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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here is a recently published paper about the mind-body problem in psychiatry journals: Moreira-Almeida, A., Araujo, S. de F., & Cloninger, C. R. (2018). The presentation of the mind-brain problem in leading psychiatry journals. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, Epub February 01, 2018. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2017-2342 (click here)

Alexander Moreira Almeida

Alexander Moreira-Almeida

Saulo de Freitas Araujo

Saulo de Freitas Araujo

C. Robert Cloninger

C. Robert Cloninger

Abstract

Objective: The mind-brain problem (MBP) has marked implications for psychiatry, but has been poorly discussed in the psychiatric literature. This paper evaluates the presentation of the MBP in the three leading general psychiatry journals during the last 20 years. Methods: Systematic review of articles on the MBP published in the three general psychiatry journals with the highest impact factor from 1995 to 2015. The content of these articles was analyzed and discussed in the light of contemporary debates on the MBP. Results: Twenty-three papers, usually written by prestigious authors, explicitly discussed the MBP and received many citations (mean = 130). The two main categories were critiques of dualism and defenses of physicalism (mind as a brain product). These papers revealed several misrepresentations of theoretical positions and lacked relevant contemporary literature. Without further discussion or evidence, they presented the MBP as solved, dualism as an old-fashioned or superstitious idea, and physicalism as the only rational and empirically confirmed option. Conclusion: The MBP has not been properly presented and discussed in the three leading psychiatric journals in the last 20 years. The few articles on the topic have been highly cited, but reveal misrepresentations and lack of careful philosophical discussion, as well as a strong bias against dualism and toward a materialist/physicalist approach to psychiatry.

The authors concluded:

“Our findings indicate that the MBP has been neither carefully nor systematically addressed in the three leading general psychiatry journals with the highest impact factors during the last 20 years. We found only 23 papers published in this period which discussed, or made explicit reference to, this challenging problem that affects psychiatric training, research, and practice so greatly. Moreover, these papers were usually authored by prestigious and highly cited psychiatrists and had high citation rates – much higher than the three top cited journals’ average. This suggests that those views on MBP have been influential and may have helped shape the field’s stance on the subject.”

“A careful reading of those articles on the MBP, however, reveals a series of misrepresentations of theoretical positions (often based on secondary literature), lack of relevant contemporary literature on the topic, and a strong bias toward reductive physicalism in psychiatry. In summary, without further discussion or evidence, these authors present the MBP as solved, dualism as an old-fashioned/superstitious idea, and physicalism (mind as a brain product) as the only rational option and the only one that has undoubtedly been empirically confirmed. We are not arguing that physicalism (either in its reductive or nonreductive forms) is false. Given the current state of our knowledge, it should be considered a viable and promising hypothesis for the MBP, a good framework for research. The problem, in our view, is the misrepresentation of alternative hypotheses and the presentation of physicalism as the only game in town or as a proven fact . . .”

“. . . given the status of our current knowledge and the absence of a satisfactory theory of the MBP, the best way to achieve progress in psychiatry is to recognize that the MBP is far from being solved and to be open to competing theoretical models, as is being done in contemporary physics and philosophy of mind. It is crucial that several models of the MBP, including physicalist and nonphysicalist ones, be allowed to develop and show their value (or lack thereof). Rather than misrepresenting potential candidates, it is more productive to consider alternative hypotheses seriously and test them rigorously with respect for what they propose. Psychiatry could benefit from such competition to move beyond its current limitations.”

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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

The first of a multi-volume collection of books discussing the Star Gate Project has just been published. The Star Gate Archives: Reports of the United States Government Sponsored Psi Program, 1972–1995. Volume 1: Remote Viewing, 1972–1984 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2018) was compiled and edited by Edwin C. May and Sonali Bhatt Marwaha. Three more volumes are scheduled to be published soon.

Star Gate Archives 1

Ed May 2

Edwin C. May

Sonali Marwaha

Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

According to the publisher:

“During the Cold War, the U.S. government began testing paranormal claims under laboratory conditions in hopes of realizing intelligence applications for psychic phenomena. Thus began the project known as Star Gate. The largest in the history of parapsychological research, it received more than $20 million in funding and continued into the mid–1990s. This project archive includes all available documents generated by research contractor SRI International and those provided by government officials.”

“Remote viewing (RV) is an atypical ability that allows some individuals to gain information blocked from the usual senses by shielding, distance or time. Early work benefited from a few “stars” of RV who were successful at convincing investigators of its existence and its potential as a means of gathering intelligence. Research focused on determining the parameters of RV, who may have the ability, how to collect and analyze data and the best way to use RV in intelligence operations.”

The book, with forewords by William S. Cohen and Richard S. Broughton, is a unique publication that shows well the unique legacy of the Star Gate Program. The Star Gate Archives may be ordered from the publisher or from other places.

ParaMOOC 2018

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

ParaMOOC 2018, a series of online high-level lectures about parapsychological topics, will start on January 22 in the WizIQ platform. The lectures (listed below), sponsored by the Parapsychology Foundation, end on February 24.

ParaMOOC2018

Enrollment is free. To enroll, and to get more information, click here).

As seen in the official description:

“The ParaMOOC series is a completely unique introduction to international scientists and academic researchers who work on a variety of phenomena including extrasensory perception, telepathy, near-death experiences, distant mental influence on living systems (the part of the field that addresses psychic healing), clairvoyance, mediumship, survival research and more.”

