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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation
May ExtrasensoryIn a recent posting I presented an article by Drs. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha and Edwin C. May in which they presented a theory of precognition. Here I present an interview about a two volume collection of articles, Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism and Science (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2015) (to order the book from the publisher with a 20% discount click here),edited by the same authors. The interview was conducted with Ed May.

The book, I believe, is one of the most important high level publications about parapsychology published in recent times, with emphasis on experimental and theoretical work in the field. The first volume is subtitled History, Controversy and Research, and the second Theories of Psi.

Dr. Edward May

Dr. Edwin May

Dr. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

Dr. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

Here is the table of contents, followed by the interview:

VOLUME 1: HISTORY, CONTROVERSY, AND RESEARCH

Foreword James Fallon

Preface

  1. The Fundamentals of Psi Edwin C. May and Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

Part I: History of Psi Research

  1. A Brief History of Psi Research Nancy L. Zingrone and Carlos S. Alvarado
  2. Mind and Knowledge at the Margins: On the Possible Revitalization of Research on Mind and Knowledge through a Reunion between Philosophical and Psychical Research Anand Jayprakash Vaidya

Part II: Psi Research and Skepticism

  1. ESP, Causation, and the Possibility of Precognition Richard Corry
  2. The Psychology of Belief and Disbelief in the Paranormal Christopher C. French
  3. A Skeptical Eye on Psi Eric Jan Wagenmakers, Ruud Wetzels, Denny Borsboom, Rogier Kievit, and Han L. J. van der Maas

Part III: Psi Research

  1. What Constitutes Replication in Parapsychology? Jessica Utts
  2. Anomalous Cognition and Psychokinesis Research in European Labs Patrizio Tressoldi and Michael Duggan
  3. Anomalous Cognition/ESP and Psychokinesis Research in the United States Loyd Auerbach, Dominic Parker, and Sheila Smith
  4. Anomalous Cognition and Psychokinesis Research in Australian and Asian Labs Lance Storm and Adam J. Rock
  5. Evidence for Precognition from Applied Remote Viewing Joseph W. McMoneagle
  6. Psychophysiology and Anomalous Cognition Dean Radin
  7. Neuroscientific Investigation of Anomalous Cognition Michael A. Persinger
  8. Variation of ESP by Season, Local Sidereal Time, and Geomagnetic Activity Adrian Ryan and S. James P. Spottiswoode

VOLUME 2: THEORIES OF PSI

Foreword James Fallon

  1. Fundamental Issues for Psi Theorists Sonali Bhatt Marwaha and Edwin C. May

Part I: Theories of Psi

  1. Higher Dimensions of Space and Time and Their Implications for Psi Bernard Carr
  2. Physics beyond Causality: Making Sense of Quantum Mechanics and Certain Experimental Anomalies Richard Shoup
  3. Remembrance of Things Future: A Case for Retrocausation and Precognition Daniel P. Sheehan
  4. What You Always Wanted to Know about the Observational Theories Brian Millar
  5. Entropy and Precognition: The Physics Domain of the Multiphasic Model of Precognition Edwin C. May and Joseph G. Depp
  6. The Multiphasic Model of Precognition Sonali Bhatt Marwaha and Edwin C. May
  7. Consciousness-Induced Restoration of Time Symmetry Dick J. Bierman
  8. Activational Model of ESP Zoltán Vassy
  9. Experimenter Psi: A View of Decision Augmentation Theory Edwin C. May
  10. The Model of Pragmatic Information Walter von Lucadou
  11. First Sight: A Way to Thinking About the Mind, and a Theory of Psi James Carpenter
  12. Anomalous Cognition and the Case for Mind-Body Dualism David Rousseau

Part II. The Future of Psi Research

  1. Has Science Developed the Competence to Confront Claims of the Paranormal? Charles Honorton
  2. Next Step: Process-Oriented Research: Guidelines for Experimenters Edwin C. May and Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

Appendix 1: General PK Protocol

Appendix 2: AC Protocol

Appendix 3: Research Organizations and Journals

Glossary

INTERVIEW

 Can you give us a brief summary of the book?

Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism and Science is a two-volume set that introduces ESP—also known as anomalous cognition—and psychokinesis, addressing the history, research, philosophy, and scientific theories surrounding the phenomena. With contributions from leading research scientists from within the field of parapsychology and other areas of study, this volume addresses the fundamental questions that the evidence of ESP evokes; examines ESP research from across the world; and explores the controversies, skepticism, and contemporary criticism disparaging the field.

Written for a multidisciplinary audience ranging from physicists to psychologists to lay persons, the volumes present the scientific validity of the field. Volume 1 addresses the historical, philosophical, skeptical, and research viewpoints; volume 2 lays out the current theories on ESP. The theories range from a hyperdimensional model, QM based models, entropy, neuroscience and psychology based models, including a dualist approach. Chapters reveal how strict scientific protocols and state-of-the-art technologies enable scientists to pinpoint and investigate ESP abilities. Appendices include a glossary of key terms in parapsychology, ESP research protocol, ESP research organizations, skeptic associations, and recommended reading.

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of the book specifically?

I have been active in parapsychology since 1971. From 1975-1994, I was part of the on-going US Government-sponsored psi program to apply remote viewing and psychokinesis in problems of intelligence during the Cold War and to understand their properties and mechanisms. From 1985 until the close of the program in 1995, I was the contract and researcher director of the program, best known by its last code name Star Gate. In 1996, I founded the Laboratories for Fundamental Research (LFR) in Palo Alto, CA, where we have been continuing research ever since. In the Star Gate program, the focus of research was on psychokinesis and remote viewing/precognition.

Based in India, my co-editor Sonali Bhatt Marwaha (PhD Psychology) worked with K. Ramakrishna Rao for eight years, where she was introduced to the field of psi research primarily from the perspective of Indian psychology. She has been a research associate with LFR since 2006, and currently we are working on a number of projects. Based on her background in psychology neuropsychology, and Indian psychology, her interests are in the theoretical aspects of psi.

What motivated you to prepare this book?

In the process of working on our multiphasic model of precognition, we were faced with a number of fundamental questions about the nature of psi and the models that address this complex problem. Researchers from other disciplines are generally discouraged from psi research because of the seemingly “logical impossibility” of psi—especially precognition. While data is available for all to see—in peer reviewed research articles, and the many books that provide an update on the research—we felt that there was a need for literature that expressly stated the fundamental question that psi researchers address and the theoretical advances in the field. Praeger/ABC-CLIO Publications provided us the opportunity when they asked us to work on these two volumes, rather than on another multivolume series that we are currently working on (to be published by McFarland).

May Anomalous Cognition 2As our area of expertise is primarily in informational psi (ESP), it seemed appropriate that we focus on this area. In our previous work, Anomalous Cognition: Remote Viewing Research and Theory (2014), we focused on experimental research and presented a sampling of previously published research papers. We thus felt the need to explicitly put forth the fundamental problems that psi research addresses—the nature of time, causality, and information. As we see it, psi is a process rather than a singular event, thus requiring different models to address various points in the process. As we stated in our model, we have formally divided the problem space into the physics domain and the neuroscience domain. This will enable experts from various disciplines to address only that aspect of the psi problem that falls within their domain of expertise. Our current two volumes have attempted to widen the topic beyond our own current thinking to include stalwarts of psi research, skeptics, and mainstream scientists from a variety of disciplines.

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?

In our view, the data are in. There is statistical and qualitative evidence for the existence of an information transfer anomaly the mechanism of which we currently do not understand. In our view, the evidence for micro-psychokinesis is questionable, as the data can be accounted for by informational psi.

This book is an important contribution to the psi literature as it lays out the fundamental problems that psi research addresses, discusses the fundamental issues for psi theorists, presents an overview of research and current theories, and suggests guidelines for researchers for developing a process-oriented research program.

With this book, we hope to emphasize the fundamental issues that underlay the manifest ESP experiences. In our view, the final theatre for the understanding of psi rests in the physics domain, with the neuroscience domain having the potential to provide clues for it. This book has the potential to serve as a textbook for introductory and advanced courses in psi.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Tart Altered States AnchorI started reading Dr. Charles T. Tart from my early days as a psychology student in the early 1970s. I still remember the excitement I felt when I read his anthology Altered States of Consciousness, in its 1972 Anchor books edition. Later on I acquired his other publications and, eventually, got to see him at the 1979 convention of the Parapsychological Association. Over the years I have had more contact and correspondence with him, and it gives me great pleasure that he accepted my invitation to be interviewed for my blog.

Dr. Charles T. Tart

Dr. Charles T. Tart

Charley has a Ph.D. in psychology (1963), and an Aikido Shodan (black belt, 1987). Among his many awards he has been the recipient of the Parapsychological Association’s Outstanding Career Award (1999) and Division 30 of the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Contributions to Scientific Hypnosis Award (2000). He has had many academic appointments, among them Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis (1966-1994), from which he was awarded Professor Emeritus. He was also Professor of Psychology at the Institute for Transpersonal Psychology (1994-2012, now Sofia University).

As seen in the bibliography below, Charley has published many other influential worksTart States of Consciousness related to states of consciousness. This includes his paper “States of Consciousness and State-Specific Sciences”(Science, 176, 1203-1210), and his States of Consciousness (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1975; not to be confused with the previously mentioned anthology, Altered States of Consciousness). He also has had a long and eminent career in parapsychology, as seen by the bibliography below. Charley has published research about the relationship of ESP to learning theory, electrical shielding, geomagnetism, and the psychophysiology of out-of-body experiences, and discussions of the relationship between altered states of consciousness and ESP, and other topics such as auras, and our sometimes not so conscious resistances to the occurrence of psi. But this only scratches the surface of his many contributions.

Tart Transpersonal PsychologiesTart Psi

Tart Learning ESP

Interview

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I was raised to be conventionally religious, a Lutheran. My parents weren’t religious, but we lived in an apartment upstairs from my grandparents, and my grandmother was devout. She was the one who took me to Sunday school and eventually to church. She was also a major source of unconditional love in my life, so what was good enough for her was good enough for me!

Then as I grew older, became an adolescent, I became an expert on noticing hypocrisy in adults. Not my grandmother, but many adults who went to church didn’t seem to show by the way they lived that they took their religion too seriously. They were basically good people, but something was lacking. Of course, like many teenagers, I was unrealistically idealistic in making my judgments. I also became fascinated by science and by the time I was a teenager I was reading several science books a week, often adult books that I got out of the city library. Thus I became aware that while some scientists had been deeply religious or spiritual themselves, many questioned it and pointed out nonsensical aspects of religion. I could see their points.

