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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Dr. K. Ramakrishna Rao, from India, has been in parapsychology for many decades. I first met him at the Institute for Parapsychology (now Rhine Research Center) in the 1980s. He is well known as a philosopher, psychologist and parapsychologist, and was recently awarded the National Fellowship of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research, to work on a project entitled “The Bhagavad Gita: A Psychological Profile.”

K. Ramakrishna Rao 2

K. Ramakrishna Rao

In the past, Dr. Rao has held many high level positions. He is currently Chancellor at the Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management. In addition to being Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University, he was an Advisor on Higher Education to the Government of Andhra Pradesh, and Vice-Chairman of Andhra Pradesh State Planning Board. Furthermore, for several years he was the Executive Director of the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (founded by J.B. Rhine).

In parapsychology Dr. Rao is known for his many ESP experiments, most of which have appeared over the years in the Journal of Parapsychology. But he has also published books, and edited anthologies of papers on the subject: Psi Cognition (Tenali: Tagore Publishing House,  1957); Experimental Parapsychology: A Review and Interpretation (Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1966); Mystic Awareness: Four Lectures on the Paranormal (Mysore: Mysore University Press, 1972);  Experimental Studies of the Differential Effect in Life Setting (with P. Sailaja; Parapsychological Monograph. No. 13. New York: Parapsychology Foundation. 1973); J.B. Rhine: On the Frontiers of Science. (Editor). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. 1982); Case Studies in Parapsychology. (Editor). Jefferson, NC.: McFarland, 1986); Charles Honorton and the Impoverished State of Skepticism: Essays on a Parapsychological Pioneer. (Editor). NC: McFarland, 1994); Basic Research in Parapsychology (2nd ed., Jefferson, NC: McFarland,. 2001); and Cognitive Anomalies: Consciousness and Yoga (New Delhi: Center for Studies in Civilizations and Matrix Publishers, 2011).

Rao Experimental Parapsychology

Rao Basic Research in Parapsychology

Books on other psychological topics include Cultivating Consciousness: Enhancing Human Potential, Wellness, and Healing (Editor, Westport, CT: Praeger. 1993); Consciousness Studies: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002); Towards a Spiritual Psychology (edited with Sonali Bhatt Marwaha; New Delhi: Samvad, 2005); Handbook of Indian Psychology (edited with  A.C. Paranjpe & A.K. Dalal; New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Cultivating Consciousness: An East-West Journey (D.K. Printworld, 2013); Psychology in the Indian Tradition (with A.C Paranjpe; New Delhi; Heidelberg: Springer, 2016); Gandhi’s Dharma (Oxford University Press, 2017); Foundations of Yoga Psychology (Singapore: Springer Nature, 2017); Colonial Syndrome, The Videshi Mindset in Modern India (DK Printworld, 2018); and Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra: A Psychological Study (DK Printworld, 2018).

Rao Cultivating Consciousness

Rao Foundations 2

The book commented on in the interview that follows, The Elements of Parapsychology (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2017) is the latest of Dr. Rao’s discussions of parapsychology.

Rao Elements

Table of contents

1—Background and Beginnings
2—Concepts and Methods
3—Accumulating Evidence
4—Problems of Replication and Application
5—­Process-Oriented Research
6—The Problem of ­Psi-Missing
7—The Experimenter Effect
8—Explanatory Quagmire
9—The Unsettled State: Postscript to Sixty
Years in Parapsychology

Interview

Can you give us a brief summary of the book?

The Elements of Parapsychology is a concise and yet a comprehensive introduction to psychic phenomena. Though coextensive with recorded human history, these phenomena remained for long a mystery and a matter of faith rather than a subject of serious scientific study. However, about a century and half ago, they caught the attention of scientists, who since attempted sporadically to investigate them.

A systematic study of these phenomena as a scientific pursuit began with the work of J.B. Rhine at Duke University under the tutelage of William McDougall, one of the leading psychologists at the time. The first output of this effort resulted in the publication of a research monograph Extra-Sensory Perception by Rhine in 1934, followed by Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years (ESP-60) in 1940, a review of relevant research and the controversies surrounding it until then. I have about fifty years ago published my Experimental Parapsychology which meant to be a supplement to ESP-60.

Notwithstanding the life long struggle to win scientific credibility for and acceptance of the existence of extrasensory abilities by J.B. Rhine and his wife Louisa E. Rhine and those who followed them, the subject continues to be controversial. The reason is not lack of sufficient empirical and experimental evidence but the fact that the phenomena pose a theoretical challenge to the worldview incorporated in science in general. Therefore, what is needed is not more research and data to prove the existence of psychic phenomena but reasonable understanding of their theoretical base, its methods of study, concepts and controversies.

The Elements of Parapsychology is an updated overview of the subject, its problems and prospects.

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of the book specifically?

I have been involved in parapsychology since 1953 when I was a graduate student. I wrote my M.A. (Hons.) dissertation with focus on parapsychology. I published my first book in 1957 under the title Psi Cognition. J.B. Rhine wrote the Foreword. With that small beginning our association continued for decades. I headed Rhine’s Institute for Parapsychology and the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM) for nearly two decades. I was associated with the Journal of Parapsychology, mostly as its Editor, for an equal number of years. My most recent contribution is the book Cognitive Anomalies, Consciousness and Yoga.