“The only other way to have access to this kind of expertise and to these knowledgeable individuals outside of this course is to pay to attend the annual conferences of the Parapsychological Association, the Society for Psychical Research, the Society for Scientific Exploration, and the International Association for Near Death Studies, among other such organizations. The expense of such conferences and the necessity to travel make these options for further education difficult to attain. For the ParaMOOC series however, the course access is free. Students only need an internet connection with audio available on their devices from PCs to mobile phones.”

“Thus, in this free WizIQ-based MOOC, not only will students have an opportunity to hear accomplished researchers talk about their own work for live attendees and those who listen to the recordings. With only one presentation scheduled on the day, there also will be plenty of time for questions and discussions after every talk. Those who can’t join us in the live sessions will have access to the recordings of the presentations within hours of the live talk, as well as the PowerPoint presentations and additional materials. The course discussion page will be available to all attendees on a 24/7 basis.”

Here is a tentative schedule of speakers and presentations:

Tuesday, January 23, 2018: The Psi Encyclopedia: A Window on Psychical Research: Robert McLuhan

Robert McLuhan 2

Robert McLuhan

Thursday, January 25, 2018: Dark Cognition: Evidence of Psi and Implications for Consciousness: David Vernon

David Vernon

David Vernon

Friday, January 26, 2018:  Dualism and Psi: An Invalid Hypothesis: Sonali Marwaha and Ed May

Sonali Marwaha

Sonali Mawaha

Ed May 2

Ed May

Tuesday, January 30, 2018: Parapsychology and the Study of the Mind: Changing the Historical Record: Carlos S. Alvarado

Carlos S. Alvarado 9jpg

Carlos S. Alvarado

Thursday, February 1, 2018:  The Significance of Statistics in Mind-Matter Research, Jessica Utts

Jessica Utts 4

Jessica Utts

Friday, February 2, 2018: Are Different Standards Warranted to Evaluate Psi? George Williams

George Williams

George Williams

Monday, February 5, 2018: The Transformative Power of Near-Death Experiences: Penny Sartori

Penny Sartori

Penny Sartori

 Tuesday, February 6, 2018: Anomalous Experiences and Bereavement: Cal Cooper

Callum Cooper - BSc Psychology

Callum Cooper

Thursday, February 8, 2018: Surveys of Anomalous Experiences, Creativity, and Mental Health: Thomas Rabeyron

Thomas Rabeyron 2

Thomas Rabeyron

Friday, February 9, 2018:  Anomalistic psychology, parapsychology, psychology of magic and psychology of religion: An integration proposal to deal with the complexity of the paranormal: Leonardo Martins 

Leonardo Martins

Leonardo Martins

Monday, February 12, 2018: A Survey of Secular American Mediums: Julie Beischel

Julie Beischel

Julie Beischel

Friday, February 16, 2018: Magnetic Activity and Healing: Margaret M. Moga

Margaret Moga

Margaret Moga

Monday, February 19, 2018: Scientific investigation of Chico Xavier’s mediumship: Alexander Moreira-Almeida

Alexander Moreira Almeida

Alexander Moreira Almeida

 Tuesday, February 20, 2018: Mind-Matter Interaction and the Frontal Lobes of the Brain: Morris Freedman

Morris Freedman

Morris Freedman

Friday, February 23, 2018:  A Disturbance in the Force: Exploring Collective Consciousness at Burning Man: Dean Radin

Dean Radin 4

Dean Radin

In addition, there will be various posters presentations in the form of slides (click here for a list of topics). Some examples include:

Parapsychology and Psychology Bibliography

Nancy L. Zingrone: Charles Honorton and His Importance to Parapsychology

Nancy L. Zingrone 4

Nancy L. Zingrone

Charles T. Tart: Evidence-Based Dualism and Transpersonal Psychology

Charles Tart

Charles T. Tart

Vanessa Corredato & Wellington Zangari: The Academic Consolidation of Anomalistic Psychology in Brazil

Vanessa Corredato

Vanessa Corredato

Wellington Zangari 5.pg

Wellington Zangari

Massimo Biondi: Modern Parapsychology in Italy

Massimo Biondi 3

Massimo Biondi

Carlos S. Alvarado: Historical Views of Parapsychology and Psychic Phenomena:
A Selected Bibliography of Journal Articles:
2010-2017

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

The French neo-mesmeric movement, which flourished roughly between the late Nineteenth Century and the first two decades of the twentieth, was well represented by individuals who believed that there was a real physical agent called animal magnetism, defined also by some as a nervous force related to the workings of the physical body. This included individuals such as Émile Boirac, Hector Durville, Henri Durville, Paul Joire, Jules Bernard Luys, and Albert de Rochas, among others.

Durville Traite Experimental Magnetisme

De Rochas Exteriorisation Sensibilite

One of the largest and more ambitious works of the period, and the one commented on here, was authored by physician Alexandre Baréty. This was a book over 600 pages entitled Le Magnétisme Animal: Étudié sous le Nom de Force Neurique Rayonnante et Circulante dans ses Propriétés Physiques, Physiologiques, et Thérapeutiques [Animal Magnetism: Studied Under the Name of Radiant and Circulating Neuric Force in Its Physical, Physiological, and Therapeutic Properties] (Paris: Octave Doin, 1887, available online here).

Barety Magnetisme Animal

Alexandre Barety

Alexandre Baréty

Baréty defined “neuric force” as a dynamic agent “probably from the nervous system, which circulates along the nerves or radiates out of them . . . and is susceptible to producing certain sensitive, motor, and psychic modifications on other human bodies” (p. xii).