I think many people went through this kind of conflict between religion and science in their teenage years, and several patterns developed. One way of coping was to get somewhat fanatical in your belief about religion and just ignore the ways science conflicted with it. The opposite was to say science was completely right, religion was all nonsense. A third was a kind of compartmentalization, religion was important on Saturdays or Sundays, it could be pretty much ignored the rest of the week. In my extensive reading I came across the old books on psychical research as well as more contemporary, for that time (late 1940s and early 1950s), books on parapsychology. I was relieved to see that well educated men and women, particularly members of the SPR in England, had gone through a similar kind of conflict, and had come to the idea that we could apply the methods of science to try to figure out what was indeed true in religion and what was, as critics claimed, superstition and nonsense. You could say my whole career since then has been following that calling, in various ways investigating phenomena that might have spiritual import, seeing what was true and what wasn’t.

I also discovered enormous amounts about the psychology of belief, the politics of belief, etc., so there was no easy simple answer, but, as I concluded in my last book, The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together, after more than half a century of researching parapsychology, psychical research, altered states of consciousness, spirituality, and the like, it is reasonable to be both scientific and spiritual in one’s approach to life, science has not somehow categorically disproven spirituality.

Tart End MaterialismOf course there is a lot of nonsense under the heading of spirituality, but there’s nonsense in all areas of life, and discrimination is very much needed. One practical outcome of deciding there is good scientific evidence to take spirituality seriously is that in the several spiritual paths I have practiced in life, trying to get a direct, experiential feel for what all that is about, while I’ve known they are culturally biased and contain mistakes, I’ve also been confident that these various paths are on to something real and it was worth putting in that effort.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

I’ve worked all over the field, from psychological speculation on spontaneous cases too much more technical experimental work like seeing how immediate feedback can help train people to use ESP more consistently, how a certain kind of electrical shielding may amplify ESP ability, measuring brain wave changes in a young woman who had out of the body experiences, etc. I’ve also tried to act as a gadfly to colleagues, constantly pointing out that once you allow for ESP the question of experimenter bias becomes enormously important, as well as experimenter characteristics in general, so pretending that we are just objective scientists whose individual characteristics don’t matter is a losing approach. Because of my interest in altered states of consciousness and spirituality, I also became one of the founders of transpersonal psychology, a small specialty area of psychology that takes the spiritual seriously, and I’m more willing than most of my colleagues to think about the meaning of parapsychological phenomena, rather than focus on technically sophisticated experiments as if they were just anomalies.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

A total materialism is the dominant philosophical view in contemporary science, mind is nothing but electrochemical patterns in your brain, “spirit” is a totally nonsensical concept. I’ve been one of the few to think about the psychological import of such a view of reality. It means, for instance, that your desire to do good is no different from any desires you have to do evil or to just watch TV for the evening, there is no inherent meaning in reality, it’s just how things happen to turn out after molecules randomly bumped into each other for several zillion years. As a psychologist and from personal experience I know how much we humans need to have a feeling of meaning in life, though, so this kind of attitude is very depressing, and pretending the meaninglessness implied in total materialism isn’t there doesn’t make its negative effects on us go away. Because parapsychological phenomena suggest some kinds of reality to the spiritual, and spiritual systems give us a function in a universe that’s inherently meaningful, that’s much bigger than random interactions of electricity and chemistry, that can help people live a better life, both in terms of their own satisfaction and developing wisdom and compassion in interacting with others. But I’m not interested in just promoting fantasies that make people feel good, so the degree to which parapsychological phenomena suggest a reality to the spiritual is a vitally important human question. My last book, The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together, summing up half a century of my and others’ research in this area, is about beginning to look at those kinds of meanings.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

I think the deep causes of many of our problems in parapsychology today are (a) deep-seated fears of psychic abilities (it hasn’t been very long since we burned witches at the stake, even in Western society), these fears are held both by the scientific community in general and by we parapsychologists, and (b) failure to recognize the importance of the psychological characteristics of experimenters, which leads to great variability and poor replicability of parapsychological experiments.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

I’m semi-retired now, but I participate extensively in discussion groups among parapsychologists, particularly those involving experimental work in general and involving the question of possible survival of bodily death. I’m also working with some of my former students on the possible facilitation of ESP by electrical shielding, and have dozens of theoretical ideas about psi, altered states, spirituality, etc., that I try to find time to at least write preliminary essays about. A number of people have told me I should write an autobiography, since I’ve had an unusual life working with parapsychology, and I think that would be interesting to do if it could give encouragement to others to follow what’s important to them, but I don’t know whether I’ll do that or not.

Selected Publications

(with emphasis on parapsychology and transpersonal psychology)

Books

Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969 (Editor and Contributor).

[Altered States of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. New York: Doubleday, 1972. Second Edition, revised.]

[Altered States of Consciousness. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990. Third edition, revised.]

On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication. Palo Alto, California: Science and Behavior Books, 1971. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Transpersonal Psychologies. New York: Harper & Row, 1975 (Editor and Contributor).

[Transpersonal Psychologie. Berlin: Walter-Verlag, 1978 (German translation).]

[Transpersonal Psychologies. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paidos, 1979 (Spanish translation).]

[Transpersonal Psychologies. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992, second, revised edition (Editor and Contributor).]

States of Consciousness. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

[Stati di Coscienza. Roma: Astrolabio, 1977.]

[States of Consciousness. El Cerrito, California: Psychological Processes, 1983.]

[Teaduse seisundid. Finnish translation, 2008]

The Application of Learning Theory to ESP Performance. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc., 1975.

Symposium on Consciousness. New York: Viking Press, 1975 (With Lee, P., Ornstein, R., Galin, D., & Deikman, A.).

Learning to Use Extrasensory Perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1977. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm. Tokyo: Kowsakusha, 1982 (Japanese translation).]

[Das Übersinnliche: Forschunger über einen Grenzbereich psychischen Erlebens. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta., 1986]

Mind at Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. New York: Praeger, 1979 (Tart, C., Puthoff, H., & Targ, R., Editors and Contributors). Second and revised edition, Charlottesville, Virginia: Hampton Roads, 2002.

Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Boston: New Science Library, 1986. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2001.

[Hellwach und Bewußt Leben: Wege zur Enfaltung des Menschlichen Potentials – die Anleitung zum Bewußten Sein. Munchen: Scherz Verlag, 1988.]

[Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Long­mead, England: Element Books, 1988.]

[El Despertar del “Self”. Barcelona: Editorial Kairos, 1990.]

[Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential. Moscow, Russia. 1997. (Russian translation)]

[Japanese translation] 2001.

Ebook version available from Amazon.com.

Open Mind, Discriminating Mind: Reflections on Human Possibili­ties. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. Print-on-demand edition from Authors Guild back-in-print editions, http://www.iUniverse.com, 2000.

Living the Mindful Life. Boston: Shambhala, 1994.

[Die innere Kunst der Achtsamkeit: Ein Praxisbuch für das Leben im gegenwärtigen Moment. Freiamt, Germany: Arbor Verlag, 1996.]

[Russian translation, 1996; new edition 2005]

Body Mind and Spirit: Exploring the Parapsychology of Spirituality. Charlottesville, Virginia: Hampton Roads, 1997. (Editor and Contributor).

Mind Science: Meditation Training for Practical People. Novato, California: Wisdom Editions, 2001. Second print edition, Fearless Books, Napa CA 2013. Ebook available thru Amazon.

The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together. Oakland, California: New Harbinger, 2009.

Le spiritual est-il reel? Paris, Intereditions, 2010.

Le Psychologue, la Science et l’ Extraordinaire. Paris, InterEditions, 2012.

El Fin del Materialismo: Parapsicologia, Ciencia y Espiritualidad. Barcelona, Editorial Kairos, 2013.

Ebook available thru Amazon.

Articles

1963

Physiological correlates of psi cognition. International Journal of Parapsychology, 5, 375-386.

1964

A possible “psychic” dream, with some speculations on the nature of such dreams. Journal of the Society for Psychical Re­search, 42, 283-298.

A comparison of suggested dreams occurring in hypnosis and sleep. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12, 263-289.

1965

The hypnotic dream: Methodological problems and a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 87-99.

Applications of instrumentation to the investigation of “haunt­ing” and “poltergeist” cases. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 59, 190-201.

Exploratory ESP matching tests with a “sensitive.” Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 59, 226-236. (Roll, W. & Tart, C.)

1966

Models for explanation of extrasensory perception. International Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 2, 488-504.

Card guessing tests: Learning paradigm or extinction paradigm. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 60, 46-55.

Some effects of posthypnotic suggestion on the process of dream­ing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 30-46.

ESPATESTER: An automatic testing device for parapsychological research. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 60, 256-269.

1967

A second psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experiences in a gifted subject. International Journal of Parapsychology, 9, 251-258.

1968

A psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experiences in a selected subject. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 62, 3-27.

Hypnosis, psychedelics, and psi: Conceptual models. In R. Cavanna & M. Ullman (Eds.), Psi and Altered States of Con­sciousness. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 24-41.

Two token object studies with Peter Hurkos. Jour­nal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 62, 143-157. (Tart, C., & Smith, J.)

1969

A further psychophysiological study of out-of-the-body experienc­es in a gifted subject. Proceedings of the Parapsychology Association, 6, 43-44.

1970

Did I really fly? Some methodological notes on the investigation of altered states of consciousness and psi phenomena. In R. Cavanna (Ed.), Psi Favorable States of Consciousness: Proceedings of an International Conference on Methodology in Psi Research. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 3-10.

1972

Scientific foundations for the study of altered states of con­sciousness. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 3, 93-124.

Concerning the scientific study of the human aura. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 1-21.

States of consciousness and state-specific sciences. Science, 176, 1203-1210.

Some studies of psychokinesis with a spinning silver coin. Jour­nal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 143-153. (Tart, C., Boisen, M., Lopez, V., & Maddock, R.)

1973

Preliminary notes on the nature of psi processes. In R. Ornstein (Ed.), The Psychology of Consciousness: A Book of Readings. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, pp. 468-492.

1974

On the nature of altered states of consciousness, with special reference to parapsychological phenomena. In W. Roll, R. Morris, & J. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1973. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 163-218.

Some methodological problems in out-of-the-body experiences re­search. In W. Roll, R. Morris, & J. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology, 1973. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 116-120.