What motivated you to write this book?

To share my current thoughts. I was greatly benefitted by the incisive comments of Robert Franklin which helped to greatly improve the quality of the contents.

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?

I hope the book would serve as an useful introduction for anyone interested in parapsychology. It could also serve as a textbook for first level courses in parapsychology.

 

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Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsvchology Foundation 

Adrian Ryan discusses the issue of open data in parapsychology. His article is entitled “Open Data in Parapsychology: Introducing Psi Open Data” (Journal of Parapsychology, 2018, 82, 65-76: author’s email: adrian.ryan@greyheron1.plus.com).

Here is the abstract of the article:

“Open data in science brings important benefits, most notably the potential to accelerate scientific discovery, and the ability for the community to verify research findings. In addition to exploring these benefits, this paper considers concerns that some researchers may have about the approach. Publishing strategies, copyright and database right considerations, confidentiality, preparation of data for publication, and the citation of datasets are also discussed, as is the importance of journal policy. The second section of the paper presents Psi Open Data (https://open-data.spr.ac.uk), an open repository for parapsychology and psychical research data recently launched by the Society for Psychical Research. The repository is constructed using DKAN, an open source open data platform with a full suite of cataloging, publishing, and visualization features. It allows administrator users to upload research datasets, and any visitor to search for and download datasets. Various aspects of the repository are described: data structures, metadata, data classification, preview, and download facilities. Researchers are encouraged to support the repository by contributing datasets from both current and previous work.”

The author writes:

“Open data can accelerate the rate of discovery in the following ways:

•Enabling researchers to explore questions not envisioned by the original investigators, and to address old questions in new ways, through re-use of data.

•Enabling meta-analyses, and the creation of new datasets by combining multiple data sources.

•Making possible the testing of alternative hypotheses, and the use of different methods of analysis; sharing of data encourages diversity of analysis and opinion.

Another key benefit of open data is transparency. Open data allows the community to identify errors in the research record through the reproduction of research findings, thereby preventing wasteful allocation of resources exploring research avenues founded upon erroneous conclusions.”

It is stated at  the end of the article:

“Researchers who support the aims of the initiative are encouraged to contribute datasets. The best time to prepare data for publication is throughout the process of creating it, and while preparing the associated research report for publication, not at some later time when a request for the data is received. The effort to prepare data for open data practices is relatively small if the data are collected and managed with data sharing in mind. As well as datasets from current projects, old datasets are valuable and researchers are also encouraged to submit these. Datasets placed in the repository will continue to benefit generations of researchers long into the future.”

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Many of you interested in the history of mental mediumship are probably familiar with the cross-correspondences, a complex series of automatically-produced scripts generally referred to in discussions of survival of bodily death. The book discussed here, Arthur Balfour’s Ghosts: An Edwardian Elite and the Riddle of the Cross-Correspondence Automatic Writings (Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2017), by Trevor Hamilton, is the best discussion of the subject available today.

Hamilton Arthur Balfour's Ghost

Trevor, who I have never had the pleasure to meet in person, but with whom I have corresponded, has honours degrees in History (Oxford University) and English Literature (University of London), as well as a Master’s degree (University of Sussex). He has published two previous books related to psychical research. These are Immortal Longings: F. W. H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Life after Death (Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2009) and Tell My Mother I’m Not Dead. A Case Study in Mediumship Research (Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2012).

Here is an interview with the author.

Interview

Can you give us a brief summary of the book?

The book tells the story of the cross-correspondence automatic writings and their assessment over the years from 1901 to the present day. It describes the lives and careers of the main automatic writers, their first investigators, and the conclusions they came. More than 3,500 scripts were produced (mainly in the United Kingdom but sometimes abroad) from 1901-1936 by automatic writers who on some occasions did not know each other and were widely separated geographically. The scripts often contained fragmentary and allusive references to erudite literary and classical topics yet when put together appeared to make coherent sense. Alice Johnson, one of the central team of investigators defined these cross-correspondences as ‘independent references to the same topic found in the scripts of two or more writers’ and argued that this method had been adopted by the discarnate FWH Myers for two main reasons: to prevent the communications being attributed only to the automatic writer’s subconscious or to telepathic and clairvoyant contact with the living. The complex design, she and the other investigators asserted, could not reasonably be attributed to anyone alive and bore all the idiosyncratic characteristics of Myers himself.

Frederic Myers 4

Frederic W.H. Myers

There were two other claims made for the purposes behind the scripts. One was that May Lyttelton who died of typhus in 1875, whom Arthur Balfour (later UK Prime Minister) had loved, wanted to convince him of her post-mortem survival and her continued love for him. The other was that Henry, a child of one of the mediums, Winifred Coombe-Tennant, would grow up to be a Messianic-type figure who would contribute powerfully towards the cause of world civilisation, peace and order. In all, there were seven main post-mortem communicators who were supposed to have worked together to help get these purposes across:  F.W.H. Myers; Edmund Gurney; Henry Sidgwick (all three fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, and co-founders of the Society for Psychical Research and all dead by 1901; Annie Marshall, Myers’ platonic love who committed suicide in 1876;  two members of the aristocratic Lyttelton family, May and Laura who died in 1886; and Francis Balfour, Arthur Balfour’s brother and an outstanding embryologist, who died in a climbing accident in 1882.