This author reported tests conducted with a lady he referred to as Mlle C., as well as with other individuals. In Baréty’s view the neuric force was projected from the body through passes, as well as through rays coming from the fingers, from eyesight, and from breath. Inside the body the force had properties such as heat and electricity, and once projected from the body and directed toward another person the force produced effects such as trance, anesthesia, hyperesthesia, and the induction or dissipation of contractions.

Baréty believed the neuric force propagated through space through the ether and that the force could be transmitted through other objects and could be stored in water and in other things. Observations about animal magnetism been stored in objects and substances, such as water, are frequent in the mesmeric literature.

Barety Rays from Hand

Neuric Rays from Hands

Neurisation also took place through induction. As Baréty explained: “The sole presence of a person close to another may affect the specific nervous state of one of them . . .” (p. 234).

Baréty gave many examples of the physiological effects of the force. For example, he treated Mlle C.’s stomach pains by pointing her fingers at her, which he said caused her pain to disappear in seconds. Baréty also claimed to be successful with Mlle C. in other ways. He was able to “anesthetise and hyperesthesise the integuments of different regions . . . abolish or exalt one or another sense” (Baréty, p. 326).

While Mlle C. was in another room separated from him by a brick wall, Baréty said he was able to induce muscular contractions in one of his subject’s wrists and hands by pointing his fingers to the wall.

Barety Passes Anesthesia and Trance

Magnetic Passes Causing Anesthesia and Trance Over Ascending and Descending Nerves

In Baréty’s view the existence and therapeutic value of the neuric force was beyond doubt. Furthermore, he believed that hysteria was related to the force. In his view it was due to a “modification in the direction, the force, and the distribution of nervous or neuric currents” (p. 627).

Furthermore, it was reported that the effects of passes and magnets were similar. In addition, Baréty noticed that those sensitive to the action of neuricity were also sensitive to atmospheric electricity.

Unfortunately this work has not been translated. Consequently many who do not read French are not aware of the magnitude of Baréty’s work. For another discussion of his work in the context of the neo-mesmeric movement see one of my articles.

*Parts of these comments appeared before in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2011, 25,123-124.

At the End of 2017

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

One more year has gone by, and this one, I think, really fast. May I wish all of you a (belated) Merry Christmas (or, if you do not celebrate Christmas, a good end of 2017)?

christmas mistletoe

Many good things, and some sad ones, have touched my life during this year. The latter includes the devastation of my country, Puerto Rico, by a hurricane. May the “Isla del Encanto” recover with the passage of time.

Puerto Rico Map 2

Source: https://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/caribb/pr.htm

Among the good things I can mention my daily life, and my parapsychology work. This past year I received from the Parapsychological Association the 2017 Outstanding Career Award. I was not able to receive the award in person at the last convention of the Association held in Athens, Greece, but I sent a short acceptance speech that was read in absentia by Etzel Cardeña.  Among other things, I said: “I guess some of you may think that, because the career award is conferred to senior members of the PA, I am on my way to the retirement home. Do not fear. I still have all my hair and it is not white yet. I keep myself busy writing various articles . . . . I also plan to continue with new work, especially now that I have been inspired even more by this PA award.”

As you know my blogs have continued over this past year classified under the following topics: Conferences and Other Events, Digital Resources, Education, Organizations and Groups, People in Parapsychology, Phenomena, Recent Publications, Voices from the Past, and Writing History. I particularly enjoy posting about recently published articles because this shows the dynamic work that characterizes modern parapsychology. Examples include:

Metanalysis of Dream ESP Studies

Review of Trends in Publications about “Consciousness Beyond the Brain”

Author Interview: XII. Otherworlds: Psychedelics and Exceptional Human Experience, by David Luke

David Luke

David Luke

Luke Otherworlds

Recent Articles About Near-Death Experiences: II.

Quantum Retrocausation

Experimental Parapsychology in the Psi Encyclopedia

I have also prepared various bibliographies hoping to use the blog for educational purposes. I do not expect any of you to read these in detail, but I hope you will remember they are in the blog if you need them or that you may tell students and others who may benefit from them that they are available. What can I say, the honor is to help, or to compile?

The Past Literature of Parapsychology: A Reading Guide: I.

The Past Literature of Parapsychology: A Reading Guide: II.

Parapsychology and Psychology Bibliography: I. Overviews

Parapsychology and Psychology Bibliography: II. History

Parapsychology and Psychology Bibliography: III. Clinical Issues

I am also happy to have continued my series of interviews with individuals working in parapsychology, as seen in People in Parapsychology: XXXIV. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha, and People in Parapsychology: XXXIII. Everton de Oliveira Maraldi, People in Parapsychology: XXXII: Michael Nahm, and Interview with Lisette Coly, President of the Parapsychology Foundation.

Sonali Marwaha

Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

Lisette Coly 5

Lisette Coly

Some of my blogs have been about online events sponsored by the Parapsychology Foundation that I have helped to organize. These are:

Parapsychology Foundation Book Expo 2017

PF Book Expo Fall 2017 Logo

New Online PF Conference: New Faces in Parapsychology

PF New Faces Conference Logo

Program of ParaMOOC 2017

ParaMOOC 2017 Banner

As most of you know, separate from my blog I publish papers about various aspects of parapsychology, mainly historical ones. I published some in 2017 that appeared in journals, and in the Society for Psychical Research’s Psi Encyclopedia. I mentioned most of these in the blog (e.g., click here, here, and here).

Some of CSA’s Articles Published in 2017

(second author, with E. de Oliveira Maraldi). Classic Text No. 113: Final Chapter, From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia, by Théodore Flournoy (1900). History of Psychiatry, 2017, Oct 1:957154X17734782. doi: 10.1177/0957154X17734782.