Out-of-the-body experiences. In E. Mitchell, & J. White (Eds.), Psychic Exploration. New York: Putnam’s, pp. 349-374.

1975

The basic nature of altered states of consciousness: A systems approach. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 8(1), 45-64.

Studying out-of-the-body experiences. In T. X. Barber (Ed.), Advances in Altered States of Consciousness and Human Poten­tialities, Vol. 1. New York: Psychological Dimensions Press, pp. 579-585.

A large-sample classroom ESP card-guessing experiment. European Journal of Parapsychology, 1(3), 40-56. (Palmer, J., Tart, C., & Redington, D.)

1977

Toward humanistic experimentation in parapsychology: A reply to Dr. Stanford’s review. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 81-102.

Putting the pieces together: A conceptual framework for under­standing discrete states of consciousness. In N. Zinberg (Ed.), Alternate States of Consciousness. New York: Free Press, pp. 158-219.

Toward conscious control of psi through immediate feedback train­ing: Some considerations of internal processes. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 375-408.

Scoring patterns in an ESP Ganzfeld experiment. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 71, 121-145. (Palmer, J., Bogart, D., Jones, S. & Tart, C.)

1978

Psi functioning and altered states of consciousness: A perspec­tive. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Psi and States of Awareness. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 180-210.

Space, time, and mind. In W. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsy­chology 1977. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 197-250.

1979

Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance: A second study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Re­search, 73, 151-165. (Tart, C., Palmer, J., & Redington, D.)

Improving real-time ESP by suppressing the future: Trans-tempo­ral inhibition. In C. Tart, H. Puthoff, & R. Targ (Eds.), Mind at Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception. New York: Praeger, pp. 137-174.

A survey of expert opinion on potentially negative uses of psi, United States government interest in psi, and the level of research funding of the field. In W. Roll (Ed.), Research in Parapsychology 1978. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 54-55.

An emergent-interactionist understanding of human consciousness. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Brain/Mind and Parapsycholo­gy. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, pp. 177-200.

Delayed PK with Matthew Manning: Preliminary indications and failure to confirm. European Journal of Parapsychology, 2, 396-407. (Palmer, J., Tart, C., & Redington, D.)

Effects of immediate feedback on ESP performance over short time periods. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73, 291-301. (Tart, C., Palmer, J., & Redington, D.)

Some psi experiments with Matthew Manning. Journal of the Socie­ty for Psychical Research, 50, 224-228. (Tart, C., & Palm­er, J.)

1980

Information transmission in remote viewing experiments. Nature, 284, 13 March, 191. (Tart, C., Puthoff, H., & Targ, R.)

The possible nature of post-mortem states: A discussion, Part II. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 74, 418-424.

1981

Causality and synchronicity: Steps toward clarification. Jour­nal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 75, 121-141.

1982

Extrasensory perception (ESP). McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Sci­ence and Technology, fifth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 282-283.

Mathematical inference strategies versus psi: Initial explora­tions with the Probabilistic Predictor Program. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 325-356. (Tart, C., & Dronek, E.)

The controversy about psi: Two psychological theories. Journal of Parapsychology, 46, 313-320.

1983

Improving psychokinesis performance: Theoretical and methodolog­ical notes. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 475-481.

Information acquisition rates in forced-choice ESP experiments: Precognition does not work as well as present-time ESP. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 77, 293-310.

1984

Acknowledging and dealing with the fear of psi. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 133-143.

1985

Pure clairvoyance and the necessity of feedback. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 79, 485-492. (Targ, R. & Tart, C.)

1986

Stopping on a hit: Preliminary studies of a method for producing positive experiences in the parapsychology laboratory. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 31-48.

Attitudes toward strongly functioning psi: A preliminary study. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 163-173. (Tart, C. T. & LaBore, K.)

Psychics’ fears of psychic powers. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 80, 279-292.

1987

Altered states of consciousness and the possibility of survival of death. In J. Spong (Ed.), Consciousness and Survival: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry into the Possibility of Life Beyond Biological Death. Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences, pp. 27-56.

1988

Effects of electrical shielding on GESP performance. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 82, 129-146.

Geomagnetic effects of GESP: Two studies. Journal of the Ameri­can Society for Psychical Research, 82, 193-216.

1989

Enlightenment, altered states of consciousness and parapsycholo­gy. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Parapsychology and Human Nature. New York: Parapsychology Foundation. Pp. 150-169.

A case of predictive psi, with comments on analytical, associative and theoretical overlay. Journal of the Society for Psychi­cal Research, 55, 263-270.

1990

Psi-mediated emergent interactionism and the nature of conscious­ness. In R. Kunzendorf & A. Sheikh (Eds.), The Psychophy­siology of Mental Imagery: Theory, Research and Applica­tion. Amityville, New York: Baywood, 1990. Pp. 37-63.

1992

Perspectives on scientism, religion, and philosophy provided by parapsychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 32, No. 2, 70-100.

1993

Marijuana intoxication, psi, and spiritual experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 87, 149-170.

1994

Fears of the paranormal in ourselves and our colleagues: Recog­nizing them, dealing with them. Subtle Energies, 5, No. 1, 35-67.

1995

Toward the objective exploration of non-ordinary reality. Jour­nal of Transpersonal Psychology, 27, No. 1, 57-67.

1996

Science, compassion and the possible survival of death. In S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy (second ed). Albany: State University of New York Press. Pp. 531-544.

Parapsychology and transpersonal psychology. In B. Scotton, A. Chinen & J. Battista (Eds.), Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology. New York: Basic Books. Pp. 186-194.

1997

Parapsychology as calling and science. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 91, 77-81.

1998

Six studies of out-of-the-body experiences. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 17, 73-99.

2000

Fear of psychic phenomena. In E. Leskowitz (Ed.), Transpersonal Hypnosis: Gateway to Body, Mind and Spirit. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Pp. 1-12.

What is parapsychology? In R. Kuhn (Ed.), Closer to Truth: Challenging Current Belief. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 65-80. (Beyerstein, B., Kuhn, R., Radin, D., Schlitz, M., Tart, C. & Trefil, J.)

Can ESP affect your life? In R. Kuhn (Ed.), Closer to Truth: Challenging Current Belief. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 81-94. (Beyerstein, B., Kuhn, R., Schlitz, M., Tart, C. & Trefil, J.)

Prelude to Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: A proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. International Journal of Parapsychology, 11, No. 1, 3-5.

Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: State-specific sciences. In M. Velmans (Ed.), Investigating Phenomenal Consciousness: New Methodologies and Maps. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Pp. 255-278.

2002

Parapsychology & transpersonal psychology: “Anomalies” to be explained away or spirit to manifest? Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 31-47.

2003

Spiritual motivations of parapsychologists? Empirical data. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 181-184.

2004

On the scientific foundations of Transpersonal Psychology: Contributions from Parapsychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 36, No. 1, 66-90.

2008

Altered states of consciousness and the spiritual traditions: The proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. In Rao, K. R., Paranjpe, A. C. & Dalal, A. K. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Indian Psychology.   New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India Pvt. Ltd. Pp. 577-607.

2010

Reflections on the experimenter problem in parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 74, 3-13.

Toward evidence-based spirituality. Journal of Parapsychology, 74, No. 1, 31-60.

Fifty-five years in parapsychology: frustrations, advances, directions, meaning, and an interesting life. In Millay, J. (Ed.), Radiant Minds: Scientists Explore the Dimensions of Consciousness. Doyle, CA: Millay. Pp. 564-587.

2013

The parapsychological side of my career. In R. Pilkington (Ed.), Men and Women of Parapsychology, Personal Reflections. Esprit, Volume 2. San Antonio: Anomalist Books. Pp. 385-406.

2015

Investigating altered states of consciousness on their own terms: A proposal for the creation of state-specific sciences. In D. Eigner & J. Kremer (Eds.), Transformation of Consciousness: Potentials for our Future. Kathmandu: Vajra Books, pp. 67-98.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Leonora E. Piper

Leonora E. Piper

Leonora E. Piper is well known to students of the history of mediumship. Studied by Richard Hodgson, James H. Hyslop, William James, Oliver Lodge, and others, her séances have been recorded in detail in various specialized publications, such as the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research.

Hodgson report, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1892

Hodgson’s report, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1892

Hyslop report, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1901

Hyslop’s report, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1901

 

Charles Richet

Charles Richet

I just published in a short communication a report that has been generally neglected in discussions of Piper. My note appeared as a letter to the editor: “Charles Richet on Leonora Piper.” Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 2015, 79, 56-59. This report, authored by French physiologist Charles Richet, has probably been neglected for various reasons. In addition to being published in French, the report did not appear as a separate article, but was included in Walter Leaf’s “A Record of Observations of Certain Phenomena of Trance (3). Part II.” (Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1890, 6, 558-646). Being inside a longer report it is no wonder that Richet’s work has been overlooked (see pp. 618-620).

Much of Richet’s report, which I translated in the note, does not include evidential material. Here he discussed some of the information he obtained:

“It seems that Mrs. P. did not know my name: but I admit as very possible that she knew it, or that people of the house had spoken it inadvertently, or that she guessed my nationality. (She was around Mr. William James and Mr. Hodgson for two years, and had read the Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research.) She told me that my name was Charles, and that I worked in medicine. Then I told her about my grandfather: she told me his name was Charles like me, which is true, although I had told her it was my mother’s father. She added that he was called Richhet, and she said each letter unaided by me and spontaneously. But I cannot attach much importance to these facts because it is quite possible that she knew my name unconsciously.”

“Then I asked a few details about my grandfather. She had nothing to say, but very inaccurate and numerous mistakes; assuring me he was a soldier—a chemist—a doctor—that I lived with him—that he had a dog; all incorrect facts. I told him he had translated an American author into French. It was impossible to say who. She said, Henry James, Hawthorne, &c., without being able to say Franklin.”

“Because she talked about a dog, I asked her about a little dog I had that was dead. She said Pick without hesitation. Now this fact is very important, and it is, in my opinion, the best result she gave; because my dog was called Dick; and we must admit she absolutely did not know the name, which was unknown at Cambridge and at Boston.”

Another interesting aspect of Richet’s short report were observations of the changes shown by Piper.

“We do not put her to sleep by the procedure of magnetic passes, but she enters trance, so to speak, spontaneously.”