Arthur Balfour

Arthur Balfour

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of this book specifically?

I researched and wrote the first biography of FWH Myers which was published in 2009. To follow this up with a study of the cross-correspondences seemed only logical since a familiarity with his life and times was an essential precondition for trying to make sense of them. I am not a parapsychologist but I have an increasingly deep and sustained interest in the history of the Cambridge intellectuals who dominated, mainly for good, but sometimes with less positive outcomes, the early history of the Society for Psychical Research (Hamilton 2011, for example). I also felt that my honours degrees in History (Oxford) and English Literature (London) and my Master’s degree (Sussex) which contained relevant psychological and social science methodology, gave me some preparation for the task. The original investigators had translated all the original Latin (though I had studied Latin) and Greek and I was fairly well read in the poetry and prose of the period, so the material was, though enormous, was marginally less daunting than it might have appeared at first sight.

What motivated you to write this book?

I was particularly motivated, as with my book on Myers, to expose the superficial and uninformed nature of many of the comments that had been made about Myers and his colleagues and later about the cross-correspondence phenomena. A particular example of this is the way both cultural scholars and sceptics have used the SPR involvement with the hypnotist George Albert Smith and the scurrilous journalist Douglas Blackburn to unfairly discredit them (Hamilton 2015).

However, the over-arching motivation came from the death of my younger son Ralph in a car crash in 2002. I decided to set myself three questions: was there any evidence that well-qualified and educated people had studied and taken seriously the question of life after death and the related phenomena associated with it; if I personally sat with a number of mediums to try to contact Ralph, was there any evidence that I could take seriously; and were there any classic cases of alleged survival that seem to withstand the most robust critical assessment? From the first question came my book on Myers and the Society for Psychical Research. From the second question came my book on my personal investigation of mediumship (Hamilton 2012.) From the third came the current book. I was not able to work properly on these topics till I was fully retired at the end of 2006. Since then I have read as widely as I can in the history of psychical research and in current parapsychological research. My next book is an examination of the mediumship of Gladys Osborne Leonard and Geraldine Cummins (the Myers persona appears strongly in Cummins’ work) particularly in the light of our past and current notions of the nature of personal identity pre and post mortem. I must pay grateful tribute to the Perrott-Warrick Fund (managed by Trinity College Cambridge) which has helped with some of the research costs of several of these projects.

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?

Archie Roy’s book (2008) covers some of the same ground as mine. But he concentrated much more on the relationship between Winifred Coombe-Tennant and her son Henry (and on Henry’s remarkable career), and on putting into print large selections from the papers of Jean, Countess of Balfour, to make them widely available. The book is lively, intellectually robust, and of real value. But he did not develop and apply a detailed assessment methodology to the automatic scripts as I have done.

This is crucial since the scripts and the commentaries on them were written by individuals all of whom had been Myers’ personal friends, collaborators, or at least had some acquaintance with his reputation. They, therefore, strongly demanded an up to date and, as far as possible, an independent and impartial appraisal.  There were and still are several reasons for this. First, the astounding claims made for the scripts required that they be scrutinised with great care and balance.  Second, the complete body of material has never been studied in detail by later researchers because of its inaccessibility and convoluted nature. A complete set of scripts consists of thirty plus volumes and there are fewer than twenty sets in existence (Hamilton 2017). Therefore, there is always the suspicion that the original interpreters selected those items from the scripts that confirmed their prior belief in survival and, conversely, that critics of the cross- correspondences may never have engaged in sufficient detail with the material in order to come to an informed opinion.

For many reasons (particularly those of privacy and confidentiality) the names and details of some of the automatic writers were not revealed for many years. This led to an exaggerated emphasis on the independent creation of the material by automatic writers who appeared to have had no contact with each other. Through original research I have conclusively established for the first time the close nexus of formal and informal links that bound almost, though not all, the automatists together, and this has enabled a more rounded assessment of the writing.

Both the writers and the assessors of the scripts (apart from Leonora Piper the trance medium) were people of very high intellectual quality and public achievement but self-deception, confabulation, cognitive dissonance, vanity and wishful thinking are not just the prerogative of the ill-educated and ill-informed. It has been important in my evaluation to see whether such psychological drivers might have affected their assessment judgements.

For years people have delivered verdicts on the cross-correspondences based on extracts from books, and more rarely, on the reports in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. I have done three things which are original and can help to produce a more secure assessment of the phenomena. First, I have gone back to the full body of scripts and converted them into a searchable PDF format. This was a massive and tedious task but was the only way to make the material manageable and to deal with the criticism that the cross-correspondences had been produced by a combination of selective quotation, wishful thinking and literary coincidences. Second, I have provided a background, narrative and context for the production of the scripts, including the nature of the cross-correspondences, their content, and the complex symbolism alleged to be contained within them. Third, I have developed and applied a detailed set of assessment criteria to their assessment. I hope that this work will help anyone who wishes to form a more than superficial verdict for or against them and on their contribution to the survival versus living agent psi debate.