Flournoy From India 2

(first author, with M. Biondi). Classic Text No. 110: Cesare Lombroso on Mediumship and Pathology. History of Psychiatry,  2017, 28, 225-241.

 Cesare Lombroso 4

Cesare Lombroso

Telepathy, Mediumship and Psychology: Psychical Research at the International Congresses of Psychology, 1889–1905.  Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2017, 31, 255-292.

Janet Congres Psychologie

Psychology and Parapsychology. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research, 2017.

Ernesto Bozzano’s ‘Phénomènes Psychiques au Moment de la Mort’ (Psychic Phenomena at the Moment of Death). In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research, 2017.

Bozzano Phenomenes Psychiques Mort

Parapsychology Foundation. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research, 2017.

PF logo

Podmore’s Apparitions and Thought-Transference. In R. McLuhan (Ed.), Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research, 2017.

Podmore Apparitions and Thought-Transference 2

I will continue working along the same, and perhaps some new lines, in 2018. I hope you stay with me and recommend the blog to others who may want to subscribe. My best wishes for the coming year.

Happy New Year Banner

Unpaid and unacknowledged (but greatly appreciated) Blog Staff

Nancy L. Zingrone 4

Nancy L. Zingrone (advisor, proofreader, and morale officer)

Spotty and Pinky 14

Spotty and Pinky: Master proofreaders

 

 

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In 1907 Italian physiologist Filippo Bottazzi (1867–1941) joined the ranks of investigators
of Palladino who became convinced of her phenomena. By this time Bottazzi’s scientific career was established, his having won several awards and important university appointments. He went on to become even more eminent in later years, although it has been argued that he has been somewhat forgotten. His work on Palladino, first published in Italian in the Rivista d’Italia (1907), was translated and published in the same year in French and English).

Filippo Bottazzi

Filippo Bottazzi

The studies received much publicity in several European countries. There were also many discussions of the seances in the United States, as seen in writer Hamlin Garland’s (1860–1940) book The Shadow World (1908) and in historian and writer Gustavus Myers’ (1872–1942) Beyond the Borderline of Life (1910), not to mention many articles in magazines. Somewhat later Bottazzi (1909) presented a similar account of the seances in a book entitled Fenomeni Medianici Osservati in una Serie di Sedute Fatte con Eusapia Paladino (Naples: Francesco Perrella, 1909), which recent translation is the topic of this review (Mediumistic Phenomena: Observed in a Series of Sessions with Eusapia Palladino, by Filippo Bottazzi, translated by Irmeli Routti and Antonio Giuditta. Princeton, NJ: ICRL Press, 2011).

 

Bottazzi Mediumistic phenomena

Mediumistic Phenomena is the result of neurobiologist Antonio Giuditta’s interest in the seances Bottazzi had with Palladino in 1907. His work has been presented to members of the Society for Scientific Exploration both in a paper delivered at the Eighth European SSE Meeting held in Italy in August of 2009 and in an article published in the Society’s Journal (The 1907 psychokinetic experiments of Professor Filippo Bottazzi. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 24, 495–512). The book was translated by Giuditta, together with Irmeli Routti.

It consists of a report of eight seances conducted in Bottazzi’s laboratory in which a variety of instrumental studies were made. Many of the seances were attended as well by physicians and scientists. Some of them included Gino Galeotti (professor of general pathology), Tommaso De Amicis (professor of dermatology and syphilograph), Oscar Carpa (professor of physics), Luigi Lombardi (professor of electrotechnology), and Sergio Pansini (professor of medical semiotics). There were also others who joined some of the seances, among them engineer Emmanuela Jona, senator Antonio Cardarelli, and Bottazzi’s wife. Her full name, which is not mentioned in the report, was Annunziata Fabbri.

By the time Bottazzi entered the scene there had been a long history of studies of physical mediums and of Palladino in particular, not to mention a rich Italian history of the subject. But Bottazzi admitted in his Introduction that he “had read little or nothing of” (p. 4) mediumistic phenomena. He stated that he had heard of the studies of Richet and others and that he had been impressed by Barzini’s articles on Palladino published in the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. The articles led him first to a state of doubt and then to being interested in studying the topic himself. This was a reference to journalist Luigi Barzini (1874–1947), who popularized the medium in his articles, works that were collected in a book (Nel Mondo dei Misteri con Eusapia Paladino. Milan: Baldini, Castoldi, 1907).

Barzini Nel Mondo Eusapia Paladino

Bottazzi stated that not all the phenomena witnessed by him and his collaborators were included in the book. For example, in the account of the first seance he stated: “Given the little relevance of the phenomena observed during the fi rst session, the sequence of their appearance is not worth describing. I will summarize in few words the results obtained” (p. 39). Later Bottazzi said: “Not caring about the precise sequence of observed events, I prefer to describe them briefly” (p. 45). Nonetheless the book contains many descriptions such as the following.

At one point during the fifth seance a switch that was connected to a lamp was moved around and thrown on the seance table by an “invisible hand.” The light was then turned on and off several times. Later on:

“The switch was placed on the table. Eusapia said: ‘Look how it is moving.’ We all fixed our gaze on the small object and we saw that it rose a few millimeters above the table top, oscillated and vibrated, as if invaded by an interior quiver. Eusapia’s hands, held by Galeotti and me, were at least thirty centimeters away from the switch” (p. 113).