“However all does not happen spontaneously; for she needs to grab someone’s hand for the trance. Then she takes the hand for a few minutes remaining in silence and in half-darkness. After some time—from 5 to 15 minutes—she has small spasmodic convulsions that increase, ending with a very moderate small epileptiform seizure. At the end of this crisis she falls into a state of stupor, with a somewhat gasping breathing, which lasts close to a minute or two; then, all of a sudden, she comes out of this stupor by an outburst. Her voice has changed; it is no longer Mrs. P. who is there, but another character, Dr. Phinuit, who speaks with a deep voice, of manly appearance, with a mixed black patois, and a French and American dialect accent.”

Older Mrs. Piper

Older Mrs. Piper

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I would like to congratulate two persons I have known for many years who recently were granted awards by the Parapsychological Association. Gerd H. Hövelmann, MA, received the Outstanding Career Award and Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD, the Outstanding Contribution Award.

Gerd H. Hövelmann

Gerd H. Hövelmann

Hövelmann studied philosophy, linguistics, literature, and psychology at the University of Marburg, Germany, and he was a Senior Research Associate at the Department of Philosophy at Marburg University (1984-1993). He is the editor of the Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, and of two collections of articles: Kramer, W., Bauer, E., & Hövelmann, G. (2012). Perspectives of Clinical Parapsychology: An Introductory Reader. (Bunnik: Stichting HJBF), and G.H. Hövelmann, and J.A.G. Michels, (Eds.) (in press), Legitimacy of Unbelief: The Collected Papers of Piet Hein Hoebens. (Münster: Lit-Verlag).

Hövelmann has published on a wide range of topics from dialect geography to manned space exploration and has extensive research experience in nonverbal communication, evolutionary theory, and philosophy and history of science. He recently served two consecutive terms as the Vice President of the Parapsychological Association, and he has been the owner and director of several firms.

Some of his articles include:

Bauer, E., Hövelmann, G.H. & Lucadou, W. von (2013). Von Scheinriesen [Pretended giants: On the recent history of German skepticism]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 13, 89-129.

Hövelmann, G. H. (2012). Vom Nutzen der Grenzgebietsforschung für die Wissenschaft [On the utility of frontier research for science at large]. In Ambach, W. (Ed.), Experimentelle Psychophysiologie in Grenzgebieten [Experimental Psychophysiology in Frontier Areas] (pp. 303-337). Würzburg: Ergon.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2012). Aristoteles’ flüchtige Fliege [Aristotle’s fugitive fly]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 12, 190-208.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2010). Editorial: Historische Fallstudien zur Anomalistik [Editorial: Historical case studies in anomalistics]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 10, 202-236.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2008). Escape from Wonderland. In Roe, C., Kramer, W., & Coly, L., (Eds.), Utrecht II: Charting the Future of Parapsychology (pp. 559-568). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2007). The function of book reviews in anomalistics. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21, 123-133.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2005). Laienforschung und Wissenschaftsanspruch [Amateur research and science claims]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 5, 126-135.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2005). Devianz und Anomalistik – Bewährungsproben der Wissenschaft. Prof. Dr. Marcello Truzzi (1935-2003) [Deviance and Anomalistics – Performance tests for science]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 5, 5-30.

Krippner, S., & Hövelmann, G.H. (2005). The future of psi research: Recommendations in retrospect. In Thalbourne, M.A.. & Storm, L. (Eds.), Parapsychology in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on the Future of Psychical Research (pp. 167-188). Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland.

Hövelmann, G.H., & Schriever, F. (2004). Der leise Revolutionär: Prof. Dr. Robert L. Morris (1942-2004) [The silent revolutionary: Prof. Dr. Robert L. Morris (1942-2004)]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 4, 6-13.

Hövelmann, G.H. (2001). Was wissen wir, wenn wir Literatur erkannt haben? [What have we learned once we have identified experiential reports as literature?]. Zeitschrift für Anomalistik, 1, 23-29.

Berger, A.S., Hövelmann, G.H. & Lucadou, W. von (1992). Spirit extras on video tape? The first field investigation. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 58, 153-164.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1989). Parariteiten – Het belang van woorden bij het spreken over parapsychologie [The importance of the choice of words for talking about parapsychology]. Skepter, 2(2), 20-27.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1988). Parapsychologists and skeptics ─ problems of identification. SRU Bulletin, 13, 125-132.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1987). Max Dessoir and the origin of the word ‘parapsychology’. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 54, 61-63.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1987). A constructively rational approach to parapsychology and scientific methodology. Zetetic Scholar, #12/13, 110-153.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1987). “Please wait to be tolerated”: Distinguishing fact from fiction on both sides of a scientific controversy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 592-593.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1986). Beyond the Ganzfeld debate. Journal of Parapsychology, 50, 365-370.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1986). Neglected figures in the history of parapsychology: Some general reflections. In Snel, F.W.J.J. (Ed.): Liber Amicorum in Honour of G.A.M. Zorab. The Hague: Nederlandse Vereniging voor Parapsychologie, pp. 94-126.

Hövelmann, G.H., Krippner, S. (1986). Charting the future of parapsychology. Parapsychology Review, 17(6), 1-5.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1985). [with M. Truzzi & P.H. Hoebens]. Skeptical literature on parapsychology: An annotated bibliography. In Kurtz, P. (ed.), A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, pp. 449-490.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1985). Evidence for survival from near-death experiences? A critical appraisal. In Kurtz, P. (Ed.), A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, pp. 645-684.

Hövelmann, G.H., & Zorab, G.A.M. (1985). The Kern City Poltergeist: Some critical remarks on the quality of the evidence and the arguments. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 53, 87-92.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1984). Against historicism. Critical remarks on Thomas Kuhn’s conception of science and its reception in parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 48, 101-119.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1984). Are psi experiments repeatable? A conceptual framework for the discussion of repeatability. European Journal of Parapsychology, 5, 285-306

Hövelmann, G.H. (1983). Cooperation versus competition: In defense of rational argument in parapsychology. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 483-505.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1983). Seven recommendations for the future practice of parapsychology. Zetetic Scholar #11, 128-138.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1983). Parapsychologen und das Irrationale [Parapsychologists and the irrational]. Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie, 25, 91-105.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1982). Involuntary whispering, conversational analysis, and electronic voice phenomena. Theta, 10, 54-58.

Hövelmann, G.H. (1980). Kooperation und Konkurrenz im wissenschaftlichen Schrifttum der Parapsychologie [Cooperation and competition in scientific writing on parapsychology]. Zeitschrift für Parapsychologie und Grenzgebiete der Psychologie, 22, 143-156.

Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone

Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone

Zingrone has served as President of the Parapsychological Association twice and is currently a Research Fellow at the Parapsychology Foundation. She has held other positions, among them Assistant Professor of Research at the Division of Perceptual Studies of the University of Virginia (2003-2011), and a Research Fellow (1982-1985), and a Visiting Scholar (1986-1993, 2013-2014) at the Institute for Parapsychology (now the Rhine Research Center). Zingrone has conducted experimental ESP research, survey research on psychic experiences, and worked on controversy in parapsychology from a science studies point of view.

In recent times Zingrone has been the main coordinator of online educational efforts in parapsychology. These have included an online conference: “Parapsychology and Psychology: Research and Theory” (2014) and the ParaMOOC2015 (MOOC being short of massively open online course) “Parapsychology and Anomalistic Psychology: Research and Education” 2015). The course is still receiving registrants having from around 800 at the close of the live lectures to 937 today.

She was one of the editors of Research in Parapsychology 1993 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998), the Program Chair for the Parapsychological Association’s convention in 1995, and is the author of From Text to Self: The Interplay of Criticism and Response in the History of Parapsychology (Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010). Zingrone has also authored several papers published in history, psychology, psychiatry and parapsychology journals, among them:

(in press). (Second author, with Alvarado, C.S.). Features of out-of-body experiences: Relationships to frequency, willfullness of and previous knowledge about the experience. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.

(in press) (First author, with C.S. Alvarado, & G.H. Hövelmann). An overview of modern developments in parapsychology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz, (Eds.). Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

(in press). (Second author, with Alvarado, C.S.). Note on the reception of Théodore Flournoy’s study of “Hélène Smith.” Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.

(2012). (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Classic Text No. 90: ‘The Pathology and Treatment of Mediomania’, by Frederic Rowland Marvin (1874). History of Psychiatry, 23, 229–244.

(2010) (First author, with Alvarado, C.S., & Cardeña, E.) Out-of-body experiences, physical body activity and posture: Responses from a survey conducted in Scotland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 163-165.

(2009) (First author, with C.S. Alvarado, and N. Agee). Psychological correlates of aura vision: Psychic experiences,dissociation, absorption, and synaesthesia-like experiences. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 131-168.

(2009) (First author, with C.S. Alvarado). Pleasurable Western adult near-death experiences: Features, circumstances and incidence. In J.M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The Handbook of Near-Death Experiences (pp. 17-40). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

(2008) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Ian Stevenson and the modern study of ESP experiences. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 44-53.

(2007-2008) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Interrelationships of psychic experiences, dream recall and lucid dreams in a survey with Spanish participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 27, 63-69.

(2006) Complicating the conversation: Rhetoric, substance, and controversy in parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 69, 3-21.

(2003) (Second with C.S. Alvarado). Exploring the factors related to the aftereffects of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67, 161-183.

(2002) Controversy and the problems of parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 1-30.

(1999) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Out-of-body experiences among readers of a Spanish New Age magazine. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 63, 65-85.

(1998-99) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado & K.S. Dalton). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Imagination, Cognition andPersonality, 18, 297-317.

(1998-99) (First author, with C.S. Alvarado & K. Dalton). Psi experiences and the “Big Five”: Relating the NEO-PI-R to the experience claims of experimental subjects. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 31-51.

(1998-99) (Second author with C.S. Alvarado). A study of the features of out-of-body experiences in relation to Sylvan Muldoon’s claims. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 89-99.

(1998) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Anomalías de interacción con el ambiente: El estudio de los fenómenos parapsicológicos [Anomalies of interaction with the environment: The study of parapsychological phenomena]. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología [Puerto Rican Journal of Psychology], 11, 99-147.

(1997-1998) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado). Factors related to the depth of near-death experiences: Testing the“embellishment over time” hypothesis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 17, 339-344.

(1994). Images of women as mediums: Power, pathology and passivity in the writings of Frederic Marvin and Cesare Lombroso. In L.Coly & R.A. White (Ed.), Women and Parapsychology (pp. 90-121). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

(1994) (Second author, with C.S. Alvarado) Individual differences in aura vision: Relationships to visual imagery and imaginative fantasy experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 10,1-30.

