the term File-Drawer Effect. For our meta-analysis, we expended intensive effort to identify and include both published and unpublished replication attempts. There are also several statistical techniques for estimating the extent to which the absence of unknown studies might be biasing a meta-analysis. In our article we report on nine of these techniques.”

“The most commonly used technique examines the relationship across studies in the meta-analysis between the effect size of each study and the number of sessions it contained to estimate how many unsuccessful studies are likely to be missing. For our meta-analysis, this technique yielded an estimate of only eight studies with low or trivial effect sizes that might be missing from our database. In addition, we calculated the number of unsuccessful studies that would be required to nullify the overall effect size of our database if they existed and were to be included. The answer was 544 unsuccessful studies. That is, there would have to be 544 unsuccessful studies missing from our database to reduce its overall effect size to a trivial level. In conjunction with the results from all the other analyses, we therefore conclude that the file-drawer effect has not compromised our meta-analysis.”

“General Discussion

Precognition is one of several phenomena in which individuals appear to have access to “nonlocal” information, that is, to information that would not normally be available to them through any currently known physical or biological process. These phenomena, collectively referred to as psi, include telepathy, access to another person’s thoughts without the mediation of any known channel of sensory communication; clairvoyance, the apparent perception of objects or events that do not provide a stimulus to the known senses; and precognition, the anticipation of future events that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known inferential process.”

“Psi is a controversial subject, and most academic psychologists do not believe that psi phenomena are likely to exist. A survey of 1,188 college professors in the United States revealed that psychologists were much more skeptical about psi than respondents in the humanities, the social sciences, or the physical sciences, including physics, They are more than twice as likely as respondents in other disciplines to assert that psi is impossible (34% to 16%) (Wagner & Monnet, 1979).”

“One frequently cited argument for being skeptical about psi is that there is no explanatory theory or proposed mechanism for psi phenomena that is compatible with current physical and biological principles. Historically, of course, the discovery and scientific exploration of most phenomena have preceded explanatory theories, often by decades (e.g., the analgesic effect of aspirin; the anti-depressant effect of electroconvulsive therapy) or even centuries (e.g., electricity and magnetism, explored in ancient Greece as early as 600 BC, remained without theoretical explanation until the Nineteenth Century). The incompatibility of psi with our current conceptual model of physical reality may say less about psi than about the conceptual model of physical reality that most non-physicists, including psychologists, still take for granted—but which physicists no longer do.”

“As is widely known, the conceptual model of physical reality changed dramatically for physicists during the 20th Century, when quantum theory predicted and experiments confirmed the existence of several phenomena that are themselves incompatible with our everyday Newtonian conception of physical reality. Some psi researchers see sufficiently compelling parallels between certain quantum phenomena (e.g., quantum entanglement) and characteristics of psi to warrant considering them as potential mechanisms for psi phenomena. Moreover, specific mechanisms have been proposed that seek to explain psi effects with theories more testable and falsifiable than simple metaphor.”

“Although very few physicists are likely to be interested in pursuing explanations for psi, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has now sponsored two conferences of physicists and psi researchers specifically organized to discuss the extent to which precognition and retrocausation can be reconciled with current or modified versions of quantum theory (Sheehan, 2006, 2011).”

“Ironically, even if quantum-based theories of psi eventually do mature from metaphor to genuinely predictive models, they are still not likely to provide intuitively satisfying descriptive mechanisms for psi because quantum theory itself fails to provide such mechanisms for physical reality.”

“As physicist and Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman (1994) advised, “Do not keep saying to yourself… ‘but how can it be like that?’ because you will get…into a blind alley from which nobody has yet escaped. Nobody knows how it can be like that (p. 123).”

“Meanwhile the data increasingly compel the conclusion that it really is like that. Perhaps in the future, we will be able to make the same statement about psi.”


Bem, D. J. (2011). Feeling the future: Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 407–doi:10.1037/a0021524

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Feynman, R. (1994). The character of physical law. New York, NY: Modern Library.

McCartney, K., & Rosenthal, R. (2000). Effect size, practical importance, and social policy for children. Child Development, 71(1), 173-180.

Mossbridge J, Tressoldi P and Utts J. (2012). Predictive physiological anticipation preceding seemingly unpredictable stimuli: a meta-analysis. Frontiers of Psychology 3:390. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00390.

Richard, F. D., Bond, C. F. Jr. & Stokes-Zoota, J. J. (2003). One hundred years of social psychology quantitatively described. Review of General Psychology, 7(4), 331-363.

Sheehan, D. P. (Ed.) (2006). Frontiers of time: Retrocausation—experiment and theory. AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1408), San Diego, California. Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics.

Sheehan, D. P. (Ed.) (2011). Quantum retrocausation—theory and experiment. AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 863), San Diego, California. Melville, New York: American Institute of Physics.

Simonsohn, U., Nelson, L. D., & Simmons, J. P. (2014). p-Curve and effect size: Correcting for publication bias using only significant results. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9: 666-681. DOI: 10.1177/1745691614553988

Steering Committee of the Physicians Health Study Research Group. (1988). Preliminary report:

Findings from the aspirin component of the ongoing physicians’ health study. The New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 262- 264.

+ + + + + +

Here is the abstract of the published article:

In 2011, one of the authors (DJB) published a report of nine experiments in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology purporting to demonstrate that an individual’s cognitive and affective responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made and recorded, a generalized variant of the phenomenon traditionally denoted by the term precognition. To encourage replications, all materials needed to conduct them were made available on request. We here report a meta-analysis of 90 experiments from 33 laboratories in 14 countries which yielded an overall effect greater than 6 sigma, z = 6.40, p = 1.2 × 10-10 with an effect size (Hedges’ g) of 0.09. A Bayesian analysis yielded a Bayes Factor of 1.4 × 109, greatly exceeding the criterion value of 100 for “decisive evidence” in support of the experimental hypothesis. When DJB’s original experiments are excluded, the combined effect size for replications by independent investigators is 0.06, z = 4.16, p = 1.1 × 10-5, and the BF value is 3,853, again exceeding the criterion for “decisive evidence.” The number of potentially unretrieved experiments required to reduce the overall effect size of the complete database to a trivial value of 0.01 is 544, and seven of eight additional statistical tests support the conclusion that the database is not significantly compromised by either selection bias or by “p-hacking”—the selective suppression of findings or analyses that failed to yield statistical significance. P-curve analysis, a recently introduced statistical technique, estimates the true effect size of our database to be 0.20, virtually identical to the effect size of DJB’s original experiments (0.22) and the closely related “presentiment” experiments (0.21). We discuss the controversial status of precognition and other anomalous effects collectively known as psi.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

On Saturday, November 14th, the Parapsychology Foundation is hosting its PF Book Expo 2015 with six presentations on new books.

Register for a free account on and then click on the course link:

The event starts at 9:30am Eastern and runs through 5:30pm. All the talks will be recorded and will be available in the course and later on, also available on the Parapsychology Foundation YouTube Channel. Information about the books, and links to the publishers and Amazon are available in the course as well. Registration will stay open for a couple of years!


  • 9:30am Eastern, Lisette Coly and Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone, Opening Session
  • 10:00am Eastern, Prof Etzel Cardeña on Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century
  • 11:00am Eastern, David Jaher on The Witch of Lime Street: Séance, Seduction and Houdini in the Spirit World
  • 1:00pm Eastern, Allene Symons on Aldous Huxley’s Hands: His Quest for Perception and the Origin and Return of Psychedelic Science
  • 2:00pm Eastern, Dr. Ed Kelly on Beyond Physicalism: Towards a Reconciliation of Science and Spirituality
  • 3:00pm Eastern, Dr. Jim Tucker on Return to Life: Extraordinary Cases of Children Who Remember Previous Lives
  • 4:00pm Eastern, Dr. Ed May on Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism and Science (Vol. 1) and Extrasensory Perception: Theories of Psi
  • 5:00pm Eastern, Lisette Coly and Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone, Closing Session

Parapsychology Foundation Book Expo 2015 Illustration

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Although there are many reports of out-of-body experiences published during the nineteenth-century, few are as detailed and unique as that reported by famous medium Daniel Dunglas Home, who lived between 1833 and 1886.

D.D. Home

D.D. Home

The account presented here is taken from Home’s autobiography Incidents in my Life (2nd ed., London: F. Pitman 1864). The experience took place in 1854 in a period during which the medium lived in Newburgh, NY, on the Hudson River. He wrote:

“One evening I had been pondering deeply on that change which the world calls death, and on the eternity that lies beyond, until wearied I found relief in prayer, and then in sleep. My last waking consciousness had been that of perfect trust in God, and a sense of gratitude to Him for the enjoyment I received from contemplating the beauties of the material creation . . . . It appeared to me that, as I closed my eyes to earthly things, an inner perception was quickened within me, till at last reason was as active as when I was awake. I, with vivid distinctness, remember asking myself the question, whether I was asleep or no? when, to my amazement, I heard a voice which seemed so natural, that my heart bounded with joy as I recognised it as the voice of one, who while on earth was far too pure for such a world as ours, and who, in passing to that brighter home had promised to watch over and protect me . . . . She said, ‘Fear not, Daniel, I am near you; the vision you are about to have is that of death, yet you will not die. Your spirit must again return to the body in a few hours. Trust in God and his good angels: all will be well.’ Here the voice became lost [p. 43] . . . away . . . . This was but momentary, for almost instantaneously came rushing with a fearful rapidity memories of the past; my thoughts bore the semblance of realities, and every action appeared as an eternity of existence. During the whole time I was aware of a benumbing and chilling sensation which stole over my body, but the more inactive my nervous system became, the more active was my mind, till at length I felt as if I had fallen from the brink of some fearful precipice, and as I fell, all became obscure, and my whole body became one dizzy mass, only kept alive by a feeling of terror, until sensation and thought simultaneously ceased, and I knew no more. How long I had lain thus I know not, but soon I felt that I was about to awaken in a most dense obscurity; terror had now given place to a pleasurable feeling, accompanied by a certitude of some one dearly loved being near me, yet invisible . . . instinctively I realized that beyond the surrounding obscurity lay an ocean of silver-toned light. I was at this instant brought to a consciousness of light, by seeing the whole of my nervous system, as it were, composed of thousands of electrical scintillations, which here and there, as in the created nerve, took the form of currents, darting their rayons over the whole body in a manner most marvellous; still this was but a cold electrical light and besides, it was external. Gradually, however, I saw that the extremities were less luminous, and the finer membranes surrounding the brain became as it were glowing, and I felt that thought and action were no longer connected with the earthly tenement, but that they were in a spirit-body in every respect similar to the body which I knew to have been mine, and which I now saw lying motionless before me on the bed. The only link which held the two forms together [p. 44] seemed to be a silvery-like light, which proceeded from the brain; and, as if it were a response to my earlier waking thoughts, the same voice, only that it was now more musical than before, said, ‘Death is but a second birth, corresponding in every respect to the natural birth, and should the uniting link now be severed, you could never again enter the body. As I told you, however, this will not be . . . .’ ”

Home Incidents in My Life 2nd ed 1864“It now appeared to me that I was waking from a dream of darkness to a sense of light; but such a glorious light. Never did earthly sun shed such rays, strong in beauty, soft in love, warm in life-giving glow, and as my last idea of earthly light had been the reflex of my own body, so now this heavenly light came from those I saw standing about me. Yet the light was not of their creating, but was shed on them from a higher and purer source . . . and now I was bathed in light, and about me were those for whom I had sorrowed . . . One that I had never known on earth then drew near and said, ‘You will come with me, Daniel.’ I could only reply, that it was impossible to move, inasmuch as I could not feel that my nature had a power over my new spirit-body. To this he replied, ‘Desire and you will accomplish your desires which are not sinful, desires being as prayers to the Divinity, and He answereth the every prayer of His children.’ ” [p. 45]

“For the first time I now looked to see what sustained my body, and I found that it was but a purple tinted cloud, and that as I desired to go onward with my guide, the cloud appeared as if disturbed by a gentle breeze, and in its movements I found I was wafted upward until I saw the earth, as a vision, far, far below us. Soon, I found that we had drawn nearer, and were just hovering over a cottage that I had never seen; and I also saw the inmates, but had never met them in life. The walls of the cottage were not the least obstruction to my sight, they were only as if constructed of a dense body of air, yet perfectly transparent, and the same might be said of every article of furniture. I perceived that the inmates were asleep, and I saw the various spirits who were watching over the sleepers . . . .”

“I was most deeply interested in all this, when my guide said, ‘We must now return.’ When I found myself near my body, I turned to the one who had remained near my bed, and said, ‘Why must I return so soon, for it can be but a few moments I have been with you, and I would fain see more, and remain near you longer?’ She replied, ‘It is now many hours since you came to us; but here we take no cognizance of time, and as you are here in spirit, you too have lost this knowledge; we would have you with us, but this must not be at present. Return to earth, love your fellow-creatures, love truth, and in so doing, you will serve the God of infinite love, who careth for and loveth all. May the Father of mercies bless you, Daniel!’ ”

“I heard no more, but seemed to sink as in a swoon, [p. 46] until consciousness was merged into a feeling that earth with its trials lay before me . . . . And when I opened my eyes to material things, I found that the little star had given way to the sun, which had been above the horizon about four hours; making in all about eleven hours that this vision had lasted. My limbs were so dead, that at least half an hour elapsed before I could reach the bell rope, to bring any one to my assistance, and it was only by continued friction that, at the end of an hour, I had sufficient force to enable me to stand upright” [p. 47].

I assume the parts in which the medium wrote about what the voices said were reconstructed from memory. Nonetheless, I found interesting Home’s statement about the “link which held the two forms together,” described as a “silvery-like light,” a possible reference to the “silver cord.”

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Théodore Flournoy

Théodore Flournoy

Another one of my articles about past developments in psychical research was just published. Following on a previous overview of the work of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy, in the article commented here Nancy L. Zingrone  and I focus on the reception of Flournoy’s most important work: “Note on the Reception of Théodore Flournoy’s Des Indes à la Planète Mars” (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 2015, 79, 156-164).

Flournoy Des Indes a la Planete MarsFlournoy From India to the Planet Mars Title Page

As stated in the introduction:

“The book is generally considered a classic of mediumship literature, and was devoted to the mediumship of Hélène Smith, the pseudonym of Catherine Élise Müller (1861–1929). Those who are familiar with the book . . . will be aware that Flournoy presented psychological analyses of the medium’s phenomena. These included her control Leopold, as well as communications about her presumed previous lives in India as a princess and in France as Marie Antoinette, and her travels to and descriptions of Mars, including the development of a Martian language. At the end of his book Flournoy refers to various psychological processes that he believed explained the manifestations, such as the effect of early traumatic events on dissociation, latent emotional tendencies, the suggestibility and auto-suggestibility surrounding mediums in general, and cryptomnesia.”

Leopold's Writing

Leopold’s Writing



“Des Indes made an impact soon after it was published. Flournoy’s case ‘became a key addition to the other paradigm cases of mediumship and multiple personality that defined the era’ (Taylor, 2009, p. 41). For those convinced of Flournoy’s arguments, the book soon became an exemplar of psychological explanations of mediumship. But for others Des Indes represented an unwarranted and hostile analysis of mediumship.”

James H. Hyslop

James H. Hyslop

Some comments about the book, which was translated into English, appeared in popular publications, such as newspapers and magazines. An example was an article in the North American Review by American philosopher and psychical researcher James H. Hyslop (1900). Who wrote: “Leopold, Marie Antoinette, and the Martian inhabitant ought to have given us some evidence of personal identity, as in the ‘communicators’ of the Piper case, if Mlle. Smith expects us to believe in spirits, and it is their absolute failure to satisfy this demand that justifies M. Flournoy’s sceptical position” (p. 745).

Hyslop From India North American Review ArticleMany others praised the book in scholarly publications. As we wrote:

Giuseppe Serge

Giuseppe Serge

Des Indes, wrote anthropologist Giuseppe Serge (1841-1936) in his book Animismo e Spiritismo, should be seen as a model of research about phenomena supporting the belief of spiritists (Sergi, 1903, p. 54). In this author’s view, while Flournoy had not explained everything, he had explained much, and his approach provided a ‘starting point for research and analysis’ (p. 55).”

Sergi Animismo

Frederic W.H. Myers

Frederic W.H. Myers

Praise also came from Frederic W.H. Myers. First in a review of the book published in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, which was later incorporated in his Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death. “In his view Flournoy had confirmed his (Myers’s) belief that the action of the subliminal was a continuous process and not a mere sporadic action. Myers argued that it was to be expected that the subliminal mind presented such cases of ‘pseudo-possession,’ cases similar to the action of discarnate spirits. Most of his review of Des Indes was incorporated later into his last work (Myers, 1903), in which it provided support for his conception of the subliminal mind. Here Myers referred to the case as his ‘culminant example of the free scope and dominant activity of the unassisted subliminal self’ ” (Myers, 1903, Vol. 2, p. 144).”

Myers Human Personality 4

Gabriel Delanne

Gabriel Delanne

Finally, we mentioned the critiques of spiritists, among them French engineer Gabriel Delanne. He was “sceptical of the capabilities of the subconscious mind and considered Flournoy an ‘adversary of spiritism’ (Delanne, 1902, p. 463).

In the Revue Spirite another critic stated: “More changing that Proteus, more subtle than X-rays, more learned that a psychologist, the ‘Subconscious’ of M. Flournoy has all the skills, all the faculties, all knowledge. A child of the scientific imagination, gifted at birth with all talents by the wand of the ‘Glossolalia’ fairy, it has been created to respond to all the spiritist objections, and you can be assured that it will not abandon its mission” (Conscient, 1902, p. 187).

Revue Spirite 1902Overall the reception to Des Indes reflected the multiple conception of the mind existing at the time. For some psychologists it was an affirmation of the powers of non-conscious levels of the mind, and an incredible argument for spiritists, who felt threatened by Flournoy’s use of psychological ideas.

“Paying attention to the reception of Flournoy’s work both adds to our understanding of his research, and allows us to situate him in a wider historical context. By illustrating the complex way in which philosophers, physicians, and psychologists—from those skeptical of the notion of spirit agency and those who defended it—thought about mediumship and the subconscious mind, we can better understand the competing interests and theoretical views that were prevalent in the era . . . Knowledge of these issues may be useful to students of intellectual history and the history of science and medicine, as well as to current students of mediumship in their attempts to evaluate the reception of modern claims about the source of such ‘communications.’ ”

 Martian House and Landscape

Martian House and Landscape



Conscient, H. (1902). La Société d’Études Psychiques de Genève. Revue Spirite: Journal d’Études Psychologiques, 45, 187.

Delanne, G. (1902). Recherches sur la Médiumnité. Paris: Librairie des Science Psychiques.

Hyslop, J.H. (1900). “From India to the Planet Mars.” North American Review, 171, 734–747.

Myers, F.W.H. (1903). Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death (2 vols). London: Longmans, Green.

Sergi, G. (1903). Animismo e Spiritismo. Turin: Fratelli Bocca.

Taylor, E. (2009). The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. New York: Springer.


Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

One frequently hears criticisms of academic publishing, and of the pressures in academia to publish or perish. But while there are good critiques, I believe, along with many colleagues, that academic publishing is essential for parapsychology to move forward and to present a good image of its scientific and scholarly work.