Regarding one common phenomena, table levitations, Bottazzi wrote in his
account of the fourth seance:

“We obtained a levitation lasting about 10 seconds at a height of 30–40 cm and a shorter but higher one while Palladino was the only one standing up. Finally, at the end of the session, an additional levitation occurred that lasted several seconds while all of us were standing up at Palladino’s request. . . . Sometimes we tried all together to lower it by pressing its surface with our hands, but without success. It yielded and lowered a little but as soon as we let go our hands it rose up again” (p. 89).

An interesting phenomenon, and one reported frequently by previous investigators of Palladino, was that of synchronisms. As Bottazzi explained: “Any mediumistic event was almost always occurring simultaneously with movements of one or more parts of the medium’s body. . . .” (p. 62)

For example, during the second seance:

“The table started moving by steps, every pull perfectly corresponding to pressures and pulls made by Palladino’s hands on our hands (mine and Pansini’s). . . . Every pull of the small table corresponded in perfect synchrony with a push by Eusapia’s leg against Jona’s knee and with the contraction of her thigh muscles” (p. 46).

Bottazzi stated that the synchrony between actions showed “a common point of origin,” the will of the medium (p. 127).

Interestingly Mrs. Bottazzi seemed to attract phenomena such as touches. In answer to the question if she had mediumistic powers, the medium’s spirit control John King answered in the affirmative. As her husband wrote about the third seance:

“The curtain swelled around her several times, like hugging. She was unceasingly touched, fondled (she said it felt like a cat climbing up her right arm toward her shoulder), tapped on her shoulder with something like the open palm of a hand (and we all heard the blows), and she was the one who saw the largest number of apparitions” (p. 60).

Several of the instruments used produced graphic recordings that were presented by Bottazzi to show the objectivity of the manifestations:

“The telegraph key was struck several times. . . . We all clearly heard the typical sounds of energetic, quick hits. To certify that it was not an illusion, or a collective hallucination,
the second trace from the top . . . shows three groups of signals and two isolated beats in between them” (pp. 71–72).

Bottazzi Palladino Instruments

Instruments used by Bottazzi

Other devices produced graphic recordings as well. There are also brief descriptions of failures to obtain effects on the instruments.

Similar to previous observers, Bottazzi reported some physiological observations of the medium after the seance:

“It is noteworthy that after every session Palladino had considerable hyperalgesia (exaggerated sensitivity to pain) on her hands, especially on their back side. She said it felt like burning, as if her hands had been immersed in lye for a long time. In fact, her hands were always red and hot, and the subcutaneous veins appeared full of blood”
(p. 132).

In addition, analyses were made of the content of the medium’s urine, before and after the sixth and seventh seances. With regard to the sixth seance, Bottazzi stated:

“Comparison of the two samples of urine showed that the one taken after the session was considerably more concentrated. It had a higher specific weight, higher osmotic pressure and electric conductivity. Total nitrogen and albumin were also increased.”

“Kidneys seemed to produce more concentrated urine during the sessions. Despite the presence of albumin and sugar, values of osmotic pressure and electric conductivity of the urine diff ered little or not at all from the normal levels. Microscopic examination never showed the presence of kidney cells nor cylinders. This was a strange case of chronic albuminuria without defi nitive sign of nephritis.”

“The observation of strong urine acidity and abundant content in uric acid was remarkable. Some uric acid crystals were already present shortly after urine was collected. Their number increased enormously, and the layer they formed with time became macroscopically visible while the urine remained acid. Eusapia was undoubtedly a subject of clearly arthritic character, a uricemic person” (pp. 151–152).

Relevant to these results, Palladino suffered from diabetes and died of nephritis.

Synchronic phenomena and observations such as the following led Bottazzi to speculate that the medium produced projections from her body such as “invisible hands.” According to his report of the seventh seance:

“I saw a human hand of natural color, and I felt with my hand the fingers and the back
of a lukewarm, muscular, rough hand. The hand vanished, and my eyes saw it retreat,
describing an arc of a circle. As if entering back into Palladino’s body” (pp. 165–166, italics
in the original)

Interestingly, Bottazzi states that during the eighth seance Galeotti saw two left arms in the medium. He presents in his book what I presume is his recollection of Galeotti’s statement during the seance:

‘I see two identical left arms. One is on the table and is the one Mrs. Bottazzi is holding,
the other seems to come out from Eusapia’s shoulder, to approach Mrs. Bottazzi, touch her, and then return back and melt into Eusapia’s body, vanishing” (p. 180).

Such observations led to ideas about a “splitting of . . . physiological personality” (p. 198) consisting of limbs or complete figures emanating from the medium’s body. Bottazzi believed that with these hands “[the medium] felt form, consistency, cold and hot, hard and soft, humid and dry, exactly the same way she would feel by touching and feeling with her physical hands. . . .” (pp. 117–118).

Furthermore, Bottazzi wrote:

Mediumistic phenomena are not mere hallucinations of those attending sessions known as spiritualistic sittings. They are biological phenomena depending on the MEDIUM’s organism. If they are such, they occur AS IF they are operated by the extensions of natural limbs or by additional limbs stemming out of the MEDIUM’s body, and returning and dissolving into it after variable time. During those periods they reveal themselves by the sensations they elicit in us as limbs in no essential way different from natural limbs” (p. 201, Bottazzi’s italics)

The book is a useful contribution in that it presents in English a difficult to obtain book about the medium in question. Contemporary readers will appreciate having a translation of it. The instrumental and physiological tests show the scientific spirit in which some mediumistic research was conducted in the old days, and serve as a reminder of Italian scientific interest in mediumship, a topic that includes the work of other individuals such as Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Morselli.

Cesare Lombroso 3

Cesare Lombroso

*Most of these comments were published before in this review: Bottazzi and Palladino: The 1907 seances. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2012, 26, 159–167.