(1989) (Second author, with D. H. Weiner). In the eye of the beholder: Further research on the Checker Effect. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 203-231.

(1988) Authorship and gender in American parapsychology journals. Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 321-343.

(1987) (Second author, with Carlos S. Alvarado). Historical aspects of parapsychological terminology. Journal of Parapsychology, 51, 49-74.

(1986) (Second author, with D. H. Weiner). The Checker Effect revisited. Journal of Parapsychology, 50, 155-161.

Congratulations to both.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Like any other phenomenon, mediumship can be studied from different conceptual and disciplinary perspectives. The works presented here are recent publications illustrating this.

Beischel, J., Boccuzzi, M., Biuso, M,, & Rock, A.J. (2015). Anomalous Information Reception by Research Mediums Under Blinded Conditions II: Replication and Extension. Explore: Journal of Science and Healing, 11, 136-142.

Context. The examination of the accuracy and specificity of information reported by mediums addresses the existence of non-local information transfer. Objective. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous methodology achieving positive findings regarding the anomalous reception of information about deceased individuals by research mediums under experimental conditions that eliminate conventional explanations, including cold reading, rater bias, experimenter cueing, and fraud. Design. Mediumship readings were performed over the phone under blinded conditions in which mediums, raters, and experimenters were all blinded. Participants. A total of 20 Windbridge Certified Research Mediums WCRMs participated in 86 readings. Main Outcome Measures. Accuracy and specificity were assessed through item scores, global reading scores, and forced-choice selections provided by blinded sitters. Results. (1) Comparisons between blinded target and decoy readings regarding the estimated percentage accuracy of reading items (n = 27, P = .05, d = 0.49), (2) comparisons regarding the calculated percentage accuracy of reading items (n = 31, P = .002, d = 0.75), (3) comparisons regarding hits vs. misses (n = 31, P < .0001 and P = .002 for different reading sections), (4) comparisons regarding global scores (n = 58, P = .001, d = 0.57), and (5) forced-choice reading selections between blinded target and decoy readings (n = 58, P = .01) successfully replicate and extend previous findings demonstrating the phenomenon of anomalous information reception (AIR), the reporting of accurate and specific information without prior knowledge, in the absence of sensory feedback, and without using deceptive means. Because the experimental conditions of this study eliminated normal, sensory sources for the information mediums report, a non-local source (however controversial) remains the most likely explanation for the accuracy and specificity of their statements.

Cunningham, P.F. (2012). The Content–Source Problem in Modern Mediumship Research. Journal of Parapsychology, 76, 295-319.

This article examines the methodological issue of whether the content of mediumistic/channeled communications can be used to determine the source of those communications (“content-source problem”) within the context of the trance possession mediumship of Jane Roberts. The Seth material receives a thorough new examination in light of three approaches to the content-source problem in modern mediumship research that promises to advance the present state of discussion of this issue. A process-oriented investigation of phenomenological processes underlying Roberts’s channeling experience, a hermeneutic examination of Roberts’s channeling behavior, and a rhetorical analysis of the dictated Seth material offer novel analyses of the Seth phenomenon that might shed some light on the case.

Darghawth, R. (2013). Contemporary Mediumship: Anthropological Perspectives on the Long Island Medium. Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology, 21, Issue 1, Article 9.

Bereavement following the loss of a loved one has and always will remain a panhuman constant. An increasingly popularized form of healing is asserting itself in the form of mediumship. This paper seeks to investigate contemporary forms of mediumship in North America through critical analysis of the TLC show, Long Island Medium. Rather than questioning the validity of such practices, it instead strives to deconstruct the symbolic healing system surrounding the medium. This healing system serves to assure cultural constructions of an afterlife while acknowledging the presence and ability of spirits gaining agency through after-death communication. Furthermore, this paper seeks to assert that mediumship can in fact draw the bereaved from the liminal state of mourning into active life once again.

Massicotte, C. (2013). Talking Nonsense: Spiritual Mediums and Female Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Canada. (2013). University of Western Ontario – Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. Paper 1656.

This study traces the development of mediumship in Canada in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Especially popular among women, this practice offered them an important space of expression. Concealing their own identities under spiritual possession, mediums ubiquitously invoked well-known historical figures in séances to transmit their opinions on current issues. As such, they were able to promote new ideas to interested audiences without claiming responsibility for their potentially controversial words. While many studies have been conducted in the United States, Britain, and France regarding the significant role of mediumship in the emergence of women on the political scene, very few have approached this history in Canada. My research defends the importance of studying mediums’ discourses as they provide rare access to Canadian women’s perspectives at a time when public speaking was restricted for them. More particularly, I argue that séances provided women a disguised means to explore, discuss, and reconfigure the notion of female agency within a variety of public and private platforms. I read séances through the works of major figures in feminism and psychoanalysis in order to demonstrate how the complexity of subjectivity performed by mediums questioned traditional understandings of discourse and agency. Examining the trance communications of mediums from pioneering author Susanna Moodie to suffragist Flora MacDonald Denison, among others, my objective is to shed new light on the relations between women and politics, while defending a more inclusive understanding of the historical past that addresses yet unexplored forms of women’s participation in sexual, cultural, and political debates.

Osborne, G., & Bacon, A.M. (2015) The Working Life of a Medium: A Qualitative Examination of Mediumship as a Support Service for the Bereaved. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1-13,

Despite widespread scepticism, it has been estimated that around 10% of the UK adult population regularly visit a medium and television programmes showing mediumship demonstrations draw in millions of viewers. While many assume mediumship to be purely for entertainment, an alternative discourse presents it as being a service offered to comfort and support the bereaved. In this qualitative study, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with nine working mediums and examined with an interpretative phenomenological analysis which aims to understand the lived experiences of participants. Three key superordinate themes emerged, Responsibility and Ethics, Passion to Help and Therapeutic Value. These themes are discussed in terms of mediums’ perception of their work as a helping profession and an ethical framework which illustrates awareness of the vulnerability of sitters. We also consider whether mediums may be equipped to deal with sitters experiencing complicated grief.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In this new series of blogs I plan to mention various aspects of the history of out-of-body experiences (OBEs). In addition to cases I will summarize articles and books, as well as theories. It is my hope to contribute to rescue this material from oblivion.

Nineteenth Century Artistic Conception of Pliny the Elder

Nineteenth Century Artistic Conception of Pliny the Elder

The first account presented here comes from Pliny the Elder’s Natural History. This work, published around 77 AD, was a work devoted to various areas of knowledge and practices, including, but not limited to, agriculture, botany, geography, painting, and zoology. Rather than a case this is an account of what happened to a person said to have frequent OBEs.

In Pliny’s words: “With reference to the soul of man, we find, among other instances, that the soul of Hermotinus of Clazomenae was in the habit of leaving his body, and wandering into distant countries, whence it brought back numerous accounts of various things, which could not have been obtained by any one but a person who was present. The body, in the meantime, was left apparently lifeless . . . . At last, however, his enemies, the Cantharidae, as they were called, burned the body, so that the soul, on its return, was deprived of its sheath, as it were” (The Natural History of Pliny [J. Bostock & H.T. Riley, translators, Vol. 2]. London: George Bell & Sons, 1890, p. 210).

A much longer account, and one taking place in apparent near-death circumstances, was that mentioned by Plutarch in an essay (Schilleto, A.R., Editor and translator. Plutarch’s Morals: Ethical Essays. London: George Bell and Sons, 1888).

Plutarch

Plutarch

“Thespesius of Soli, . . . who lived in this city with us for some time, had been very profligate during the early part of his life, and had quickly run through his property, and for some time owing to his straits had given himself up to bad practices . . . . He fell headlong down from a great height, and though he had received no wound [p. 357] nor even a blow, the fall did for him, but three days after (just as he was about to be buried) he recovered. He soon picked up his strength again, and went home, and so changed his manner of life that people would hardly credit it . . . . [Thespesius said] that, when his soul left the body, the change he first underwent was as if he were a pilot thrown violently into the sea out of a ship. Then raising himself up a little, he thought he recovered the power of breathing again altogether, and looked round him in every direction, as if one eye of the soul was open. But he saw none of the things he had ever seen before, but stars enormous in size and at immense distance from one another, sending forth a wonderful and intense brightness of colour, so that the soul was borne along and moved about everywhere quickly and easily, like a ship in fair weather. But omitting most of the sights he saw, he said that the souls of the dead mounted into the air, which yielded to them and formed fiery bubbles, and then, when each bubble quietly broke, they assumed human forms, light in weight but with different kinds of motion, for some leapt about with wonderful agility and darted straight upwards, while others like spindles flitted round all together in a circle, some in an upward direction, some in a downward, with mixed and confused motion, hardly stopping at all, or only after a very long time. As to most of these he was ignorant who they were, but he saw two or three that he knew, and tried to approach them and talk with them, but they would not listen to him, and did not seem to be in their right minds, but out of their senses and distraught, avoiding every sight and touch, and at first turned round and round alone, but afterwards meeting many other souls whirling round and in the same condition as themselves, they moved about promiscuously with no particular object in view, and uttered [p. 358] inarticulate sounds, like yells, mixed with wailing and terror. Other souls in the upper part of the air seemed joyful, and frequently approached one another in a friendly way, and avoided those troubled souls, and seemed to mark their displeasure by keeping themselves to themselves, and their joy and delight by extension and expansion. At last he said he saw the soul of a relation, that he thought he knew but was not quite sure, as he died when he was a boy, which came up to him and said to him, “Welcome, Thespesius.” And he wondering, and saying that his name was not Thespesius but Aridseus, the soul replied, “That was your old name, but henceforth it will be Thespesius. For assuredly you are not dead, but by the will of the gods are come here with your intellect, for the rest of your soul you have left in the body like an anchor; and as a proof of what I say both now and hereafter notice that the souls of the dead have no shadow and do not move their eyelids.”