When I mention academic publishing I am referring to refereed publications. This includes most serious journals of various disciplines and some academic and scholarly book publishers who care about the expertise of their authors and editors.

While there is a literature of this sort in our field (for examples click here, here, and here), we have, unfortunately, a high quantity of research that remains unpublished in our scientific and scholarly literature. It is not helpful to say that many things go unpublished as well in other fields because parapsychology has so few workers and for us, the importance of publishing cannot be properly compared to other more established disciplines.

It’s not that nothing is being published. But I sometimes hear about experiments on remote viewing and macro-PK, or field studies (e.g., poltergeists) that are talked about repeatedly but never seem to get published. Similarly for years I have heard mention of research supposedly conducted by the associated members of a research center, but none of that research ever seems to be completed, much less published. This type of situation gets even more complicated when unpublished research is tied up with monetary and public relations interests and is used to bolster or support the reputation of the place. While such practices may help the research center involved, for the field as whole, it looks as if even more research is out there that has never been written up.

It is true that the percentage of unpublished to properly published research is an old problem for our field. It has never been difficult to find papers in past proceedings and among the current abstracts of papers presented in the annual conventions of the Parapsychological Association that have not been published, even years after they have been presented. Unfortunately many of these papers are used in meta-analyses. Recently I examined one of these meta-analyses and found that 30% of the papers used in the analysis were unpublished PA papers. These papers, one must keep in mind, are generally shorter that journal papers, and may lack information that would be included in journal publications. In addition to which, any future researcher will have a hard time getting copies of these papers precisely because they are unpublished.

These days though, we have the added problem of the proliferation of informal publishing outlets. Many field investigators study poltergeist and haunting cases that never get published, or that get summarized on websites or in popular books that generally lack the details necessary to evaluate the quality of the case, much less consider the depiction of it a scientific publication. And then there is the problem that few of the case reports posted to websites or included in popular books have had the benefit of expert peer review. Even worse, we live in a time when popular publications regularly get confused by the general public with serious academic reports. This does not raise the image of our field among mainstream scientists, and does much to confuse students and new researchers in our field who are searching for our best evidence.

If you believe as I do that science needs to correct its own mistakes and that replication is key to progress, then the importance of academic, scholarly and scientific publication becomes obvious.

Leaving laziness, apathy and anti-intellectualism aside, there are sometimes very good reasons for the lack of publication. Many people do not have stable professional positions and have left the field after their work was done but before they were able to publish it. In one case a good proportion of the work had to be kept secret for years because of constraints laid upon it by government funders. But then there are other cases I know in which people seem to have had the possibility of preparing their materials for peer-reviewed publication but have not done so. Encouragement for and appreciation of taking that final step in the scientific process can help those people find the motivation to get their work into peer-reviewed print.

My point here is not to condemn people, but to point out that this situation is particularly onerous for our field. Not only is parapsychology’s image as a science diminished when we have to rely on popular books, and unpublished writings as the source of the field’s findings, but such a situation is particularly problematic in a field like ours where so few of us are actually able to conduct research.

Parapsychology needs to rise to the challenge: whenever possible research results need to be published in peer-reviewed journals, whether parapsychology-specific journals or in the journals of other disciplines. And the primary research institutions of the field, whether private or public, need to encourage scientific reporting in academic or scholarly books or in peer-reviewed journals among their staff and associates, as well as encourage reading the peer-reviewed literature even if it requires more preparation and more effort than the popular materials. Science and scholarship progresses on the presence of visible, accessible, well-designed, well-done, well-reported, properly vetted and published materials. The same is true for our field. Granted this is an old goal for our field, but it is one that we need to achieve.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am happy to post an interview with Dr. Etzel Cardeña, whose work has been discussed in this blog before (click here, here, and here). I first met Etzel in 1984 when he came to the Institute of Parapsychology at Durham, North Carolina, for their Summer Study Program, where I was teaching.

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Etzel, who has a PhD in psychology (with emphasis on Personality Psychology) from the University of California, Davis, is currently the Poul Thorsen Professor of Psychology at Lund University, in Sweden. In addition to his work in parapsychology, he is internationally known for his work on hypnosis and for various contributions to the literature on dissociation and trauma.

Cardena Varieties 2In addition to this work and supervising graduate students, Etzel has become known for editing comprehensive anthologies that have been very influential, work done together with other colleagues. One of them is Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2014, 2nd ed.), edited with Steven J. Lynn and Stanley Krippner. This is a groundbreaking work not only in its conception and structure, but also because it was published by the American Psychological Association. Another fascinating anthology was Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (co-edited with Michael Winkelman, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011), which I believe is the best source today for information about altered states of consciousness. More recently Etzel edited, with John Palmer and David Marcusson-Clavertz, Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015). This is the one of the most important reference works on contemporary parapsychology.

Cardena AlteringCardena et al ParapsychologyEtzel is one of the most eminent psychologists involved with parapsychology in recent times. Evidence for this are the more than 20 awards he has received throughout his career. A few of them are: Charles Honorton Integrative Contributions Award (Parapsychological Association, 2013), Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Hypnosis (Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, 2007), Morton Prince Award for cumulative contribution to research on dissociative disorders (International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 1999), Pierre Janet Award for the best clinical, theoretical or research paper, (International Society for the Study of Dissociation, 2012), and College of Social and Behavioral Sciences Award for Excellence in Research (University of Texas, 2004).


How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I still remember vividly listening to my parents discuss J. B. Rhine’s research when I was a child in México. My father was a psychoanalyst with a great interest in parapsychology who held courses on the topic and discussed it with my also very well-read mother and us. He conducted informal exercises with family and friends trying to develop ostensible telepathy and clairvoyance and published with my brother a serial on parapsychology for the layperson. Although he did not use experimental controls I was still very impressed at times, particularly by a friend of the family who had an uncanny ability to diagnose precisely someone whose name had just been given to her. Growing up I took psi phenomena as a given and read some parapsychology research books besides the s/f speculations in books like Childhood’s End and More than Human.

Some years later, while doing a Ph. D. under Charley Tart on hypnosis, he encouraged me to attend an intensive parapsychology summer institute at the FRNM (currently the Rhine Research Center), around 1984. It was an unforgettable experience in so many different ways. The unsystematic knowledge about parapsychology I possessed became more solid and broad as I read a great amount of studies and attended the various lectures at the institute. I also participated in the research being conducted and got a book as a prize for scoring higher than other institute students in a PK experiment with a computer game (Poink) that Richard Broughton was conducting. In a ganzfeld study conducted by Nancy Zingrone  and others, I stumbled onto an indication of the complexities of the phenomena. I recall that I had a very clear and unusual image that I even drew (and I do not like to draw at all) before receiving feedback. When I was shown the target and the three decoys, I said about one of them that that was the exact image I had seen (and had the drawing as corroboration) whether that one was the target or not. As it turned out, the target was the image I ranked second. Other than parapsychology, during the institute I attended some extraordinary modern dance performances at the American Dance Festival at Duke University, and went on a boat trip through the Eno River with the other institute students, full of ominous signs and reminiscent in scary ways of James Dickey’s Deliverance. No one died or got injured but it was an unforgettable and eerie experience.

After my stay at the FRNM, I got a scholarship from the Parapsychology Foundation to conduct field research in Haiti on spirit possession, subscribed to the main parapsychology journals, and kept myself informed of the field through reading them and presenting at and attending the PA and Parapsychology Research Group meetings. Then, about 12 years ago, the Chair I now hold at Lund University in Sweden was advertised and I was offered the position, which has a remit on parapsychology and hypnosis, and which I thought (and continue to think) was a wonderful fit and professional opportunity.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I include my interest in psi phenomena within the field of alterations of consciousness and anomalous experiences. Plato/Socrates and a number of earlier and later thinkers have considered our ordinary state of consciousness as limiting and other modes of being as potentially able to reveal aspects of reality veiled to the ordinary state. Whether this is the case or not (and there are good reasons to believe it is), I think that alterations of consciousness need to be accounted for in any theory of consciousness and its relation to reality. From this perspective, I think that my main contributions to the field so far have been:

1) Normalizing anomalous experiences (including psi-related ones) within psychology through the two editions of Varieties of Anomalous Experience, published by a mainstream press (American Psychological Association), and other peer-reviewed books, papers and presentations. I have also tried to give some “cover,” to those who want to work in the field by co-organizing a published “Call for an Open, Informed Study of All Aspects of Consciousness,” signed by 100 current or past academics and published in a mainstream journal, as well as developing a very impressive list of eminent people from the past who were interested in psi, about to make its debut in the SPR psi webpages. My hope is that these publications will make it easier for faculty who are given the spiel that parapsychology is pseudoscience and that no “real” scientists take it seriously to argue that “real” and very eminent current scientists from Harvard, Stanford, Berkeley, Cambridge and other universities, besides figures from the past of the stature of Einstein, Planck, and Curie have supported research on the field.

2) The editing (see below) of an updated Handbook of Parapsychology, as well as upgrading the previous PA newsletter into the bulletin Mindfield, which I have now edited for 7 years.

3) Ongoing programmatic research on the relations between hypnosis, dissociation, alterations of consciousness, and performance in controlled psi experiments.

4) Linking psi phenomena to other disciplines (art and literature in a published paper, classical philosophy in a forthcoming paper).