 

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In the past there have been many discussions about the relationships between psychology and parapsychology. An example is Gertrude R. Schmeidler’s Parapsychology and Psychology: Matches and Mismatches (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988). I have discussed aspects of this topic recently in “Psychology and Parapsychology” (In R. McLuhan [Ed.], Psi Encyclopedia. London: Society for Psychical Research).

Gertrude Schmeidler 2

Gertrude Schmeidler

The purpose of the article is to discuss the interrelationship of both fields in terms of psychological research findings, psychological theories, and various contributions of parapsychology to psychology. “Psychic phenomena,” I wrote, “manifest dynamic aspects, and personality and cognitive variables, suggesting they are part of normal psychological processes.”

In two sections I covered correlates of ESP experiments. This includes various personality and cognitive variables, as well as attitudes. “Experimental studies suggest that ESP is associated with relaxed states . . . Laboratory dream studies and ganzfeld experiments have also shown evidence for ESP . . . Some believe that the partial sensory deprivation produced by ganzfeld conditions favors ESP. Others are less convinced of this, arguing that factors other than ASCs are involved . . . – something that must be generally considered in research with psychological variables.” 

Regarding survey studies “ESP experiences, and sometimes other phenomena such as seeing apparitions and auras, have been reported to be related to fantasy proneness . . . The same may be said of other psychological constructs: absorption; . . . boundary thinness; an openness to experiences such as emotions, intimacy and daydreaming; . . . dissociation; . . . emotional empathy; . . . hypnotic susceptibility; . . . transliminality; and a predisposition for experiencing emotions, imagery, thoughts or other psychological material from the unconscious regions of the mind . . .”  Research with other phenomena such as OBEs and mediumship is also briefly discussed.

I also summarize several psychological concepts and theoretical models developed to make sense of psychic experiences. “The idea that ESP is processed unconsciously has a long history . . . Myers . . . thought that telepathy was handled by the subliminal regions of the mind, and this idea can be seen in different ways in the writings of researchers to the present day.” The work of Carpenter, Eysenck, Irwin, and Stanford is mentioned. Summarizing James Carpenter’s ideas, I wrote: “James Carpenter . . . has proposed the most detailed psychological model to date, which he calls First Sight. The model assumes that psi is working continuously, but unconsciously, and that it is the initial contact our minds have with the world: first sight, so to speak. Such psi processes, like sensory and motor ones, are part of our usual cognitive processes, directed by unconscious intentions and mediated by goals, needs and dispositions. They interact with and make use of psychological resources such as memory, creativity, and conscious and unconscious perception. They are expressed primarily by inadvertent but potentially accessible experiences and behaviors. All behavior and experience are thought to begin at the psi level of transaction, even if we are not aware of it. The process is not seen as a special ability, but rather as a basic aspect of human beings, and perhaps of all sentient creatures.”

Jim Carpenter 2

James C. Carpenter

 

Carpenter First Sight

I argue, as have others before me, that parapsychology has made many contributions to psychology. For one. It has helped to extend the range of human experiences.

There have also been contributions regarding conventional explanations of various phenomena. “Certain influential psychological explanations of OBEs have been developed in the context of parapsychology, notably by Blackmore . . . Irwin . . . and Palmer . . ., contributing to the orthodox view of mind’s potential to generate hallucinatory experiences.”

Another area of contributions has been that of clinical issues. This includes ESP phenomena in the context of psychotherapy, and the difficult issue of differential diagnosis. Some work has been conducted in relation to trauma and schizotypy, but this area is in need of more detailed empirical explorations.

The study of psychic phenomena has also contributed to the concept of personal transformation, as seen in worth conducted with near-death experiences. The same may be said about human potential: “To accept some of the phenomena of parapsychology would have clear implications for human potential, greatly expanding our ideas about our capabilities. ESP implies that we can perceive future events, information hidden at a distance, and the thoughts or intentions of a distant person. Furthermore, to accept that such phenomena have no conventional explanation carries conceptual implications about the nature of consciousness.”

The latter brings us to the issue of nonphysicality. Traditionally ESP and other phenomena have been interpreted by many as evidence of the independence of the mind on the physical body. An acceptance of such conclusion, and this is still debatable, would have great implications about the nature of human beings.

Psychology cliparts

“Work on near-death experiences, reincarnation cases, mediumship and related topics has tended to promote ideas of transcendence . . . It should be pointed out that parapsychology embraces diverse views, and the ideas summarized here are not necessarily all shared by its practitioners . . . But they have in common a tendency towards the view that mind is more than the physical body – a classic problem of psychology.”

For bibliography click here, here, and here.

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Journals

The journals related to psychical research are particularly important and should be studied with care. Unfortunately most of them are not indexed in modern databases for the period emphasized in my comments (19th century to 1930s). Some important journals are: Journal of Parapsychology,  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Annales des Sciences Psychiques, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, Luce e Ombra, Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, Psychic Science, Psychische Studien, Revue Métapsychique, Rivista di Studi Psichici, and  Zeitschrift fur Parapsychologie.

Annales des Sciences Psychiques 1891
Journal of the SPR 1885-1886

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Zeirschrift fur Parapsychologie 
 Many other journals also have valuable and interesting information about topics such as apparitions and mediumship. This is the case of: Banner of Light, Light, Religio-Philosophical Journal, Revue Spirite, Spiritual Magazine, and The Spiritualist (title changed). Some of the journals mentioned in this section are available at the website of the International Association for the Preservation of Spiritualist and Occult Periodicals.