Bibliography and References

Hamilton, T. (2009). FWH Myers and the Victorian Search for Life after Death. Exeter: Imprint Academic.

Hamilton, T. (2011). FWH Myers and the Synthetic Society. Christianity and Psychical Research: a historical case study. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of The Churches’ Fellowship for Psychical and Spiritual Studies, University of Exeter, September 2011.

Hamilton, T. (2012). Tell My Mother I’m Not Dead. A Case Study in Mediumship Research. Exeter: Imprint Academic.

Hamilton, T. (2013). F.W.H. Myers, William James, and Spiritualism. In C. Moreman, (Ed.), The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and around the World (Vol 1, pp. 97-114). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Hamilton, T. (2013). The cross-correspondence automatic writings and the spiritualists. In C. Moreman (Ed.), The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and Around the World (Vol. 2, pp. 265-282). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Hamilton, T. (2015). Frederic WH Myers, Psi Encyclopedia: https://psi-encyclopedia.spr.ac.uk/articles/frederic-wh-myers

Hamilton, T. (2015). Smith and Blackburn. Psi Encylopedia: https://psi-encyclopedia.spr.ac.uk/articles/smith-and-blackburn

Hamilton, T. (2017). The Cross-Correspondences. Psi Encyclopedia: https://psi-encyclopedia.spr.ac.uk/articles/cross-correspondences

Hamilton, T. (2017). Arthur Balfour’s Ghosts: An Edwardian Elite and the Riddle of the Cross-Correspondence Automatic Writings. Exeter: Imprint Academic.

Roy, A. (2008). The Eager Dead. A Study in Haunting. Brighton: The Book Guild.

****

 

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Here are some important books about experimental ESP studies published between 1930 and 1958 that are freely available online.

Carington, W. (1945). Telepathy: An Outline of its Facts, Theory, and Implications (2nd Ed.). London: Methuen.

Whately Carington

Whateley Carington

Humphrey, B.M. (1948). Handbook of Tests in Parapsychology. Durham, NC: Parapsychology Laboratory.

image of sequence 7

image of sequence 9

Pratt, J.G., et al. (1940). Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. New York: Henry Holt.

Pratt Rhine ESP 60 title page

Rhine, J.B. (1935). Extra-Sensory Perception. Boston Bruce Humphries.  (First published in 1934)

image of page i

image of page iii

Rhine, J.B., & Pratt, J.G. (1957). Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

image of page iii

J.B. Rhine 1956

J.B. Rhine

J.G. Pratt

J.G. Pratt

Schmeidler, G.R., & McConnell, R.A. (1958). ESP and Personality Patterns. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gertrude Schmeidler

Gertrude Schmeidler

Robert McConnell

Robert McConnell

Sinclair, U. (1930). Mental Radio. Pasadena, CA: Author.

image of page iii

Upton Sinclair

Upton Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair

Mary Craig Sinclair Upton’s wife, tested for telepathy

Sinclai Results of telepathy drawing test

Results of telepathy drawing test

Soal, S.G., & Bateman, F. (1954). Modern Experiments in Telepathy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Soal Bateman Modern Experiments Telepathy

Warcollier, R. (1938). Experimental Telepathy. Boston: Boston Society for Psychic Research.

Rene Warcollier

René Warcollier

Telepathic Drawing Experiments (Target Above, Response Below)

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Over the years I have written several articles about Charles Richet’s psychical research, among them a general overview of his work on the subject, and an analysis of his Traité de Métapsychique (1922). My last published discussion of Richet is an article in which I translated and reprinted a chapter from one of his books in which he presented an autobiographical essay of his involvement with the subject. Here is the reference and the abstract:

Charles Richet 10

Charles Richet

“Fragments of a Life in Psychical Research: The Case of Charles Richet” (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2018, 32, 55–78; PDF available on request: carlos@theazire.org).

Abstract

“In this paper I present a translation of an autobiographical essay French physiologist Charles Richet wrote about his involvement in psychical research in his Souvenirs d’un Physiologiste (1933). In the essay Richet presented an outline of aspects of his psychic career, including: Early interest in hypnosis and hypnotic lucidity, encounters with gifted individuals such as Eusapia Palladino and Stephan Ossowiecki, contact with the Society for Psychical Research, his Traité de Métapsychique (1922) and his lack of belief in survival of death. Richet’s account will be of particular interest for those who are not acquainted with his career. However, the essay is succinct and lacks important events that need to be supplemented with other sources of information. An examination of this autobiographical essay illustrates the limitations of autobiographies to reconstruct the past, but also provides an opportunity to discuss aspects of Richet’s psychical research.”

Richet Souvenirs

I wrote: “One of the purposes of the present article is to present information about Richet’s interest in psychic phenomena via his own, admittedly brief, account. It is my impression that most contemporary workers in parapsychology, although aware of Richet’s existence, know little about his actual work. Being short, and personal, the excerpt presented below may be of more relevance to workers in parapsychology than the more academic writings cited above. The reprint of the excerpt is also an opportunity to give Richet a voice never heard before in English, since the excerpt in question originally was published in French.”