5) Last but definitely not least, supervising doctoral students who will continue to work in the field. My previous doctoral student, Devin Terhune, got the Swedish award for the best young psychologist of that year, and David Marcusson-Clavertz has already published papers on psi and co-edited a book with me. I have another doctoral student doing important work on dissociation and trauma among young immigrants.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

This question can be either answered fairly in a book or succinctly in a couple of sentences. First, it strongly suggests (along with other phenomena discussed by Ed Kelly) that the current limitations to consciousness assumed by most materialist-reductionist models are fallacious. Second, and in agreement with a number of interpretations of quantum mechanics by such people as d’Espagnat and Stapp, it agrees with a model of a unified continuous aspect of reality. Finally, the link between alterations of consciousness and psi gives rise to the speculation, already considered by some classical Greek and Indian philosophers, that the filter of the ordinary state of consciousness might be more restrictive of certain aspects of reality than other states of consciousness.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

Where do I start? I have the advantage of also researching other areas that are more accepted and so I can bring an external perspective as well. One of the largest problems is the wrathful and prejudiced intolerance that characterizes so much of the anti-psi movement. You find the phobia that presumes that accepting parapsychology will bring about the end of science (I have never been able to follow that argument very well), and the petulance that just because some critics have not experienced these phenomena or they do not fit their cognitive schemas then those wanting to research them have to be cretins, spiritual fanatics, or worse. Related to this attitude is a more general arrogance in which some scientists assume that their current account of reality is final or close to final, and that any deviations from it are of course deluded, notwithstanding the history of science showing how “final” accounts of reality have been superseded by considerably different ones, and how much our capacity to know is limited by the nature of our receptors, our evolved limited rationality, and the nature of nature of nature itself. The anti-parapsychology movement has been very effective so far in marginalizing the field and exerted a very high cost on those who want to work in the field, with the main exception of Great Britain. The result is that there are preciously few researchers and theoreticians working in the area. As a comparison, a subfield of a subfield of a subfield, for instance the study of the P300 event related potential (ERP), attracts far more researchers, labs, and financial opportunities than all of parapsychology combined.

But there is also self-inflicted damage, in my view:

1) In agreement with at least one critic, there is a tendency among some (of the very few) researchers to go from one method or question to another, rather than to persevere with a promising question and conduct programmatic research on it to get a better comprehension, as is done by most successful mainstream researchers. For instance, at a recent PA I heard about a study that did not turn out as expected and the presenter explained why that might have occurred, but instead of testing that hypothesis in later studies, s/he declared that s/he would move to another question.

2) Considering parapsychology as an independent “discipline” is unrealistic. It is rather a cross-disciplinary topic of interest to psychologists, physicists, biologists, and so on. This has two consequences. The first is that it implies that psi research should be better integrated into larger disciplines (as researchers like Bem or theoreticians like Carpenter are doing), rather than remaining within a very small community. For instance, studies having both a psi and non-psi component are likely to make greater inroads than those just evaluating possible psi. The second is that, as with other topics, the greater the impact of the researcher in the larger discipline overall, the greater the likelihood that s/he will be heard by people not already commited to psi. For example, statisticians pay attention to Jessica Utts’s pronouncements about psi because of her general reputation as a statistician, not because of psi itself. Similarly, I have been able to publish papers on psi in mainstream journals probably because I am well-known for my work in other areas.

3) Considering the very meager resources in the psi field (and thanks to Bial, there are some rather than almost none), there should be far more inter-laboratory collaborations than is the case. For instance, I think that it is imperative to develop and test with a large number of participants a potential battery of task-related (as Rex Stanford has suggested) tests, psychological measures, and other indicators to determine who is likely to succeed in a psi experiment, and that this should be done as a collaborative enterprise. Even though I do not expect that we will find a strong indicator, even a moderate indicator would be of great help to increase our chances of evaluating phenomena more reliable.

4) Finally, I think that both extremes of granting unjustifiedly too much to critics instead of responding assertively to them, or claiming greater certainties about the nature of psi phenomena than are warranted does disservice to the field. In the first case it allows critics to get away with demonstrable falsehoods, does not require them to produce actual research to support their points, and does not discuss (the very real) limitations of psi research within the greater context of the limitations of empirical research in general. As for claims that we clearly understand psi phenomena, they crash against the reality of the field’s limited success in establishing the conditions under which results can be robustly replicated.

One final point is a problem that I have seen all too often in listservs and other specialized forums in which honest researchers who express doubt as to the evidence of some types of psi and/or point to contradictory evidence are personally attacked or assumed to be cognitively deficient. I know of at least one person who left the field because of this. Despite what I think is an idealization of people working in parapsychology as generally open and selfless, I have found the same dogmatism, egocentricity, and outright nastiness that I have observed in other groups. I am particularly aware of this since some members of the parapsychology community in Sweden started attacking me personally even before I arrived to Sweden, and they have continued their attacks now for more than 10 years, the longest and most malicious temper-tantrum I have ever witnessed.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

We (co-editors Etzel Cardeña, John Palmer and David Marcusson-Clavertz, with contributions from many of the most important workers in the field) just finished a major enterprise, an update of the 1977 Handbook of Parapsychology (Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century) that provides both a state-of-the-science account of psi research along with information on how to design experiments and analyze them statistically. The book is intended for those interested in the field as well as for beginning and experienced researchers.

One of my doctoral students and I finished recently the preliminary analyses and report of a study on ganzfeld, hypnosis, and the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI), which we will submit to a journal within the next few months. Although we did not replicate a previous strong correlation between psi z-scores and experiencing an altered state of consciousness, we did replicate moderate correlations between psi scores and low arousal and more focused attention that Chris Roe and collaborators have found in their research. Our results were also consistent with the MPI. We have transcribed the sessions from this and a previous telepathy experiment and at some point will see if quantitative and qualitative content analyses can evidence a relation between specific mentations and psi scoring or missing.

I finished a paper that presents the case for considering anomalous experiences (and potential anomalous events including psi) as essential for any model of consciousness, to be published in a mainstream encyclopedia on consciousness. We (past or current doctoral students and I) have many papers recently accepted or under revision on such related topics as the influence of hypnotizability and dissociation on the stream of consciousness and mind-wandering, and dissociation, posttraumatic symptomatology, and attachment styles among teenage immigrants to Sweden previously exposed to traumatic events. Collaborators from other universities and I are working on papers on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic and posttraumatic symptoms among breast cancer survivors. And if I am unable to control my masochistic tendencies, I might also accept invitations to write two books on alterations of consciousness, psi phenomena, and their ontological and epistemological implications.

Other than that, I am planning to direct the extraordinary play Krapp’s Last Tape by Samuel Beckett in the fall as Artistic Director of the International Theatre of Malmö, and of course enjoy all of life with the spark of my life Sophie and our little ones.

Selected Publications

Edited Books

Cardeña, E., Palmer, J., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (Eds.). (2015). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., & Facco, E. (Eds.) (2015). Non-Ordinary Mental Expressions. E-book Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.) (2014). Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Winkelman, M. (Eds.). (2011). Altering consciousness: Multidisciplinary perspectives (2 vols.). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Cardeña, E., & Croyle, K. (Eds.) (2005). Acute Reactions to Trauma and Psychotherapy: A Multidisciplinary and International Perspective. New York: Haworth Press. Also as special issue of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6(2).

Cardeña, E., & Nijenhuis, E. (2000). Embodied sorrow. Special issue on somatoform dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1.

Kirsch, I., Capafons, A., Cardeña, E., & Amigó, S. (Eds.) (1999). Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation therapy: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Cardeña, E., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). The influence of hypnotizability and dissociation on everyday mentation: An experience sampling study. Submitted for publication.

Cardeña, E. (in press). The unbearable fear of psi: On scientific censorship in the 21st century. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Cardeña, E., & Terhune, D. B. (in press). Daydreaming style moderates the relationship between working memory and mind-wandering: Towards an integration of two hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Cardeña, E. (in press). Anomalous experience. In M. Velmans (Ed.), The Blackwell companion of consciousness, 2nd ed. London, UK: Blackwell.

Schaffler, Y., Cardeña, E., Reijman, S., & Haluza, D. (in press). Traumatic experiences and somatoform dissociation among spirit possession practitioners in the Dominican Republic. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry.

Cardeña, E. (2015). On negative capability and parapsychology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2015). States, traits, beliefs, and psi. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century (pp. 110-124). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., Marcusson-Clavertz, D., & Palmer, J. (2015). Reintroducing parapsychology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz (Eds.). Parapsychology: A handbook for the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Cardeña, E., Reijman, S., Lawaetz Wimmelmann, C., & Jensen, C. G.. (2015). Psychological health, trauma, dissociation, absorption, and fantasy proneness among Danish spiritual practitioners. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2, 170-184.

Cardeña, E. & Terhune, D. B. (2014). Hypnotizability, personality traits, and the propensity to experience alterations of consciousness. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 292-307.

Cardeña, E., & Alvarado, C.S. (2014). Anomalous self and identity experiences. In E. Cardeña. S.J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of Anomalous Experiences (2nd ed., pp. 175-212). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E. (2014). Hypnos and psyche, or how hypnosis has contributed to the study of consciousness. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 123-138.

Cardeña, E. (2014). A call for an open, informed, study of all aspects of consciousness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2014). Anomalous experiences in perspective. In E. Cardeña, S. J., Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. 2nd ed, (pp. 3-20). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Pekala, R. J. (2014). Methodological issues in the study of altering consciousness and anomalous experience. In E. Cardeña, S. J., Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. 2nd ed. (pp. 21-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., Jönsson, P., Terhune, D. B., & Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2013). The neurophenomenology of neutral hypnosis. Cortex, 49, 375-385.

Cardeña, E., Iribas, A., & Reijman, S. (2012). Art and psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 3-25.

Marcusson-Clavertz, D., Terhune, D. B., & Cardeña, E., (2012). Individual differences and state effects on mind wandering: Hypnotizability, dissociation, and sensory homogenization. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1097-1108.