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Religio Philosophical Journal February 15 1879 Front Page

Revue Spirite 1858 2

Classics

There are also many classic works that are highly recommended. I have included in this section a few examples of major classics, and some minor ones. One example of a major classic in the sense of being highly influential, is William Crookes’ (1874) Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism (London: J. Burns). Here Crookes reported experiments conducted with medium D.D. Home, and his famous observations of materialization phenomena by Florence Cook. The book is also instructive regarding how Crookes was criticized, and how he defended himself, showing similarities to more recent controversies.

Crookes Researches cover

Other works include:

Gurney, E., Myers, F.W.H., & Podmore, F. (1886). Phantasms of the Living (2 vols.). London: Trübner.

Aksakov, A. (1890). Animismus und spiritismus [Animism and spiritism]. Leipzig: Oswald Mutze.

Flournoy, T. (1900). From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Flournoy From India 2

Myers, F. W. H. (1903). Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death (2 vols.). London: Longmans, Green.

Morselli, E. (1908). Psicologia e “Spiritismo:” Impressioni e Note Critiche sui Fenomeni Medianici di Eusapia Paladino [Psychology and “Spiritism:” Impressions and Critical Notes About the Mediumistic Phenomena of Eusapia Paladino] (2 vols.). Turin: Fratelli Bocca.

Geley, G. (1920). From the Unconscious to the Conscious. Glasgow: William Collins. (First published in French in 1919)

Geley From the Unconscious

Schrenck-Notzing, A. von (1920) Phenomena of Materialisation. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, & Trübner.

Warcollier, R. (1921). La Télépathie: Recherches Expérimentales. Paris: Félix Alcan.

Osty, E. (1923). Supernormal Faculties in Man: An Experimental Study. London: Methuen.

Osty Supernormal

Geley, G, (1927). Clairvoyance and Materialisation: A Record of Experiments. London: T. Fisher Unwin.

Rhine, J. B. (1934). Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research. 

Pratt, J. G., Rhine, J. B., Smith, B. F., Stuart, C. E., & Greenwood, J. (1940). Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. New York: Henry Holt.

Pratt ESP 60 Title Page 

*Most of the information presented here appeared first in Alvarado, C.S. (2016-2017). The history of parapsychology: A brief bibliography. Mindfield, 8(3), 105-109;  9(1), 14-17. Mindfield is the bulletin of the Parapsychologicl Association.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

I have received this announcement from Dr. Nancy L. Zingrone, about new online presentations sponsored by the Parapsychology Foundation.

“The Parapsychology Foundation is presenting the fourth in its series of PF Book Expos on WizIQ. The live sessions of the PF Book Expo Fall 2017 will take place on the afternoon of Saturday, December 2nd, 2017. You can self-enroll in the course by following the link: http://pflyceum.wiziq.com/course/201514-parapsychology-foundation-book-expo-fall-2017 . You’ll need to set up a free WizIQ account if you haven’t got one already (choose “student” when it asks you what type of account you’d like). The live sessions will start at 11:00am Eastern on Saturday December 2nd and continue through 6:00pm Eastern. Enrollment will be open from November 29th through December 31st, 2017. If you can’t join us for the live sessions, the recordings will be up in the event space within a few hours. PowerPoints and chat logs from each session will be available by Sunday afternoon. You will have access as long as you have your WizIQ membership, and you can encourage colleagues to enroll through the end of the year.”

PF logo

“One author and two editors will talk about their recent books, touching on the content, the goals of their books, why they got involved in the process, what they learned along the way, and more. And in a new feature of the PF Book Expo Series, some classic books in the field will also be reintroduced to participants. Each talk will be followed by a question and answer session involving the registrants. All of the books are aimed at the intelligent reader, serious researchers in, and students of consciousness and parapsychology. The day will begin with a welcoming session at 11am Eastern and end with a wrap up session at 5:30pm Eastern.”

PF Book Expo Fall 2017 Logo

“Guest lecturers at the Parapsychology Foundation Book Expo Fall 2017:”

“Seasoned journalist and New York Times best-selling author Leslie Kean will present Surviving Death: A Journalist Investigates Evidence for an Afterlife published by Crown Archetype in March of 2017. Kean’s book is a well-researched and thorough overview of wide-ranging evidence that supports the theory that consciousness survives death. From near-death experiences to children’s anomalous memories of previous lives and mediumship research, Kean not only presents the results of her own research but includes chapters from the scientists and scholars from four countries who have provided the best of the evidence.”

Leslie Kean

Leslie Kean

Kean Surviving Death

“Physicist, former head of the US Department of Defense’s Stargate Program (1975-1995) Dr. Edwin C. May will present Anomalous Cognition: Remote Viewing and Theory published by McFarland Publishing in 2015.The volume edited by May and his colleague neuropsychologist Dr. Sonali Bhatt Marwaha, has chapters on every aspect of the Stargate Program, many of which have never been published before.”

Ed May 2

Ed May

Sonali Marwaha

Sonali Bhatt Marwaha

May Anomalous Cognition 2

“Anthropologist Jack Hunter will present Damned Facts: Fortean Essays on Religion, Folklore and the Paranormal published by Aporetic Press in 2016. Like Charles Fort’s books which ranged over all many of experiences and phenomena that pushed the envelope of what is real, Hunter and his collaborators examine a wide variety of topics from different perspectives, providing thoroughly researched accounts providing evidence for facts that conventional wisdom has long hoped to ignore.”

Jack Hunter

Jack Hunter

Hunter Damned Facts

“PF Research Fellow Dr. Carlos S. Alvarado will present a number of classic texts from the history of psychical research and parapsychology, four in some depth and the others less so, in an effort to highlight earlier books that deserve a closer look from the modern audience of researchers, students and scholars in the field.”