Richet and Linda Gazzera

Richet (on the left) in séance with Italian Materialization Medium Linda Gazzera

I wrote:

“Richet was part of this movement, particularly strong in France, that explored the existence and range of non-conscious human functioning and that included both conventional and unconventional phenomena . . . This is seen in his writings about personality changes in hypnosis, unconscious movements, and the induction of trance at a distance . . .”

“An important early contribution, and a classic of Nineteenth-Century ESP literature, was Richet’s [1884] article about mental suggestion, or the “influence that an individual’s thought exerts over a specific sense, without an appreciable exterior phenomenon on our senses, over the thought of a nearby individual”. . . This included transmission of thoughts and images, as well as other effects such as the induction of trance at a distance. In the paper, Richet described his use of statistical analyses in several guessing tasks with various targets, as well as discussions of conceptual ideas such as the unconscious nature of the process . . . In later papers Richet continued testing various gifted individuals . . . and included observations of Polish psychic Stephan Ossowiecki (1877-1944) . . .”

Stefan Ossowiecki 2

Stefan Ossowiecki

“There were also many experiences with various mediums and psychics. Examples were séances with Eusapia Palladino (1854–1918 . . .) and Leonora E. Piper (1857–1950 . . .). Richet’s . . . materialization séances with medium Marthe Béraud are well-known, an episode that generated many controversies . . . Here both full and partial materializations were observed . . .”

Eva C 8

Marthe Béraud

The best known of his works was the highly influential Traité de Métapsychique [1922] . . . where instead of psychical research he used the term “métapsychique” (metapsychics), a word he had suggested before . . . In the Traité, and elsewhere, Richet frequently expressed hope that future developments in science would allow us to understand psychic phenomena. His popularization and discussion of psychical research not only continued in other books . . . but also in articles in non-psychic journals . . . and in newspapers . . . In addition to the  above mentioned examples, Richet’s articles in psychic journals included topics such as statistical analyses of ESP tests . . . , recurrent doubts in the study of psychic phenomena . . . , the decimal indexing of psychic literature . . . , xenoglossy . . . , an ancient case of near-death experience . . . , premonitions . . . , and survival of death . . .”

Richet Traite de metapsychique 4

Richet Notre sixieme sens

Richet L'Avenir de la Premonition

“Richet did much to support psychical research in various forums of conventional science. He opened the door to, and defended the importance of, psychical research in the international congresses of psychology . . . He was also one of the founders of a very important French journal, the Annales des Sciences Psychiques, first published in 1891, where not only French but also authors from other countries discussed psychic phenomena . . . Furthermore, Richet was a supporter of the Institut Métapsychique International since its beginnings.”

Annales des Sciences Psychiques 1891

Annales 1905

The article also illustrates the limitations of autobiographies as historical documents. An analysis of the essay considering Richet’s publications about psychic topics shows occasional omissions of important information and incorrect recollection of facts. “Autobiographies, like history in general, are reconstructions of the past, but reconstructions based on one person’s perspective and motivations, on their priorities at the moment of ordering the recollections of a lifetime. The latter is particularly an issue.” Nonetheless, “when used together with other sources of information . . . [autobiographies] are not only informative, but illuminating of a time period.”

Richet 2

Older Charles Richet

 

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

Although I have not personally met Dr. Damien Broderick, I have corresponded with him and I have followed his previous writings in parapsychology, mainly his high quality books Outside the Gates of Science: Why It’s Time for the Paranormal to Come In From The Cold (Thunder’s Mouth, 2007), and  Evidence for Psi: Thirteen Empirical Research Reports (edited with Ben Goertzel; McFarland, 2015). I commented on this last book in a previous blog.

Damien Broderick 2

Damien Broderick

Broderick Outside Gates of Science

Broderick Evidence for Psi

Damien is a well-known and critically acclaimed Australian writer about science fiction and other topics who has published numerous books. The one featured here, Psience Fiction: The Paranormal in Science Fiction Literature (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2018) is the best book about psychic phenomena in the science fiction literature.

Broderick Psience Fiction

Here is the table of contents:

Preface

Introduction

  1. 1935 Donald Macpherson (George Humphrey), Go Home, Unicorn
  1. 1935 Olaf Stapledon, Odd John
  1. 1939/51 E. E. Smith, History of Civilization [runner-up special Hugo 1941/2016]
  1. 1940/46 A E van Vogt, Slan [special Hugo 1941/2016]
  1. 1949/52 James Blish, Jack of Eagles
  1. 1949/66 James H Schmitz, The Witches of Karres
  1. 1952 Alfred Bester, The Demolished Man [1st Hugo]
  1. 1952 Zenna Henderson, The People stories
  1. 1952 J. T. McIntosh, The ESP Worlds
  1. 1953 Theodore Sturgeon, More than Human,
  1. 1953-54/56 Mark Clifton and Frank Riley, They’d Rather Be Right, [2nd Hugo]
  1. 1953/58 Mark Clifton, “What Thin Partitions” to “Remembrance and Reflection”
  1. 1954 Wilson Tucker, Wild Talent
  1. 1955 James H Schmitz, The Ties of Earth
  1. 1955 John Wyndham, The Chrysalids/Re-Birth
  1. 1956 R A Heinlein, Time for the Stars
  1. 1956 Frank M Robinson, The Power & Waiting
  1. 1956 George O. Smith, Highways in Hiding
  1. 1956-57 Alfred Bester, The Stars My Destination
  1. 1958 Lan Wright, A Man Called Destiny
  1. 1958— Marion Zimmer Bradley, Darkover series
  1. 1958 Jack Vance, “Parapsyche” & “The Miracle Workers” & “Telek”
  1. 1959/61 “Mark Phillips” [Randall Garrett and Laurence M. Janifer],