Cardeña, E., & Alvarado, C.S. (2011). Altered consciousness from the age of Enlightenment through mid-20th century. In E. Cardeña and M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives: Vol. 1: History, Culture and the Humanities (pp. 89-112). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Cardeña, E., & Carlson, E. (2011). Acute Stress Disorder revisited. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 245-267. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104502

Marcusson-Clavertz, D. & Cardeña, E., (2011). Hypnotizability, alterations in consciousness, and other variables as predictors of performance in a ganzfeld psi task. Journal of Parapsychology, 75, 235-259.

Terhune, D. B., Cardeña, E., & Lindgren, M. (2011). Differential frontal-parietal connectivity during hypnosis as a function of hypnotic suggestibility. Psychophysiology, 48, 1444-1447. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01211.x

Moreira-Almeida, A., & Cardeña, E. (2011). Differential diagnosis between non-pathological psychotic and spiritual experiences and mental disorders: A contribution from Latin American studies to the ICD-11. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 33 Suppl. 1, S29-S36.

Cardeña, E. (2011). On wolverines and epistemological totalitarianism. (Guest editorial). Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 539-551.

Cardeña, E. (2011). Altered consciousness in emotion and psychopathology. In E. Cardeña, & M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering consciousness. Multidisciplinary perspectives. Volume II. Biological and psychological perspectives (pp. 279-299). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Granqvist, P., Reijman, S. & Cardeña E. (2011). Altered consciousness and human development. In E. Cardeña, & M. Winkelman. Altering consciousness. Multidisciplinary perspectives. Volume II. Biological and psychological perspectives (pp. 211-234). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Terhune, D. B., & Cardeña, E (2010). Differential patterns of spontaneous experiential response to a hypnotic induction: A latent profile analysis. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 1140-1150.

Zingrone, N.L., Alvarado, C.S., & Cardeña, E. (2010). Out-of-body experiences, physical body activity and posture: Responses from a survey conducted in Scotland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 163-165.

Cardeña, E., & Krippner, S. (2010). The cultural context of hypnosis. In Lynn, S. J., J. W. Rhue, & Kirsch, I. (Eds.) Handbook of clinical hypnosis 2nd Ed (pp. 743-771). Washington, D. C: American Psychological Association.

Cardeña, E., & Weiner, L. (2009). Trance/possession phenomena. In Dell, P.F., & O’Neil, J. A. (Eds.). Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond.

Cardeña, E., Dennis, J. M., Winkel, M., & Skitka, L. (2005). A snapshot of terror: Acute posttraumatic reactions to the September 11 attack. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6, 69-84.

Cardeña, E. (2005). The phenomenology of deep hypnosis: Quiescent and physically active. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 37-59.

Cardeña, E. (2005). Subjectivity and communitas: Further considerations on pain. In Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan E. Mezzich, & Ahmed Okasha (Eds.) Somatoform disorders. Evidence and experience in psychiatry V. 9 (pp. 121-123). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cardeña, E. (2004). Introspection is alive and well: Current methodologies to study conscious experience. Proceedings of the 5th Simpósio da Fundaçao Bial. Porto, 43-54. Portugal: Bial.

Cardeña, E., & Gleaves, D. (2003) Dissociative disorders. In S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.). Adult psychopathology & diagnosis Fourth edition (pp. 476-505). New York: Wiley.

Cardeña, E., Butler, L. D., & Spiegel, D. (2003). Stress disorders. In G. Stricker & T. Widiger, (Eds.) Handbook of Psychology. V 8. (pp. 229-249). New York: John Wiley.

Van Ommeren, M., de Jong, J. T. V. M., Sharma, B., Komproe, I., Thapa, S., & Cardeña, E. (2001). Psychiatric disorders among tortured Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 475-482.

Cardeña, E., Koopman, C., Classen, C., Waelde, L., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ): A valid and reliable measure of acute stress reactions. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 719-734.

Cardeña, E., Maldonado, J., Van der Hart, O., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Hypnosis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 580-584.

Cardeña, E. (2000) Hypnosis in the treatment of trauma: A promising, but not fully supported, efficacious intervention. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 221-234.

Litwin, R., & Cardeña, E. (2000). Demographic and seizure variables, but not hypnotizability or dissociation, differentiated psychogenic from organic seizures. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1, 99-122.

Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, I., Barabasz, A., Cardeña, E., & Patterson, D. (2000) Hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention: The state of the evidence and a look to the future. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 235-255.

Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2000). Anomalous experiences in perspective In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn., & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience (pp. 3-21). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Easterlin, B. & Cardeña, E. (1998-99). Perceived stress, cognitive and emotional differences between short-and long-term Vipassana meditators. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 69-82.

Cardeña, E., Holen, A., McFarlane, A., Solomon, Z., Wilkinson, C., & Spiegel, D. (1998). A multi-site study of acute-stress reaction to a disaster. In Widiger, T. A. et al. (Eds.)Sourcebook for the DSM-IV. Vol. IV (pp. 377-391). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Cardeña, E., Alarcón, A., Capafons, A., & Bayot, A. (1998). Effects on suggestibility of a new method of active-alert hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 3, 280-294.

Cardeña, E. (1998). Dissociation and PSI: What are the links? In N. L. Zingrone, M. J., Schlitz, C. S. Alvarado, & J. Milton (Eds.). Research in Parapsychology 1993. Scarecrow Press: Lanham, Maryland.

O’Connor, B., Calabrese, C., Cardeña, E., et al. (1997). Defining and describing complementary and alternative medicine. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3, 49-57..

Cardeña, E. (1997) The etiologies of dissociation. In S. Powers & S. Krippner (Eds.), Broken images, broken selves (pp. 61-87). New York: Brunner.

Cardeña, E., & Beard, J. (1996). Truthful trickery: Shamanism, acting and reality. Performance Research, 1, 31-39.

Cardeña, E. (1996). “Just floating on the sky”. A comparison of shamanic and hypnotic phenomenology. In R. Quekelbherge & D. Eigner (Eds.) 6th Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie (6th Yearbook of cross-cultural medicine and psychotherapy) (pp. 367-380). Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel, D. (1996). Diagnostic issues, criteria and comorbidity of dissociative disorders. In L. Michelson & W. J. Ray (Eds.), Handbook of Dissociation (pp. 227-250) New York: Plenum.

Cardeña, E. (1994). The domain of dissociation. In S. J. Lynn and J. W. Rhue (Eds.) Dissociation: Clinical, theoretical, and research perspectives (pp. 15-31). New York: Guilford.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel D. (1993) Dissociative reactions to the Bay Area Earthquake. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 474-478.

Cardeña, E. (1992) Trance and possession as dissociative disorders. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 29 , 283-297.

Spiegel, D., & Cardeña, E. (1991). Disintegrated experience: The dissociative disorders revisited. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 , 366-378.

Cardeña, E., & Spiegel, D. (1991). Suggestibility, absorption, and dissociation: An integrative model of hypnosis. In John F. Schumaker (Ed.) Human suggestibility: Advances in theory, research and application. New York: Routledge, 93-107.

Cardeña, E. (1989). The varieties of possession experience. Association for the Anthropological Study of Consciousness Quarterly, 5 (2-3), 1-17.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. Alejandro Parra has produced another issue of his online journal E-Boletín Psi, which he has been publishing in Spanish since 2006 from his Instituto de Psicología Paranormal (Institute of Paranormal Psychology), located in Buenos Aires, Argentina (for other issues click here).

Dr. Alejandro Parra

Dr. Alejandro Parra

These are the titles of the papers published in the issue, which is available here.

Variables Perceptuales y de Personalidad Asociadas a la Experiencia Mediúnica:

Examinando Dos Muestras

[Perceptual and Personality Variables Associated to Mediumship Experiences: An Examination of Two Samples]

by Alejandro Parra

Análisis Fenomenológico de las Experiencias Anómalas de la Mediumnidad: Voces y Visiones Aplicando un Modelo Espiritual

[Phenomenological Analysis of Anomalous Experiences in Mediumship: Applying a Spiritual Model to Voices and Visions]

by Elizabeth C. Roxburgh

Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh

Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh

Importancia y Metodología Basada en la Investigación en Laboratorio de la Mediumnidad en los Estados Unidos

[The Importance of and the Methodology of Laboratory Studies of Mediumship in the United States]

by Julie Beischel

Dr. Julie Beischel

Dr. Julie Beischel

Mediumnidad en Brasil: Aspectos Históricos e Investigación Científica

[Mediumship in Brazil: Historical Aspects and Scientific Research]

by Everton de Oliveira Maraldi, Wellington Zangari and Fátima R. Machado

Dr. Everton de Oliveira Maraldi

Dr. Everton de Oliveira Maraldi

Dr. Wellington Zangari

Dr. Wellington Zangari

Dr. Fatima R. Machado

Dr. Fatima R. Machado

Here is a translation of selected parts of Parra’s editorial introduction:

“In this special issue we explore the experience of mediumship in three countries: Argentina, Brazil, the United States, and the United Kingdom . . .

Alejandro Parra studies psychological variables in individuals with mediumistic experiences in two samples (believers in the paranormal and university students), who present, in general, three type of experiences associated to mediumship . . . [such as] apparition experiences, sense of presence and possession which are related to personality variables (for example ‘positive’ schizotypy) and other perceptual variables (for example, absorption, dissociation and imagery).

Elizabeth C. Roxburgh analizes phenomenology based on the experience of accounts of hearing voices in spiritualist contexts, particularly in British spiritualist churches. According to the author, the experience of hearing voices is validated and ‘normalized’ in some cultures and social or family contexts to understand and control the experience and to avoid psychopathology . . . Roxburgh concludes defending a relational approach of the phenomenon of hearing voices, through which those persons who participate actively in a dialog with their voices can understand their characteristics and their meaning.