“Thespesius, on hearing these words, pulled himself somewhat more together again, and began to use his reason, and looking more closely he noticed that an indistinct and shadow-like line was suspended over him, while the others shone all round and were transparent, but were not all alike; for some were like the full-moon at its brightest, throwing out one smooth even and continuous colour, others had spots or light marks here and there, while others were quite variegated and strange to the sight, with black spots like snakes, while others again had dim scratches . . . . .” [p. 360]

“After he had said this, Thespesius’ kinsman [who had shown him many things] hurried him at great speed through immense space, as it seemed to him, though he travelled as easily and straight as if he were carried on the wings of the sun’s rays. At last he got to an extensive and bottomless abyss, where his strength left him, as he found was the case with the other souls there: for keeping together and making swoops, like birds, they flitted all round the abyss, but did not venture to pass over it. To internal view it resembled the caverns of Bacchus, being beautiful throughout . . . with trees and green foliage and flowers of all kinds, and it breathed a soft and gentle air, laden with scents marvellously pleasant, and producing the effect that wine does on those who are topers; for the souls were elevated by its fragrance, and gay and blithe with one another: and the whole spot was full of mirth and laughter, and such songs as emanate from gaiety and enjoyment. And Thespesius’ kinsman told him that this was the way Dionysus went up to heaven by, and by which he afterwards took up Semele, and it was called the place of Oblivion. But he would not let Thespesius stay there, much as he wished, but forcibly dragged him away . . . .” [p. 361].

“Next Thespesius travelled as far in another direction, and seemed to see a great crater into which several rivers emptied themselves, one whiter than the foam of the sea or snow, another like the purple of the rainbow, and others of various hues whose brightness was apparent at some distance, but when he got nearer the air became thinner and the colours grew dim, and the crater lost all its gay colours but white. And he saw three genii sitting together in a triangular position, mixing the rivers together in certain proportions . . . .” [p. 362]

“After this Thespesius and his guide turned to see those that were undergoing punishment. And at first they saw only distressing and pitiable sights, but after that, Thespesius, little expecting it, found himself among his friends and acquaintances and kinsfolk who were being punished, and undergoing dreadful sufferings and hideous and bitter tortures, and who wept and wailed to him. And at last he descried his father coming up out of a certain gulf covered with marks and scars, stretching out his hands, and not allowed to keep silence, but compelled by those that presided over his torture to confess that he had been an accursed wretch and poisoned some strangers that had gold, and during his lifetime had escaped the detection of everybody; but had been found out here, and his guilt brought home to him, for which he had already suffered much, and was being dragged on to suffer more. So great was his consternation and fear that he did not dare to intercede or beg for his father’s release, but wishing to turn and flee he could no longer see his gentle and kind guide, but he was thrust forward by some persons horrible to look at, as if some dire necessity compelled him to go through with the business, and saw that the shades of those that had been notorious criminals and punished in their life-time were not so severely tortured here or like the others, but had an incomplete . . . though toilsome punishment for their irrational passions. . . .” [p. 363]

“So much did Thespesius behold, but as he intended to return a horrible dread came upon him. For a woman, marvellous in appearance and size, took hold of him and said to him, “Come here that you may the better remember everything you have seen.” And she was about to strike him with a red-hot iron pin, such as the encaustic painters use, . . . when another woman prevented her ; and he was suddenly sucked up, as through . . . a pipe, by a strong and violent wind, and lit upon his own body, and woke up and found that he was close to his tomb” [p. 365].

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. Dean Radin is well known both in and outside parapsychological circles. I believe I first met him in a convention of the Parapsychological Association sometime in the late 1980s, although he attended a PA convention for the first time in 1978.

Dr. Dean Radin

Dr. Dean Radin

Dean is currently Chief Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS) and has worked at a variety of places such as AT&T Bell Labs, Princeton University, University of Edinburgh, and SRI International. He is well known in parapsychology for his innovative experimental studies, among them: Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for “signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction research: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 185-200; Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11, 163-180; Radin, D. I., Machado, F. and Zangari, W. (2000). Effects of distant healing intention through time and space: Two exploratory studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 11, 207-240; Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G. & Walsh, J. (2007). Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 3, 485-492; Radin, D. I., Michel, L, Wendland, P., Rickenbach, R., Delorme, A., Galdamez, K. (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments. Physics Essays, 25, 157-171; Shiah, Y-J & Radin, D. I. (2013). Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: Testing the roles of intention and belief on mood when drinking tea. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9, 355-360.

Radin Conscious UniverseDean has been elected President of the Parapsychological Association four times, which shows the high regard in which his colleagues hold him. He has published the following books: The Conscious Universe (HarperOne, 1997), Entangled Minds (Simon & Schuster, 2006), and Supernormal (Random House, 2013), all of which remain in print and two of which have won awards.

Radin Entangled MindsRadin Supernormal

Interview Questions

How did you get interested in parapsychology?

I seem to have arrived on this planet with an imperative to know. A friend joked that I must have been born with an extra “why” chromosome. My first grade teacher wrote in her end-of-year student evaluation that “Dean will be one of our future scientists.” I don’t remember what I may have done that influenced her assessment, but I do know that a persistent driving force throughout my life has been curiosity. I wanted to know how the universe worked, why I or anyone else existed, and if there was any purpose to anything. This wasn’t a matter of existential angst as much as a chronic state of existential curiosity.

My first “career” was playing the violin. By age 11 I won a scholarship to the Hartt School, a performing arts conservatory at the University of Hartford, Connecticut, and I had many stints as concertmaster in various orchestras. In college, I took the honors program in physics and I eventually earned undergraduate and masters degrees in electrical engineering and a Ph.D. in psychology.

I first encountered the idea of psychic phenomena as a pre-teen by reading every comic book, fairy tale, parable, myth, and science fiction story I could find. When those were exhausted I read the “true tales” of the Eastern mystic masters. No one in my immediate family ever reported psychic or mystical experiences, but somehow I felt that the psi-oriented aspects of those stories were more than mere fantasy. In 1968, the Star Trek television show broadcast an episode entitled “The Empath”. The titular character was a woman from an alien race whose empathic sense was so well developed that she could take on the pain of others and dissipate it through herself. From that story I learned that while I did not have classic psychic or mystical experiences, I did share some characteristics of an empath, which may have explained why I was attracted to that literature in the first place.

What are your main interests in the field and how have you contributed to its development?

Like most scientists my activities are influenced by available funds, so over the years I’ve followed the money and have investigated various aspects of telepathy, presentiment, precognition, mediumship, DMILS, and mind-matter interactions involving RNGs, cell cultures, water, chocolate, tea, and more recently, optical systems. I’ve also been interested in applying analytical methods to psi data, leading to several meta-analyses, neural network analyses, complex systems analyses, and so on. I’ve conducted psi research while at Bell Laboratories, SRI International, Princeton University, the Koestler Parapsychology Unit at the University of Edinburgh, the University of Nevada, Interval Research Corporation, Boundary Institute, and for the past 15 years, at the Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Why do you think that parapsychology is important?

At minimum, psi phenomena remind us that today’s scientific worldview is incomplete. At maximum, it suggests that our assumptions about human potential are vastly underestimated. I’d like to know which of today’s assumptions are incomplete, and what better assumptions we should consider. There is no better way to do that than through the careful study of those anomalies we call psi. On the whole, gaining a better understanding of psi will almost certainly lead to revisions about who and what we think we are. As a scientist, I think that’s the most exciting place to be.

In your view, what are the main problems in parapsychology today as a scientific field?

The woo-woo taboo remains a major problem; perhaps it is the major problem. There is no lack of private interest in psi among mainstream scientists and funding agencies, even at the highest levels. This allows a small cadre of uber-skeptics to get away with presenting a false picture of parapsychology through popular outlets like Wikipedia, and all of that combined significantly slows progress. I suspect that this taboo will continue to persist for a long time because the people who inculcate a false history are not motivated by a rational consideration of the evidence. What will eventually break the taboo is not necessarily better evidence from parapsychology, although that will certainly help, but rather a growing realization within mainstream science that its worldview is converging toward a picture of the universe where psi is no longer viewed as anomalous.

Can you mention some of your current projects?

I continue to do many radio and television interviews, documentary films, and conference presentations to help educate the general public and scientists about psi research. I’ve given over 300 interviews and talks at last count, including something like 50 television shows in the US, UK and Japan, many newspapers and magazines, a dozen invited presentations at traditional yoga ashrams in the US, the Bahamas, and in India, and at universities including Cambridge, Edinburgh, Princeton, Harvard, Stanford, the Sorbonne (University of Paris), and the University of Allahabad (India). I’ve also been invited to speak at Bell Labs, Google, Johnson & Johnson, iClif (an international leadership organization in Kuala Lumpur, supported by the Central Bank of Malaysia), the (US) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the US Navy’s Strategic Studies Group, and the Naval Postgraduate School. And I’ve hosted or co-hosted invited conferences on psi research at IONS, the University of British Columbia, and the (US) National Academy of Sciences.

I also accept invitations for many smaller podcasts and late night talk radio shows on “paranormal” themes as a way to help inform the lay public on how to discriminate between scientific and non-scientific ways of studying psi. For the same reason, I do lots of interviews with authors writing works of fiction or nonfiction. I find that doing these interviews helps me to sharpen how to speak about psi in simple but accurate ways, and this has had the beneficial side effect of making my academic talks that much clearer.

I regard all of these public and private outreach efforts as rather odd given my basic temperament. I much prefer to be quietly working on something in the lab rather than speaking in front of the camera or an audience, or organizing conferences. But because I feel an obligation to help dissolve the woo-woo taboo and educate people about the science of psi, I do these activities trusting that I can reach a few more people who might have otherwise remained either “true disbelievers” or “true believers.”

I’ve also written some three dozen book chapters, three popular books, one textbook, and authored or coauthored over 70 articles in peer-reviewed journals ranging from the psi-specialty journals, to journals in physics, neuroscience, psychology, medicine, consciousness studies and other topics (e.g., Journal of Parapsychology, European Journal of Parapsychology, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Physics Essays, Foundations of Physics, Foundations of Physics Letters, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Frontiers in Psychology, The Humanistic Psychologist, British Journal of Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Missouri Medicine, Explore, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Neuroquantology, Perceptual and Motor Skills).

As for my research projects, I have a half-dozen active projects on various aspects of psi perception and mind-matter interaction. I am also looking forward to starting a new project this year, on aspects of “energy medicine.”

Selected Bibliography

Books and Edited Volumes

Radin, D. I. (2013). Supernormal: Science, yoga, and the evidence for extraordinary psychic abilities. New York: Random House. (Translations to: French, Russian, and Chinese)

Mitchell, E. D., White, J., Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. (Eds.). (2011). Psychic exploration: A challenge for science, understanding the nature and power of consciousness. New York: Cosimo Books.