Brain Twister [“That Sweet Little Old Lady”]

Impossibles [“Out Like a Light”]

Supermind [“Occasion for Disaster”]

  1. Stories I:

1949 Katherine MacLean, “Defense Mechanism”

1950: C.M. Kornbluth, “The Mindworm”;

1952 Walter Miller, Jr., “Command Performance”

1953 Isaac Asimov, “Belief”

1953 Algis Budrys, “Riya’s Foundling”

1955 Cordwainer Smith, “The Game of Rat and Dragon”

1956 Brian W. Aldiss, “Psyclops”

1956 J. T. McIntosh, “Empath”

1957 Poul Anderson, “Journeys End”

  1. 1962 Arthur Sellings, Telepath
  1. 1962/63 Keith Woodcott aka John Brunner, “Crack of Doom”/The Psionic Menace
  1. 1964 John Brunner, Telepathist / The Whole Man
  1. 1967-75 Dan Morgan, The Sixth Perception series:

The New Minds (1967);

The Several Minds (1969);

Mind Trap (1970);

The Country of the Mind (1975)

  1. 1967 Richard Cowper, Breakthrough
  1. 1968— Anne McCaffrey, Talents Universe
  1. 1969 Philip K. Dick, Ubik (etc)
  1. 1969 Colin Wilson, The Philosopher’s Stone
  1. 1970 Joanna Russ, And Chaos Died
  1. 1971 Lester del Rey, Pstalemate
  1. 1972 Robert Silverberg, Dying Inside
  1. 1975 Katherine MacLean, Missing Man
  1. 1975 Robert Silverberg, The Stochastic Man
  1. 1976 Octavia Butler, Mind of My Mind
  1. 1982 Joan D. Vinge, Psion
  1. 1987 Lucius Shepard, Life During Wartime
  1. 2011 Carrie Vaughn, After the Golden Age
  1. 2016 Connie Willis, Crosstalk
  1. Two Novels by Psychics (1978, 1999)
  1. Stories II:

1961 Poul Anderson, “Night Piece”

1971 Robert Silverberg, “Something Wild is Loose”

1978 C. J. Cherryh, “Cassandra” [Hugo for best short story]

1991 Brian M. Stableford, “The Oedipus Effect”

Conclusion

Appendix 1–  A Brief Guide to Paranormal Research

Appendix 2 – Psi and Afterlife in Psience Fiction

Interview

Can you give us a brief summary of the book?  

Here is a summary from the publisher: 

“Science fiction has often been considered the literature of futuristic technology: fantastic warfare among the stars or ruinous apocalypses on Earth. The last century, however, saw through John W. Campbell the introduction of “psience fiction,” which explores themes of mind powers—telepathy, precognition of the future, teleportation, etc.—and symbolic machines that react to such forces. The author surveys this long-ignored literary shift through a series of influential novels and short stories published between the 1930s and the present. This discussion is framed by the sudden surge of interest in parapsychology and its absorption not only into the SF genre, but also into the real world through military experiments such as the Star Gate Program.”

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of the book specifically?  

I grew up as a pious Catholic working class kid in Australia during the 1950s, and to the horror of my parents became infatuated with gaudy science fiction comics and magazines. The more sophisticated magazines (but often still quite garish) were not easily found in Australia back then, but a factory worker living across the street allowed me to borrow his copies of the British New Worlds and Science Fantasy, and the premier US zines Astounding and Galaxy. What most captivated me was the range of psi-inflected tales in the early to mid-1950s: stories closer to magic, really, than to science, like Star Wars decades later.

Several elements attracted me, especially a frequent emphasis on quirky intelligent characters, often despised but gifted with unusual abilities such as telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance and teleportation. I knew this was all wild fiction, but it let my imagination soar freely. Imagine my astonishment when my mother one day brought home from the library (I was a sickly kid) a copy of J.B. Rhine’s The Reach of the Mind. What! This man was a scientist and yet he claimed that psi abilities were real! I started testing it alone or with my younger siblings, and had some hair-raising successes.

Then conventional attitudes kicked in, and I decided psi was just a story-telling device after all. I went to university to study literature and philosophy, and was introduced to Len Kane, the former teacher of a uni friend, a clinical psychologist a few years older than us with an interest in psi. In 1970, after I’d started work in journalism, I read an article in Analog (the spruced-up version of what had once been called, with vulgar brashness, Astounding) describing a repeated-guessing, majority-vote approach to telepathy that had worked in the lab, although only just.