Julie Beischel thinks that the information given by mediums is important not only for scientific and social reasons but also because it presents relevant information for the study of survival . . . [of death] There are also practical social aplications, for example, alleviate suffering due to mourning . . . Her main objective is to examine carefully spiritualist séances using a procedure based on blind judging and specific techniques for the selection of participants used at the Windbridge Institute in the United States to study the reception of anomalous information in mediums.

Finally, Everton Maraldi, Wellington Zangari, and Fatima Machado focus their efforts in the historical evaluation of the practice of mediumship in Brazil. The authors discuss its possible relation to mental disorders from an intrapsychic and psychosocial perspective, going through a series of stages ranging from the process of ‘Asimilation’ or the formation of representations of the beliefs of mediums, ‘Surrender’ (allowing for possession), ‘Training’ to achieve psychological and bodily adaptation, ‘Creation’” (a period of ‘creative incubation), and ‘Manifestation and Verification’ to determine the spiritual nature of the phenomenon. The authors argue that mediumship is a practice that contributes to organize the emotional experiences of the individual . . .”

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Handbook of ParapsychologyOver the years many of us have found a basic reference work of great help. I am referring to the Handbook of Parapsychology, edited by Benjamin B. Wolman, with the assistance of associate editors Laura A. Dale, Gertrude R. Schmeidler, and Montague Ullman (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977). While still useful, the book has been in need of an update for a long time, since it was published over 30 years ago. Fortunately we now have such an update: Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century (Jefferson, NC : McFarland, 2015; Print ISBN: 978-0-7864-7916-0, softcover, Ebook ISBN: 978-1-4766-2105-0, 424 pp.; to order click here), edited by Etzel Cardeña, John Palmer,  and David Marcusson-Clavertz.

Cardena et al Parapsychology

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Dr. Etzel Cardeña

Dr. John Palmer

Dr. John Palmer

David Marcusson-Clavertz

David Marcusson-Clavertz

The book, which won an award from the Parapsychological Association, is not a mere second edition of the first Handbook. In addition to different editors, it also covers some different areas and topics, while keeping to the subject matter of the original. The table of contents can be found here.

PA Book AwardFollowing a preface by the editors, the book is organized in nine sections: Basic Concepts, Research Methods and Statistical Approaches, Psychology and Psi, Physics and Psi, Psi Phenomena: Anomalous Cognition, Perturbation and Force, Psi Phenomena: Research on Survival, Practical Applications, and To Sum It Up. These sections include 31 chapters.

Dr. Serena Roney-Dougal

Dr. Serena Roney-Dougal

The book is an excellent follow-up to the 1977 Handbook and, overall, an indispensable reference work for the serious student of parapsychology. The emphasis is on experimental work, as seen in chapters such as “Ariadne’s Thread: Meditation and Psi” (by Serena M. ­Roney-Dougal), “Explicit Anomalous Cognition: A Review of the Best Evidence in Ganzfeld, Forced Choice, Remote Viewing and Dream Studies” (Johann Baptista, Max Derakhshani and Patrizio E. Tressoldi), “Implicit Anomalous Cognition” (John Palmer), “Psi and Psychophysiology” (Dean Radin and Alan Pierce), “Experimental Research on Distant Intention Phenomena” (Stefan Schmidt), “Micro-Psychokinesis” (Mario Varvoglis and Peter A. Bancel), “Experimenter Effects in Parapsychology Research” (John Palmer and Brian Millar), and “Implicit Physical Psi: The Global Consciousness Project” (Roger D. Nelson).   

Dr. Dean Radin

Dr. Dean Radin

Dr. Stephan Schmidt

Dr. Stephan Schmidt

Dr. Roger Nelson

Dr. Roger Nelson

Dr. Antonia Mills

Dr. Antonia Mills

But there are also discussions about non-experimental work. This includes “Macro-Psychokinesis” (Stephen E. Braude), “Reincarnation: Field Studies and Theoretical Issues Today” (Antonia Mills and Jim B. Tucker), “Ghosts and Poltergeists: An Eternal Enigma” (Michaeleen Maher), and “Psi in Everyday Life: Nonhuman and Human” (Rupert Sheldrake).

Interestingly, a few chapters combine experimental and non-experimental work. In addition to mine, which I mention below, examples of this are “Physical Correlates of Psi” (Adrian Ryan ), and “Drugs and Psi Phenomena” (David Luke) and, to some extent, “States, Traits, Cognitive Variables and Psi” (Etzel Cardeña and David ­Marcusson-Clavertz).

Adrian Ryan

Adrian Ryan

Dr. David Luke

Dr. David Luke

In addition to the above mentioned papers about reincarnation and hauntings and poltergeists, a section about the topic of survival of death has several of the most interesting articles in the volume. In my view the best of these is “Mental Mediumship” (Julie Beischel and Nancy L. Zingrone). In addition, there was a discussion of ”Electronic Voice Phenomena” (Mark R. Leary and Tom Butler), a topic seldom discussed in books of this sort.

Dr. Mark Leary

Dr. Mark Leary

Dr. Patrizio Tressoldi

Dr. Patrizio Tressoldi

There are also chapters about approaches to the study of psychic phenomena, namely “Experimental Methods in Anomalous Cognition and Anomalous Perturbation Research” (John Palmer) and “Research Methods with Spontaneous Case Studies” (Emily Williams Kelly and Jim B. Tucker), and “Macro-Psychokinesis: Methodological Concerns” (Graham Watkins). Statistical issues are discussed by Patrizio E. Tressoldi and Jessica Utts in “Statistical Guidelines for Empirical Studies.”

Dr. Emily W. Kelly

Dr. Emily W. Kelly

Dr. Jessica Utts

Dr. Jessica Utts

Criticisms of parapsychology also receive attention in the volume’s preface, “Reintroducing Parapsychology.” Cardeña, ­Marcusson-Clavertz, and Palmer, present 12 invalid criticisms of parapsychology. Some of them are that parapsychology does not utilize the scientific method, that only individuals with poor reasoning skills or biases believe in psychic phenomena, that the statistical evidence has been explained away, and that proposing a hypothetical conventional explanation is enough to discount many findings in the field regardless of the unlikeliness of the explanation.

Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone

Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone

I was glad to be the second author on a chapter in this new book, the opening article, after the preface, written with Nancy L. Zingrone and Gerd H. Hövelmann. Our paper, “An Overview of Modern Developments in Parapsychology,” was divided in the following sections: Research Topics and Approaches, Scholarly Work: History, Religion and Other Disciplines, Conceptual and Disciplinary Approaches, Influential Conceptual Frameworks, Methodological and Statistical Developments, and Social Aspects: Criticism and Institutional Developments. Because we believe that parapsychology is an international discipline, we made an effort to include references published in languages other than English, something not done by many other authors, even when relevant material exists.

It is interesting to see a chapter presenting a skeptical view of parapsychology,  “The Case Against Psi,” by Douglas Stokes. Cardeña argued in the last chapter, in my opinion correctly, that the critique was anything but convincing. Certainly criticism and skepticism are important in science, and particularly in a field so controversial as parapsychology. Critical views are frequently presented in this work, but they are critiques that are not destructive, that seek to improve the field instead as to close it, or dismiss it, as seen in the works of some critics.

Dr. Douglas Stokes

Dr. Douglas Stokes

Dr. Edward Kelly

Dr. Edward Kelly

Other topics also receive attention. Examples are those about conceptual issues: “Parapsychology in Context: The Big Picture” (Edward F. Kelly), “Psychological Concepts of Psi Function: A Review and Constructive Critique” (Rex G. Stanford), “Psi and Biology: An Evolutionary Perspective” (Richard S. Broughton), and “Quantum Theory and Parapsychology” (Brian Millar). In addition, there are chapters about “Exceptional Experiences (ExE) in Clinical Psychology” (Martina Belz and Wolfgang Fach), and “Applied Psi” (Paul H. Smith and Garret Moddel).

Dr. Rex Stanford

Dr. Rex Stanford

Dr. Martina Belz

Dr. Martina Belz

Gerd H. Hövelmann

Gerd H. Hövelmann

The book ends with two very interesting contributions. In “On the Usefulness of Parapsychology for Science at Large” Hövelmann argued that “The suggestion of a known or presumed lack of usefulness of parapsychology for science in general is … a chimera, an uninformed invention in historical scientific terms of less than conscientious minds that are not aware of the actual facts” (p. 391). The author presents examples of contributions, which include statistical techniques and early research on dissociation. Certainly as Adam Crabtree, Regina Plas and others have shown, the early psychical research movement was an active contributor not only to dissociation studies, but also to the development of the concept of the subconscious mind.

The very final paper, by one of the editors, is “On Negative Capability and Parapsychology: Personal Reflections” (Etzel Cardeña). He writes that even though we have learned some things after the publication of the 1977 Handbook, we have to recognize how little we know about the phenomena in question. “The various analyses . . . documented in this tome show in my mind a too remarkable regularity to be explained away by wholly or partly dishonest researchers, . . . thus I conclude that we do have evidence for something like what we call psi. Nonetheless, the small effect sizes and lack of ability to design an experiment that would almost certainly produce evidence also signifies that we are very far from understanding psi . . .” (p. 400).

There are, of course, omissions that may be due to the length of the book and to other practical problems. A notable one is the lack of a chapter about near-death experiences. This area has become too important not to receive specific attention. I would also have liked to see long discussions of OBEs and healing. While there is a chapter about statistics, the volume would have been improved with one about the various modern ways to conduct qualitative analysis.