Radin, D. I. (2009). The noetic universe: Scientific evidence for psychic phenomena. London: Corgi Books.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Entangled minds: Extrasensory experiences in a quantum reality. New York: Paraview Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster. (Translations to: Arabic, Bulgarian, French, Japanese, Latvian, and Portuguese)

Martin, M. with Radin, D. I. & Schlitz, M. J. (2006). ESP: Extrasensory Perception. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.

Radin, D. I. (1997). The conscious universe. San Francisco: HarperCollins. (Translations to: Chinese, French, Italian, Korean, and Turkish)

Weiner, D. H. & Radin, D. I. (1986). Research in parapsychology 1985, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Reynolds, R. E. & Radin, D. I. (1977). Using evaluation in the classroom. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Company.

Book Chapters

Radin, D. I. & Pierce, A. (in press). Psi and psychophysiology. In E. Cardeña, J. Palmer, & D. Marcusson-Clavertz, (Eds.), Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Radin, D. I. & Pierce, A. (in press). Physiological methods in psi research. In E. May & S. Marwaha (Ed.), Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism, and Science. Praeger.

Radin, D. I. (in press). Forward. In L. Storm & A. Rock (Ed.). Searching for psi.

Radin, D. I. (2012). Seeing and not seeing eternity. In S. Kakar & J. Kripal (Ed.). Seriously strange: Thinking anew about psychical experiences. New York: Penguin/Viking.

Radin, D. I. (2011). Predicting the unpredictable: 75 years of experimental evidence. In D. P. Sheehan (Ed.). Quantum retrocausation: Theory and experiment. Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics, AIP Conference Proceedings.

Radin, D. I. (2011). Intuition and the noetic. In. M. Sinclair (Ed.) Handbook of intuition research. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Radin, D. I., Stone, J., Levine, E., Eskandarnejad, S., Schlitz, M., Kozak, L., Mandel, D., & Hayssen, G. (2011). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. In E. Bragdon, J. Lake (Eds). Practices from Spiritist Centers and Spiritist Psychiatric Hospitals in Brazil. Philadelphia PA, Singing Dragon.

Radin, D. I. (2010). Beyond the boundaries of the brain. In Perry, Elaine, Daniel Collerton, Fiona E.N. LeBeau and Heather Ashton (eds.), New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Radin, D. I. (2010). A brief history of science and psychic phenomena. In S. Krippner & Harris Friedman (Ed)., Debating psychic experience: Human potential or human illusion? New York: Praeger .

Radin, D. I. (2010). The critic’s lament. In S. Krippner & Harris Friedman (Ed)., Debating psychic experience: Human potential or human illusion? New York: Praeger .

Radin, D. I. (2010). Psychophysiology of psi. In J. Millay (Ed.) Radiant Minds. Millay Publishing.

Radin, D. I. (2010). Children of the world, keep asking the hard questions. In W. Murtha (ed.). 100 words: Two hundred visionaries. San Francisco: Conari Press, pp. 302-303.

Radin, D. I. (2009). The challenge of psi. In S. Martin (Ed.), Cosmic Conversations. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books.

Radin, D. I. (2009). Mind over time. In S. Marohn, Audacious aging. Santa Rosa, CA: Elite Books.

Radin, D. I. (2007). A brief history of the potential future. In T. Pfeiffer & J. E. Mack (Eds)., Mind before matter. Washington, Winchester, UK: O Books.

Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. I. (2007). Prayer and intention in distant healing: Assessing the evidence. (Chapter 9). In I A. Serlin, K. Rockefeller & S. Brown (Eds). Whole person healthcare. Volume 2: Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, pp. 177-190. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Psychophysiological evidence of possible retrocausal effects in humans. In D. Sheehan (Ed)., Frontiers of Time: Retrocausation Experiment and Theory. American Institutes of Physics.

Radin, D. I. (2005). Science and psychic phenomena. In D. J. Brown (Ed.) Conversations on the edge of the apocalypse. New York: Palgrave/Macmillian.

Radin, D. I. (2005). What’s ahead? In M. A. Thalbourne and L. Storm (Eds.) Parapsychology in the 21st Century: The Future of Psychical Research, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Schlitz, M. & Radin, D. I. (2003). Telepathy in the ganzfeld: State of the evidence. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (2003). Meta-analysis of mind-matter interaction experiments: 1959 – 2000. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences, 39-48.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (2003). FieldREG experiments and group consciousness: Extending REG/RNG research to real-world situations. In Jonas, W. & Crawford, C. (Eds.), Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine. London: Harcourt Health Sciences.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (2001). Statistically robust anomalous effects: Replication in random event generator experiments. In Rao, K. R. (Ed.) Basic research in parapsychology. Second edition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Radin, D. I. (2001). Seeking spirits in the laboratory. Chapter in Houran, J. & Lange, R. (Ed.), Hauntings and Poltergeists: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Radin, D. I. (2001). Forward to Atwater, F. H., Captain of my ship, master of my soul. Charlottesville, VA, Hampton Roads Publishing Co.

Bierman, D. & Radin, D. I. (2000). Anomalous unconscious emotional responses: Evidence for a reversal of the arrow of time. In S. Hameroff, A. Kaszniak, & D. Chalmers (Eds.) Towards a science of consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Radin, D. I. (2000). Can science seek the soul? What is parapsychology? Can ESP affect your life? In R. L. Kuhn (Ed.) Closer to truth: Challenging current belief. New York: McGraw Hill.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1988). Repeatable evidence for anomalous human-machine interactions. In M. L. Albertson, D. S. Ward, & K. P. Freeman (Eds.), Paranormal Research, Fort Collins, CO.: Rocky Mountain Research Institute, 306 – 317.

Ortony, A. & Radin, D. I. (1987). SAPIENS: Spreading activation processor for information encoded in network structures. In N. Sharkey (Ed.), Review of cognitive science. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Press.

Radin, D. I. (1984). Effects of command language punctuation on human performance. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Human-computer interaction, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Journal Publications

Radin, D. (2015). Meditation and the nonlocal mind. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 1, 82-84.

Mossbridge, J. Tressoldi, P. Utts, J., Ives, J., Radin, D., Jonas, W. (2014). Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00146.

Radin, D. (2014). Out of one’s mind or beyond the brain: The challenge of interpreting near-death experiences. Missouri Medicine, 111 (1), 22- 26.

Delorme, A., Beischel, J., Michel, L., Boccuzzi, M., Radin, D. & Mills, P. (2013). Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased. Frontiers in Psychology.

Radin, D. I., Delorme, A.., Michel, L., Johnston, J. (2013). Psychophysical interactions with a double-slit interference pattern: Experiments and a model. Physics Essays. 26 (4), 553-566.

Shiah, Y-J & Radin, D. I. (2013). Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: Testing the roles of intention and belief on mood when drinking tea. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9, 355-360.

Radin, D. (2012). Psi-mediated optimism and the future of parapsychology. Journal of Parapsychology, 76 (Supplement), 45-46.

Schlitz, M., Hopf, H. W., Eskenazi, L., Vieten, C., & Radin, D. (2012). Distant healing of surgical wounds: An exploratory study. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 8: 223-230.

Radin, D. I., Michel, L, Wendland, P., Rickenbach, R., Delorme, A., Galdamez, K. (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments. Physics Essays, 25 (2), 157-171.

Radin, D. I., Vieten, C., Michel, L., & Delorme, A. (2011). Electrocortical activity prior to unpredictable stimuli in meditators and non-meditators. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 7, 286-299.

Patrizio E. Tressoldi, P. E., Storm, L. & Radin, D. I. (2010). Extrasensory perception and quantum models of cognition. Neuroquantology, 8 (4), S81-87.

Radin, D. I. & Borges, A. (2009). Intuition through time: What does the seer see? Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing.

Radin, D. I., & Atwater, F. H. (2009). Entrained minds and the behavior of random physical systems. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Radin, D. I., Lund, N., Emoto, M. & Kizu, T. (2009). Triple-blind replication of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation. Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Radin, D. I. (2008). Superpowers and the stubborn illusion of separation. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine, (19) 1, 29-42.

Radin, D. I., Stone, J., Levine, E., Eskandarnejad, S., Schlitz, M., Kozak, L., Mandel, D., & Hayssen, G. (2008). Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 4 (4), 235-243.

Radin, D. I. (2008). Testing nonlocal observation as a source of intuitive knowledge. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 4(1), 25-35.

Radin, D. I. & Lobach, E. (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: Investigating a possible retrocausal factor. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13, 733–739.

Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G & Walsh, J. (2007). Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. 3(5), 485-492.

Radin, D. I. (2007) Finding or imagining flawed research? The Humanistic Psychologist, 35(3).

Mason, LI, Patterson, RP, and Radin, DI. (2007). Exploratory study: The random number generator and group meditation. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 21 (2), 295–317.

Radin, D. I., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. & Houtkooper, J. (2006). Assessing the evidence for mind-matter interaction effects. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 20 (3), 361-374.

Radin, D. I. (2006). Experiments testing models of mind-matter interaction. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 20 (3), 375-401.

Schiltz, M., Wiseman, R., Watt, C. & Radin, D. I. (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 313-322.

Radin, D. I., Hayssen, G., Emoto, M. & Kizu, T. (2006). Double-blind test of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 2 (5), 408-411.

Radin, D. I., Nelson, R. D., Dobyns, Y. & Houtkooper, J. (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis: Commentary on the Bösch, Steinkamp and Boller meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 529–532.

Radin, D. I. (2005). Commentary on May et al.’s “Anomalous Anticipatory Skin Conductance Response to Acoustic Stimuli.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11 (4), 587-588.

Radin, D. I. (2005). The sense of being stared at: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (6), 95-100.

Radin, D. I. & Schlitz, M. J. (2005). Gut feelings, intuition, and emotions: An exploratory study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11 (4), 85-91.

Radin, D. I. (2004). On the sense of being stared at: An analysis and pilot replication. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 68, 246-253.

Radin, D. I. (2004). Electrodermal presentiments of future emotions. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 18, 253-274.

Radin, D. I. (2004). Event related EEG correlations between isolated human subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 315-324.

Radin, D. I., Taft, R. & Yount, G, (2004). Possible effects of healing intention on cell cultures and truly random events. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 103-112.

Schlitz, M., Radin, D. I., Malle, B. F., Schmidt, S., Utts, J. & Yount, G. L. (2003). Distant healing intention: Definitions and evolving guidelines for laboratory studies. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 9 (3), A31-A43.