I was struck by the realization that this approach might be used to create a real-world psi application based on getting messages from the future—controlled precognition! I rushed to where Len had a post at an interstate university, and we built a monstrous noisy machine in the lab that recorded our guesses at a future string—a target which, naturally, was generated by a horse race some days hence. The first time we tried it, we got the right horse. This was probably the most electrifying and delightful experience of my life. We planned repetitions, anticipating our Nobel Prize. But it didn’t work the second time, or the third time… Just a coincidence on the initial test? Or had some psychological barrier or unconscious angst blocked our psi after that first shock?

I went back to old publications where somewhat similar approaches to psi application had been reported. Some were successful in just the way I expected; others were apparently failures. I taught myself enough statistics to reanalyze these early results and in quite a number of cases found that the experimenters had simply failed to compensate for guessing biases. Using internal controls (essentially, tabulating how frequently a certain symbol was chosen when it was randomly chosen as the target, compared with its score when it was not target), I was able to recover correct results from famous, allegedly debunked experiments with huge numbers of participants (such as the Zenith radio tests in the 1930s). I ran a rather over-ambitious newspaper precognition test, and obtained some provocative results.

Meanwhile, I had started writing science fiction and selling it both in Australia and the US. In 1980, I published a novel titled The Dreaming Dragons that was selected as one of the 100 best since Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. The following year I flew for the first time to the US, and spent several days with the Rhine researchers in Durham. Eventually I wrote a popular science study of psi in general and my results after obtaining three quarters of a billion guesses at a major Australian lottery. Many years later I revised and expanded my treatment of such data in Knowing the Unknowable, which is full of charts and numbers. It failed to sell a million copies, alas.

What motivated you to write this book? 

All of the above is the background to my continuing interest in psi phenomena, enhanced when I had the good fortune to be invited to join a closed online list of psi experts. Few of them agree with each other over the metaphysics of psi—how it works, what it is for (in evolutionary terms, for example), what its relationship is to consciousness and philosopher David Chalmers’ “Hard Problem.” I summarized a lot of this in Outside the Gates of Science, which was quite well received by the psi community and even persuaded Dr. Ben Goertzel, a brilliant polymathic AI researcher, that there actually is something in these preposterous claims. That led to Ben’s and my co-editing a hefty book from McFarland, Evidence for Psi. Somewhere during all this I’d done a PhD in critical literary theory (and published 70 books), and I realized that it might be worth going back to those stories about psi that had so enthralled me when I was 12 or 14, and look at the impact of psi research on science fiction and of science fiction on parapsychology. That became Psience Fiction, a term I borrowed from an English reviewer of Alfred Bester’s spectacular psi-futurist novel The Stars My Destination  from the late 1950s.

But why did I do it? Because I still love science fiction and remain endlessly curious about psi, and I wanted to put them together across the last century or so and see what the result looked like. It was a lot of fun.

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?  

Well, psi is obviously important yet still often ignored or disparaged by scientists who have never bothered to investigate its evidence tracks. Meanwhile, science fiction in the previous century engaged with serious work on atomic power (and weapons), space flight, telecommunications, genomics, etc. Its most influential editor, John W. Campbell, of Astounding/Analog fame, was obsessed with psi in the mid-century. What could have happened that apparently caused its core audience to lose interest, especially at the very moment that real-world psi research was being funded by the US government, other nations, and some major corporations? I think my book is the first to approach this topic seriously and not with its tongue snidely in its cheek.

But I don’t wish to be solemn—I hope your blog readers will find it intriguing and amusing, as I did writing it.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

A recent issue of the psychoanalysis journal IMÁGÓ Budapest (2017, No. 4), edited by Júlia Gyimesi, is entitled “Psychoanalysis and the Occult: Transference, Thought-Transference, Psychical Research.” Here is the table of contents:

Júlia Gyimesi: Introduction

Júlia Gyimesi

Júlia Gyimesi

Renaud Evrard, Claudie Massicotte, Thomas Rabeyron: Freud as a Psychical Researcher: The Impossible Freudian Legacy

Sigmund Freud constantly attempted to distinguish psychoanalysis from occultism by explaining allegedly paranormal phenomena (such as so-called prophetic dreams) as the results of unconscious processes. His attitude towards the paranormal, however, evolved according to his increasing interest in the possibility of thought transference. In 1925, he reproduced Gilbert Murray’s experiments associating telepathy and free associations. Then, he became convinced of the reality of thought transference and shared his conviction in “The Occult Significance of Dreams.” Yet, Ernest Jones, his biographer and then president of the International Psychoanalytic Association, was reluctant to associate psychoanalysis with psychical research and therefore worked to marginalize Freud’s interest. This article aims to retrace the context of this rarely discussed text and the experiments that preceded it in order to reexamine their role in ulterior definitions of the Freudian legacy and the association of psychoanalysis with experimental research on telepathic dreams.