But these omissions in no way detract from the immense amount of work in the compilation of this volume, and the high quality of the discussions in the individual chapters. The editors are to be congratulated for producing such an important summary of many of the areas, topics and problems related to modern parapsychology.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I am glad to have an interview with Dr. Fatima Regina Machado, who I have visited in her country, Brazil, as well as her husband and colleague Dr. Wellington Zangari. I first met Fatima in 1993 when she came to Durham, North Carolina, to participate in the now defunct parapsychology Summer Study Program at what was then known as the Institute of Parapsychology. I was lecturing there at the time.

Dr. Fatima Regina Machado

Dr. Fatima Regina Machado

For many years Fatima has been working—sometimes with Wellington—on behalf of parapsychology in an academic setting in Brazil. She is in fact a pioneer in this field in her country, and her accomplishments are clear both in the interview below as well as in the bibliography that follows. Two of her main areas of interest are poltergeist phenomena and surveys of psychic experiences. Fatima, interestingly, is the only person I know who has two doctoral degrees, as you can see in her interview below. She has PhDs in psychology (social psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009), and in Communication and Semiotics (Pontifical University of São Paulo, 2003).

One of her most important contributions was the report of the results of her second PhD dissertation “Experiências Anômalas na Vida Cotidiana: Experiências Extra-Sensório-Motoras e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-estar Subjetivo” (Anomalous Experiences in Daily Life: Extrasensorimotor Experiences and their Association with Beliefs, Attitudes and Well-being, Institute for Psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009). The article, “Experiências Anômalas (Extra-Sensório-Motoras) na Vida Cotidiana e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-Estar Subjetivo,” appeared in the Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia (2010, 30, 462-483). This was important for at least two reasons. First, it appeared in a prestigious forum of Brazilian psychology, a journal published by the Academia Paulista de Psicologia (Paulist Academy of Psychology). Second, this work has inspired similar studies which are currently being conducted by doctoral students.

Other contributions include the following: Machado, F.R. (2009). Field Investigations on Hauntings and Poltergeists. Utrecht II: Charting the Future of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation / Het Johan Borgmanfonds Foundation, 115-150; Radin, D.I., Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2002). Effects of Distant Healing Intention Through Time & Space: Two Exploratory Studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine Journal, 11, 34-58; Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2001). Parapsychology in Brazil: A Science Entering Adulthood. Journal of Parapsychology, 65, 351-356; Machado, F.R. (2001). A New Look on Hauntings and Poltergeist Phenomena: Proposal of a Semiotic Perspective of Analysis. In J. Houran & ; R. Lange (Eds.), Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 227-247; Machado, F.R., & Zangari, W. (2000). The Poltergeist in Brazil: A Review of the Literature in Context. International Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 105-132.


Rhine Canais OcultosHow did you get interested in parapsychology?
When I was a little girl I liked hearing ghost stories and folklore tales. My grandfathers were really good story tellers. My father’s father was very credulous about supernatural events. My mother’s father was a scientist and always had a naturalistic explanation for the cases I was told. I grew up hearing those fascinating stories, and I always considered the naturalistic explanations also fascinating, very elucidating. In high school, we had a short course on parapsychology taught by a priest who had a Catholic approach to the supposed paranormal events and not very convincing answers to my many questions on the subject. It was quite disappointing to me at that time. After finishing high school, I attended another parapsychology course where they would supposedly explain how telepathy and clairvoyance work and teach some techniques with which we would be able to control our minds and to have extrasensory experiences. But that course did not convince me either. When I went to college in 1991, I met Wellington Zangari, who was really interested in parapsychology from a scientific point of view. He was studying it for some years already. I have to thank him for introducing me to the field. It was a surprise for me to discover that very serious people were studying systematically psychokinetic and extrasensory phenomena/experiences. The first books I had contact with were, in Portuguese, Canais Ocultos do Espírito (Hidden Channels of the Mind), written by Louisa Rhine, and Magia e Parapsicologia, a book on the history of parapsychology written by Bruno Fantoni; and in English, Foundations of Parapsychology, by Edge, Morris, Palmer and Rush, and the Handbook of Parapsychology, organized by Benjamin B. Wollman. A new world was opened to me and I was getting more and more interested. Zangari (who later became my husband) had already founded an institute for parapsychology in São Paulo. Some courses were offered and there was a study group who had meetings weekly. Soon I got involved with the institute activities and left my job (I was an elementary school teacher) to be devoted to the field.

Fantoni Magia y ParapsicologiaWhat are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I am especially interested in the meaning and relevance of psi experiences for the experiencers’ lives. Because I understand that psi experiences are part of daily life and have something to reveal about human nature and the way we interact with our environment – independently of its ontological status, but also because of its possible ontological reality – I invested efforts in developing academic research related to the field in Brazil. In order to do that I helped to introduce the topic into the academy in Brazil primarily through my master’s thesis and Ph.D dissertations. My master’s thesis was A Causa dos Espíritos: Um Estudo sobre a Utilização da Parapsicologia para a Defesa da Fé Católica e Espírita no Brasil (The Cause of the Spirits: A Study on the Use of Parapsychology to the Defense of the Catholic and Spiritist Faiths in Brazil, Sciences of Religion Post-Graduation Program, Pontifical University of São Paulo, 1996). I have two PhD degrees. My first dissertation was A Ação dos Signos nos Poltergeists: Estudo do Processo de Comunicação dos Fenômenos Poltergeist a Partir de seus Relatos (The Action of Signs in Poltergeists: Study of the Communication Process of Poltergeist Phenomena from their Accounts, Communication and Semiotics Post-Graduation Program, Pontifical University of São Paulo, 2003). The second one was Experiências Anômalas na Vida Cotidiana: Experiências Extra-Sensório-Motoras e sua Associação com Crenças, Atitudes e Bem-estar Subjetivo (Anomalous Experiences in Daily Life: Extrasensorimotor Experiences and their Association with Beliefs, Attitudes and Well-being, Institute for Psychology, University of São Paulo, 2009).

Title Page of Machado's Dissertation About Anomalous Experiences

Title Page of Machado’s Dissertation About Anomalous Experiences

As a professional, I consider that exchanging information with the international scientific community is essential for the development of the field because it helps to break barriers and to expand perspectives. In 1993, I attended the Summer Study Program at Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (today the Rhine Research Center) and it was a great opportunity to get in contact with researchers of the international community and to present what was happening in the Brazilian context in terms of interest, studies and efforts. I became the first Brazilian woman to become a Parapsychological Association member (currently I am a member of its Board of Directors), and since 2001 Zangari and I are International Affiliates of the Parapsychology Foundation. I should also say that the PF was really important to us in terms of support, as was the support of some persons such as Nancy L. Zingrone, Carlos S. Alvarado, and Stanley Krippner, who have served as bridges for my international activities.

I have also done some experimental research, but my expertise is case studies (especially poltergeist ones) and surveys. Zangari and I have been working together in order to develop research and spread good quality information in our country, where the term parapsychology is badly used, confusing the field with all sort of practices. We worked to transform the former independent institute/study group into a research group in academia. Attending and participating in conferences and seminars in different fields of studies was a strategy to present information and break barriers and prejudices against the field. All these actions, combined with the maintenance of our research group, have helped to motivate more people to do research and to present good quality information.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

For my PhD in Psychology, I did a survey that shows that 82.7% of the participants (N = 306) reported having had at least one psi experience (ESP or PK), and the majority of them considered their psi experience(s) important or relevant to their lives. Brazil seems to be a country where we can find a high prevalence of psi experiences. Also surveys in other countries show considerable prevalences of psi experiences. This cannot be dismissed. It demonstrates that psi experiences are part of daily life and I believe that they are clues to reveal some aspects of human nature and the way we interact with the environment (independently of its ontological status, but also because of its possible ontological reality) which we still do not understand. Parapsychology is important because it is a field devoted to the investigation of psi and to attempts to obtain and assess scientific evidence for its support. And beyond that, due to the intricate nature of the subject to be investigated, it has the double effect of provoking very interesting debates among scientists (at least among those who are not prejudicially opposed to it) and of improving methodological procedures and conceptual advances, independently (or maybe exactly because) of the surrounding controversies.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

Despite all efforts to “clean up” the popular image of “parapsychology,” as a misused term, we still find some resistance to it. It can be problematic when you ask for grants in Brazil, for instance – and a research field needs resources to keep growing. However, as I said before, I have not met opposition to the study of psi. On the contrary: the interest in studying psi is growing and growing in Brazil. Recently (2010) our research group adopted the term Anomalistic Psychology to designate our field of study, expanding the spectrum of interests. This has attracted more students and interested people in general, besides contributing to the improvement of the dialogue with other study areas and the insertion of psi research into the scientific mainstream. It does not mean that we have abandoned parapsychology. Now we have more possibilities to encourage people to listen to us and understand the relevance of (scientific and serious) parapsychological studies.

Another problem I see in parapsychology as a scientific field is the still poor replicability of psi experiments – not only because of the nature of psi, but also because I do not see many researchers involved in replications of experiments. I think we could also do more replications in cross-cultural studies (never forgetting spontaneous case studies, of course!). It would, for sure, improve the data base and this could help in the development of experimental procedures.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

In Brazil we are living a very special moment in terms of interest in academic research of parapsychological experiences. From 1999 to 2009 our research group was based at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, where I was a PhD student and latter, a teacher, and it was very important to develop activities and to mature. In 2009, Zangari and I began a project to establish our research group (now called Inter Psi – Laboratory of Anomalistic Psychology and Psychosocial Processes) at the University of São Paulo (USP), the most important public university in the country. Since 2010, our laboratory has been established at USP. I have co-supervised several activities which have been developed with the help of Zangari’s graduate students who have, in turn, worked on master theses or in PhD dissertations (and now we have two post-doctoral fellows). The topics these students have worked on have included anomalous experiences in general (surveys, experimental, field and case studies), and especially ESP, PK, OBEs, UFO abductions and mediumistic experiences. Besides individual research projects, there are some collective projects being developed by different groups of Inter Psi’s participants. We intend to train graduate students to establish their own groups after they finish their doctorates and start working in other universities. In addition to these activities, we have also worked to establish international agreements to do cross-cultural research and exchange students with other universities. We have already received the visit of outstanding foreign researchers such as Nancy L. Zingrone, Carlos S. Alvarado, Stanley Krippner, Chris Roe, and Elizabeth Roxburgh.