Radin, D. I. (2003). Thinking about telepathy. Think, 3, 23-32.

Nelson, R.D., Radin, D. I., Shoup, R., Bancel, P. (2002). Correlation of continuous random data with major world events. Foundations of Physics Letters, 15 (6), 537-550

Radin, D. I. (2002). Exploring relationships between random physical events and mass human attention: Asking for whom the bell tolls. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 16 (4), 533-548.

Radin, D. I. (2002). A dog that seems to know when his owner is coming home: Effects of geomagnetism. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 16 (4), 579-592.

Radin, D. I. (2002). Exploratory study of relationships between physical entropy and global human attention. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 20 (2), 690-694.

Radin, D. I., Machado, F. and Zangari, W. (2000). Effects of distant healing intention through time and space: Two exploratory studies. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 11 (3) 207-240.

Radin, D. I. (2000). What’s ahead? Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 353-364.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1998). Seeking psi in the casino. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 62 (850), 193-219.

Nelson, R, Boesch, H., Boller, E., Dobyns, Y., Houtkooper, J., Lettieri, A., Radin, D., Russek, L., Schwartz, G., & Wesch, J. (1998). Global Resonance of Consciousness: Princess Diana and Mother Teresa. The Electronic Journal of Parapsychology, eJAP. Available at http://noosphere.princeton.edu/rdnelson/diana.html (as of May 2010).

Bierman, D. J. & Radin, D. I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 689-690.

Radin, D. I. (1997). Unconscious perception of future emotions: An experiment in presentiment. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11 (2), 163-180.

Dalton, K. S., Morris, R. L., Delanoy, D., Radin, D. I., & Wiseman, R. (1996). Security measures in an automated ganzfeld system. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 129-147.

Rebman, J. M., Wezelman, R. Radin, D. I., Hapke, R. A. & Gaughan, K. (1996). Remote influence of the autonomic nervous system by focused intention. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 6, 111-134.

Radin, D. I. (1996). Towards a complex systems model of psi performance. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 7, 35-70.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1996). Are phantasms fact or fantasy? A preliminary investigation of apparitions evoked in the laboratory. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 61 (843), 65-87.

Radin, D. I. (1996). Geomagnetic field fluctuations and sports performance. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 6 (3), 217-226.

Radin, D. I., Rebman, J. M. & Cross, M. P. (1996). Anomalous organization of random events by group consciousness. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 10 (1), 143-168.

Radin, D. I., Taylor, R. D. & Braud, W. (1995). Remote mental influence of human electrodermal activity: A pilot replication. European Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 19-34.

Radin, D. I. & Rebman, J. M. (1994). Lunar correlates of normal, abnormal and anomalous human behavior. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 5 (3), 209-238.

Radin, D. I. (1994). On complexity and pragmatism. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 8 (4), 523-534.

Radin, D. I., McAlpine, S. & Cunningham, S. (1994). Geomagnetism and psi in the ganzfeld. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 59 (834), 352-363.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Environmental modulation and statistical equilibrium in mind-matter interaction. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 4 (1), 1-30.

Radin, D. I. (1993). Neural network analyses of consciousness-related patterns in random sequences. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 7 (4), 355-374.

Radin, D. I. (1992). Beyond belief: Exploring interactions among mind, body and environment. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 2 (3), 1 – 40.

Radin, D. I. (1990-1991). Statistically enhancing psi effects with sequential analysis: A replication and extension. European Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 98 – 111.

Radin, D. I. & Ferrari, D. C. (1991). Effects of consciousness on the fall of dice: A meta-analysis. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 5, 61-84.

Hix, D., Radin, D. I., Siochi, A. C. & Benel, D. (May, 1991). Computer analysis of user session transcripts for evaluation of the human-computer interface. Conference Proceedings – IEEE SouthEastCon, Volume 2, 1991, Pages 1011-1015.

Radin, D. I. (1990). Testing the plausibility of psi-mediated computer system failures. Journal of Parapsychology, 54, 1-19.

Radin, D. I. (1989). Searching for “signatures” in anomalous human-machine interaction research: A neural network approach. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 185-200.

Radin, D. I. & Nelson, R. D. (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physics, 19, 1499-1514.

Radin, D. I. & Utts, J. M. (1989). Experiments investigating the influence of intention on random and pseudorandom events. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 65-79.

Radin, D. I. (1988). Effects of a priori probability on psi perception: Does precognition predict actual or probable futures? Journal of Parapsychology, 52, 187 – 212.

Nelson, R. D. & Radin, D. I. (1987). When immovable objections meet irresistible evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 600-601.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1987) On statistics for “psientists” and skeptics. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81, 277-290

Radin, D. I. (1985). Pseudorandom number generators in psi research. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 303-328.

Radin, D. I. & Bosworth, J. L. (1985) Response distributions in a computer-based perceptual task: Test of four models. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 79, 453-483.

Radin, D. I. (1984). A possible proximity effect on human grip strength. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 887-888.

Goetz, E. T., Reynolds, R. E., Schallert, D. L. & Radin, D. I. (1983). Reading in perspective: What real cops and pretend burglars look for in a story. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 500-510.

Radin, D. I. (1982). Experimental attempts to influence pseudorandom number sequences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 76, 359-374.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Parapsychology FoundationThe Parapsychology Foundation has announced their first online forum “Parapsychology Foundation Forum: Recent Advances in UK Parapsychology.” This will take place on May 20, 2015.

In addition to Professor Chris Roe and Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh, other presenters include Callum Cooper, Rachel Evenden, and David Saunders.

Professor Chris Roe

Professor Chris Roe

Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh

Dr. Elizabeth Roxburgh

For registration information, which is free, and the titles of the presentations, click here.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Bozzano, E. (1943) Musica Trascendentale. Verona: L’Albero (Reprint: Rome: Mediterranee, 1982). Available online here

Ernesto Bozzano

Ernesto Bozzano

A little-known work outside of Italy is Ernesto Bozzano’s Musica Trascendentale, which is concerned with various musical manifestations. Bozzano, who lived between 1862 and 1943, was well known for his published collections of a variety of psychic phenomena, and for his strong defenses of discarnate agency (click here and here). The book is an enlarged edition of article length studies published during the early 1920s, and the monograph was reprinted in 1982.

Bozzano Musica 2The author presented 42 numbered cases grouped in six chapters. The first was about music produced by mediums, and the second presented music perceived telepathically. The rest of the chapters had cases of music heard during hauntings, unrelated to death, around deathbeds, and after a death.

Bozzano MusicaMost of the cases were taken from spiritualistic and psychical research publications. For example, in Chapter 5, “Transcendental Music in Deathbeds,” Bozzano included clear sources for 18 of the 20 cases cited. While one case came from a biography, 17 were taken from spiritualist and psychical research publications. These 18 publications had dates ranging from 1863 to 1932, but most of them (13) appeared in the twentieth century.

Bozzano considered in his discussions collectively perceived cases, and cases of selective percipience. This included those instances in which only one person heard the music when others were present, and those rare cases in which there were different auditory perceptions. He argued that the hallucinatory explanation of music heard in hauntings could not be defended because there were cases in which the percipients were not aware that the place was haunted. Against the psychometric explanation of hauntings, the author stated that there were some cases in which music was heard at a distance from the haunted place, and where the percipients stopped hearing the music when they approached the locale.

Discussing deathbed cases, Bozzano said that there were instances where the music was heard in conjunction with the perception of visions of the dead by the dying person. There were also cases in which the dying individual did not hear the music, but the bystanders did. This, he believed, excluded the possibility that the dying person generated the auditory perception by affecting the others telepathically.

Cases of music heard after someone’s death, Bozzano believed, were definitively unexplained by telepathy from the living. He supported his conviction by pointing out that some of these cases took place weeks, months, or a year after the death. Furthermore, some were repeated on particular dates, something Bozzano interpreted as the action of a “vigilant intentionality” inconsistent with the idea of telepathy from living agents.

Regardless of how we may feel today about Bozzano’s survival interpretations, the book deserves to be better known for his useful presentation of cases. Bozzano’s compilation of cases from varied sources and time periods is an important contribution to the subject.

The topic has been explored in later years by D. Scott Rogo and Melvyn Willin.

* * * * * *

These comments were first published as a letter to the editor in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, and are reprinted here with the editor’s permission. For information about the Society click here.

A Theory of Precognition

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation Over the years there have been many speculations about the nature of precognition. A recently published paper is probably the most scientifically sophisticated attempt to explain this phenomenon to date and a useful contribution to guide future research on the subject. The paper in question, “Rethinking Extrasensory Perception: Toward a Multiphasic Model of Precognition,” is authored by Dr. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha and Dr. Edwin C. May (Sage Open, January-March 2015, 1–17. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015576056).

Dr. Sonali Marwaha

Dr. Sonali Marwaha

Dr. Edward C. May

Dr. Edward C. May

I asked the authors for a statement about the paper and they send me the following: “In our view, the person-centric experience of precognition is a manifestation of the fundamental problem of information-centric retrocausal signals. Thus, we view the experience of precognition as a process rather than an event. The MMPC is a signal-based, process-oriented model designed to determine the causal mechanisms leading to the experience of precognition. The MMPC identifies two distinct phases:

Phase I: The Physics Domain (PD), addresses the question of retrocausation and how it is possible for information to traverse from one spacetime point to another. We suggest that the solution might be found within entropic considerations.

Phase II: The Neuroscience Domain (ND), addresses the acquisition and interpretation of retrocausal signals. We propose that this occurs across three stages:    

      Stage 1: perception of signals from an information carrier, based on psychophysical variability in a putative signal transducer.      

      Stage 2: cortical processing of the signals, mediated by a cortical hyper-associative mechanism; and      

      Stage 3: cognition, mediated by normal cognitive processes, leading to a response based on retrocausal information. Based on research data, the MMPC addresses both the PD and the ND by considering the well-established laws of the physical world and what we currently know—and will know—about brain–behavior relationships. Thus, the MMPC is a coherent assimilation of existing concepts that we believe can lead to understanding the process of retrocausation-precognition—from the point of information origin to cognition. According to the MMPC, precognition is an inherent, similar to musical ability, arising out of individual differences in brain connectivity. Thus, one cannot train to acquire the ability. Based on the model, we define precognition as an atypical perceptual ability that allows the acquisition of non-inferential information arising from a future point in spacetime. The model is comprehensive, brain-based, and provides a new direction for research requiring multidisciplinary expertise.”

See also Dr. May’s presentation.

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