Carlos S. Alvarado 9jpg

Carlos S. Alvarado

Crookes Researches cover
Myers Human Personality 3

The Parapsychology Foundation Fall 2017 Book Expo is aimed at individuals who are interested in scientific parapsychology, its theory and phenomena, and in consciousness, near-death experiences, and the history of the field. You don’t need any particular level of education to enjoy the Expo, just curiosity about the topics.”

“The Parapsychology Foundation Book Expo series is the only place on the internet where you can get a “meet the author/meet the editor” experience for recommended academic and popular books on the topics of scientific parapsychology. So if you’re a student hoping to do research in near-death experiences, a new researcher or experiencer with an interest in consciousness theory and research, or just someone who is fascinated by the history of global efforts to understand this difficult subject, then the PF Book Expo Fall 2017 is for you.”

“Each individual will have a PowerPoint that will be uploaded as a tutorial in WizIQ. Each live lecture will also be recorded and besides being available on WizIQ, will be edited and uploaded to the PF’s YouTube Channel. (If you like what you see on the PF YouTube Channel don’t forget to subscribe and to click the “bell” after subscribing so that you get notifications of new uploads to the Channel.”

“By attending you will meet the authors and editors of books we think are among the best published in recent years on their topics.”

“While the course doesn’t prepare registrants for any certification or exams, the PF Book Expo Fall 2017 will acquaint you with some really good books that can help you in your quest to learn more!”

Here is the schedule:

December 2, 2017

11:00am Eastern time: Introduction: Nancy L. Zingrone and Lisette Coly

11:30am Eastern time: Leslie Kean, Surviving Death

1:00pm Eastern time: Carlos S. Alvarado, Classic and Important Books About Psychic Phenomena

2:30pm Eastern time: Ed May, Anomalous Cognition

4:00pm Eastern time: Jack Hunter, Damned Facts

5:30pm Eastern time: Closing Session, Nancy L. Zingrone

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here is a metanalysis of dream ESP experiments: On the correspondence between dream content and target material under laboratory conditions: A meta-analysis of dream-ESP studies, 1966-2016, by Lance Storm, Simon J. Sherwood, Chris A. Roe, Patrizio E. Tressoldi, Adam J. Rock, and Lorenzo Di Risio (International Journal of Dream Research, 2017, 10, 120-140; for reprints write to the first author: lance.storm@adelaide.edu.au).

Lance Storm 2

Lance Storm

Simon Sherwood

Simon Sherwood

Chris Roe 2

Chris Roe

Patrizio Tressoldi 5

Patrizio Tressoldi

Adam Rock

Adam Rock

Lorenzo Di Risio

Lorenzo Di Risio

 

Here is the abstract:

In order to further our understanding about the limits of human consciousness and the dream state, we report meta-analytic results on experimental dream-ESP studies for the period 1966 to 2016. Dream-ESP can be defined as a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. Studies fell into two categories: the Maimonides Dream Lab (MDL) studies (n = 14), and independent (non-MDL) studies (n = 36). The MDL dataset yielded mean ES = .33 (SD = 0.37); the non-MDL studies yielded mean ES = .14 (SD = 0.27). The difference between the two mean values was not significant. A homogeneous dataset (N = 50) yielded a mean z of 0.75 (ES = .20, SD = 0.31), with corresponding significant Stouffer Z = 5.32, p = 5.19 × 10-8, suggesting that dream content can be used to identify target materials correctly and more often than would be expected by chance. No significant differences were found between: (a) three modes of ESP (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition), (b) senders, (c) perceivers, or (d) REM/non-REM monitoring. The ES difference between dynamic targets (e.g., movie-film) and static (e.g., photographs) targets was not significant. We also found that significant improvements in the quality of the studies was not related to ES, but ES did decline over the 51-year period. Bayesian analysis of the same homogeneous dataset yielded results supporting the ‘frequentist’ find­ing that the null hypothesis should be rejected. We conclude that the dream-ESP paradigm in parapsychology is worthy of continued investigation, but we recommend design improvements.”

It is concluded:

“Our review has shown that dream ESP remains a promis­ing, if somewhat neglected, area for parapsychological research. Combined effect sizes for both Maimonides and post-Maimonides studies suggest that judges may be able to use dream mentations to identify target materials cor­rectly more often than would be expected by chance.”

“Sherwood and Roe (2013) concluded that the Maimonides studies were more successful than the post-Maimonides studies, and attributed that difference to “procedural differ­ences rather than improvements in security” (p. 72). This may not be entirely true. Our results do not support claims of MDL success over non-MDL studies, though we do con­cede that other test findings suggest the MDL series may have been superior.”

“Our meta-analysis has identified key issues and key con­cerns to do mainly with methodological quality and process-oriented factors that covary with study outcomes. However, the database may prove to be too heterogeneous, some­times with too few studies in subsets, for such analyses to provide reliable insights.”

Finally, in the author’s view “dream ESP is (i) a demonstrable effect; (ii) not governed by experimenter, or laboratory, or historical context; (iii) inde­pendent of (a) psi modality; (b) REM monitoring; (c) target type; and (d) agent and perceiver arrangements; and (iv) perhaps independent of the number of choices in a target set. Some of these findings conflict with what we find to be evident of the free-response paradigm (including Ganzfeld) and the forced-choice paradigm, and it remains to be seen if our conclusions are premature, or dream ESP is, in a num­ber of ways, an ESP sub-type different in degree or kind.”