Members of Inter Psi (Dr. Fatima Regina Machado (third from right), Dr. Wellington Zangari (fifth from right). Visitors from England: Dr. Chris Roe (first from left), and Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh (fifth from left)

Members of Inter Psi (Dr. Fatima Regina Machado (third from right), Dr. Wellington Zangari (fifth from right). Visitors from England: Dr. Chris Roe (first from left), and Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh (fifth from left)

In addition to Inter Psi, I am also a member of the Laboratory for Social Psychology of Religion and a member of the National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology, where I participate in the Working Group “Psychology and Religion”. In all these activities I have worked for promoting academic research of parapsychological/anomalistic experiences.

Currently I am a post-doctoral fellow of the Sciences of Religion Post-Graduation Program at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Among different activities, I have contributed to the dissemination of information on psi research/anomalistic psychology to graduate students, promoting the exchange of information between graduate students from Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo and the University of São Paulo, and by teaching some classes and participating in research meetings.

Now I am preparing an article on the history of parapsychology in Brazil which will be published soon, and a book chapter, co-authored with some colleagues, on Brazilian parapsychological spontaneous cases.

Selected Publications

ALVARADO, C.; MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Théodore Flournoy’s contributions to Psychical Research. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, v. 78, p. 149-168, 2014.

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; KRIPPNER, S. . Anomalous Mental and Physical Phenomena of Brazilian Mediums: a review of the scientific literature.. In: Jack Hunter; David Luke. (Org.). (Org.). Talking with the Spirits: Ethnographies From Between the Worlds.. 1ed.Brisbane: Daily Grail Publishing, 2014, v. 1, p. 259-301.

MARTINS, L. B. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Possibilidades Darwinistas para o Estudo das Experiências Anômalas. In: Clarissa de Franco; Rodrigo Petronio. (Org.). Crença e Evidência: Aproximações e controvérias entre religião e teoria evolucionária no pensamento contemporâneo. 1ed.São Leopoldo: UNISINOS, 2014, v. 1, p. 127-153.

ZANGARI, W. ; MARALDI, E. O. ; MARTINS, L. B. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Estados Alterados de Consciência e Religião. In: João Décio Passos; Frank Usarski. (Org.). Compêndio de Ciência da Religião. 1ed.São Paulo: Paulinas; Paulus, 2013, v. 1, p. 423-435.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . The Paradoxal Disappearance of Parapsychology in Brazil. Journal of Parapsychology, v. 76, p. 65-67, 2012.

MARALDI, E. O. ; ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. A Psicologia das Crenças Paranormais: Uma Revisão Crítica. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 31, p. 394-421, 2011.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Por Uma Psicologia Anomalística Inclusiva. In: VII Encontro Psi: Pesquisa Psi e Psicologia Anomalística, 2011, Curitiba. Livro de Registro dos Trabalhos Apresentados no VII Encontro Psi: Pesquisa Psi e Psicologia Anomalística. Curitiba: UNIBEM, 2011. v. 1. p. 162-166.

MARALDI, E. O. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. . Importance of a Psychosocial Approach for a Comprehensive Understanding of Mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, v. 24, p. 181-186, 2010.

MACHADO, F. R. . Experiências anômalas (extra-sensório-motoras) na vida cotidiana e sua associação com crenças, atitudes e bem-estar subjetivo. Boletim – Academia Paulista de Psicologia, v. 30, p. 462-483, 2010.

MACHADO, F. R. Field Investigations on Hauntings and Poltergeists. Utrecht II: Charting The Future of Parapsychology Proceedings of an International Conference. New York: Parapsychology Foundation; Het Johan Borgmanfonds Foundation: The Netherlands. p. 115 – 150, 2009.

MACHADO, F. R. Algumas reflexões sobre as implicações dos estudos da psicocinesia na compreensão da consciência e da espiritualidade. In: V Encontro Psi: A Variedade das Experiências Humanas, 2009, Recife. Livro de Registro dos Trabalhos Apresentados – V Encontro Psi. Curitiba: FBM, 2009. v. 1. p. 15-24.

MACHADO, F. R. . Parapsicologia no Brasil: Entre a Cruz e a mesa Branca. Ceticismo Aberto,, 2009 (publicado originalmente em 2005).

MACHADO, F. R. . Consciência, Espiritualidade e Psicocinesia: Limites e Possibilidades de Estudo. In: III Simpósio Nacional sobre Consciência, 2008, Salvador. Artigos apresentados no III Simpósio Nacional Sobre Consciência. Salvador: Fundação Ocidemnte, 2008. v. 3. p. 1-16.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. ; ZINGRONE, N. L. . Perspectivas históricas da influência da mediunidade na construção de idéias psicológicas e psiquiátricas. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, v. 34, p. 42-53, 2007.

MACHADO, F. R. . Da Composição dos Casos Poltergeist. In: II Encontro Psi: Refletindo sobre o Futuro da Parapsicologia, 2004, Curitiba. Livro de Registro de Trabalhos Apresentados. Curitiba: Campus Universitário Bezerra de Menezes, 2004. v. 1. p. 51-62.

MACHADO, F. R. . Função e Significado dos Poltergeist: Uma abordagem semiótica.. In: 6ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos, 2003, São Paulo. Caderno da 6ª Jornada do Centro de Estudos Peirceanos. São Paulo: CEPE, 2003. v. 1. p. 30-43.

MACHADO, F. R. . Poltergeist: Un juego semiótico. Revista Argentina de Psicología Paranormal, Buenos Aires, v. 13, n.3, p. 181-195, 2002.

RADIN, D. I. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. . Effects of Distant Healing Intention Through Time & Space: Two Exploratory Studies. Subtle Energies And Energy Medicine Journal, v. XI, n.3, p. 34-58, 2002.

MACHADO, F. R.; ZANGARI, W.. Parapsychology in Brazil: A Science entering adulthood. The Journal Of Parapsychology, Durham, NC – USA, v. 65, n.4, p. 351-356, 2001.

MACHADO, F. R. . A new look on hauntings and poltergeist phenomena: Proposal of a semiotic perspective of analysis. In: James Houran; Rense Lange. (Org.). Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. 1ed.Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2001, v. 1, p. 227-247.

MACHADO, F. R.; ZANGARI, W. The Poltergeist in Brazil: A Review of the Literature in Context. International Journal Of Parapsychology, Nova Iorque, v. 11, n.1, p. 105-132, 2000.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. Estudo de três casos poltergeist em São Paulo. In: Tercer Encuentro Psi 1998: Consciencia y Psi como Fronteras de Exploración Cientifica, 1998, Buenos Aires. Actas del Tercer Encuentro Psi 1998. Buenos Aires: IPP, 1998. v. 1. p. 75-81.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZINGRONE, N. . Métodos de Investigación en Parapsicología (Parte II). Boletim Aipa, Buenos Aires, v. 2, n.1(3), p. 9-12, 1998.

ZANGARI, W.;  MACHADO, F. R. . The Adolescent Science: Parapsychology in Brazil. The Journal Of The American Society For Psychical Research, Nova Iorque, v. 91, p. 110-121, 1997.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. A Psicologia do Ganzfeld (Parte I). Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 38, p. 2-3, 1997.

ZANGARI, W.; MACHADO, F. R. . A Psicologia do Ganzfeld (Parte II). Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 39, p. 2-3, 1997.

MACHADO, F. R. . A Questão da Nomenclatura em Parapsicologia. Anuário Brasileiro de Parapsicologia, Recife, v. 2, p. 31-45, 1997.

ALVARADO, C. S. ; MACHADO, F. R. ; ZINGRONE, N. . Métodos de Investigación en Parapsicología (ParteI). Boletim Aipa, Buenos Aires, v. 1, p. 13-16, 1997.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ALVARADO, C. S. . Sobre o provincianismo em Parapsicologia. In: I Congresso Internacional e Brasileiro de Parapsicologia, 1997, Recife. Anais do I Congresso Internacional e Brasileiro de Parapsicologia. Recife: IPPP, 1997. v. 1. p. 75-88.

Zangari, W.; MACHADO, F. R. . Survey: Incidence and Social Relevance of Brazilian University Students’Psychic Experiences. European Journal Of Parapsychology, Edimburgo, v. 12, p. 75-87, 1996.

MACHADO, F. R. ; ZANGARI, W. A Psicologia do Poltergeist. Jornal de Parapsicologia, Braga, v. 36, p. 11-16, 1996.

ZANGARI, W. ; MACHADO, F. R. . Incidencia y Importancia Social de las Experiencias Psiquicas en los Estudiantes Universitarios Brasileros. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, Buenos Aires, v. 7, n.1(25), p. 19-35, 1996.

MACHADO, F. R. . Considerações sobre ética e educação em Parapsicologia no Brasil. In: XIII Simpósio Pernambucano de Parapsicologia, 1995, Recife. Anais do XIII Simpósio Pernambucano de Parapsicologia. Recife: IPPP, 1995. v. 1. p. 76-82.

MACHADO, F. R. Um Fantasma em Minha Casa? Uma Introdução ao fenômeno de poltergeist ou RSPK. Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, São Paulo, v. 4, p. 8-15, 1994.

MACHADO, F. R. A Importância da Educação em Parapsicologia. Revista Brasileira de Parapsicologia, São Paulo, v. 3, p. 27-29, 1993.


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