Sigmund Freud 3

Sigmund Freud

Gilbert Murray

Gilbert Murray

Júlia Gyimesi: The Unorthodox Silberer

Herbert Silberer

Herbert Silberer

The aim of the article is to explore the reasons why the theory of symbol-formation turned out to be an important scene of the process of demarcation in psychoanalysis. The debate on the theory of symbol-formation is illuminated by the examination of the work of the Viennese psychoanalyst, Herbert Silberer. Silberer’s life-work is an outstanding example of the encounter of psychoanalysis and the so-called occult. He made a most honest and unique attempt to integrate the “mystical” into the psychoanalytic edifice in a nonreductive but still psychoanalytic way. The conflicts that emerged due to the integration of the occult by Silberer did not lie between materialistic and spiritualistic worldviews. Rather, they originated in theoretical oppositions. Today, functional symbolism is what experts refer to most often when discussing the investigations of Silberer. In fact, his theory on functional symbolism was developed in connection with his experiences in the field of occultism, mysticism, alchemy, etc., and inevitably led to tension between his viewpoint and the basic principles of psychoanalysis. Silberer’s oeuvre shows that considering occultism and mysticism a valid psychological language could lead to a radically new form of psychology.

Bartholomeu Vieira: Deleuze’s Animal Magnetism as a Theoretical Parallel for the Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique

Joseph P.P. Deleuze

Joseph P.F. Deleuze

Ferenczi’s studies on the occult both inspired, and made important contributions to, the theory of psychoanalytic technique. The theory and practice of animal magnetism raises several questions and inspire new approaches that might help psychoanalysts understand how empathy works in the contemporary clinic. The field of animal magnetism has been seminal in the theoretical development of theories of the unconscious. It is the purpose of this article to examine the elements within the doctrine of animal magnetism that shed light on the Freudian-Ferenczian affirmation of supposed unconscious communication. The article will first of all look at the debate between Freud and Ferenczi on the reality of telepathy. It will then make some brief observations on the subject of magnetism. Because of the broad scope of this subject, I will narrow the focus of this study to Joseph P. Deleuze’s statements about his methodology.

Csilla Hunya, Péter Aszalós: Telemarketing

The aim of living is to be born again and again and to make one’s essence realized. According to Moreno and some object-relation and relational psychoanalysis theorists, the self develops itself in relationships, more closely in encounters where two beings meet. As Moreno pointed out, an integral part of these encounters is tele, a prerequisite of a common creative act. In this paper we aim to heighten the awareness of the reader of the value of encounters in life, and understand tele by anchoring it with well-known psychoanalytic terms. In the first part we review some of the relevant literature of psychodramatists and others and connect it conceptually to psychoanalytic terms. In the second part we look closer to the tele as a process embedded into encounters. Our emphasis is on how tele contributes to the rebirth of the soul during the encounter and after it.

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

My article “Morselli’s ‘Psicologia e Spiritismo’ ” was recently posted in the Psi Encyclopedia. It is about Italian psychiatrist Enrico Morselli’s two volume work Psicologia e “Spiritismo:” Impressioni e Note Critiche sui Fenomeni Medianici di Eusapia Paladino (Psychology and “Spiritism”: Impressions and Critical Notes  about the Mediumistic Phenomena of Eusapia Paladino; 2 vols. Turin: Fratelli Bocca, 1908).

 Morselli Psicologia

 

Enrico Morselli 2

Enrico Morselli

Here is the summary:

“Enrico Morselli (1852-1929), an Italian psychiatrist, contributed to the study of the mediumship of Eusapia Palladino, notably regarding its clinical and psychological aspects. This work is contained in his 1908 two-volume book, little known to English-language writers, Psicologia e ‘Spiritismo’ (Psychology and ‘Spiritism’) on which this article is largely based (the original Italian edition can be read online). Morselli adopts an anti-survival stance, rejecting discarnate agency in favour of fraud, psychological processes, or psychic means involving human agency.”

Eusapia Palladino side dress

Eusapia Palladino

Morselli became convinced of the phenomena of medium Eusapia Palladino. In his view mediumship  was “an abnormal fact of the human physio-psychic personality which, like all other abnormalities and individual abnormalities . . . is directly linked to the normal somatic, physiological and mental conditions of the Homo sapiens animal. . .” Palladino was believed to be a hysteric, but a hysteric that could produce movement of objects, materializations, and other physical manifestations. This view was shared by another Italian psychiatrist, Cesare Lombroso.

Most of the book is about reports of séances with Palladino. “This is not a scientific report, but rather a compilation of summaries and impressions of séances attended by Morselli during the 1900s, by which time she had been studied by several scientists and scholars . . . The séances took place at the Circolo Scientifico Minerva (Scientific Circle Minerva), in Genoa, a private group that included psychical researcher Ernesto Bozzano, astronomer Francesco Porro and journalist Luigi Arnaldo Vassallo.” He reported that in his first séance, held in 1909, the medium was seated at the head of the table and was controlled by two persons. Morselli wrote: “The table was in motion: it was bowing now from one side, it went up on two feet and on one, and in the end I saw it stand up to 10-15 centimeters, remain suspended for a few seconds below the hands that protruded in the chain, and then, as if suddenly the thrust that pushed it or the strength that supported it lessened, it fell noisily on the floor.”

Morselli listed that the following physical phenomena took place in the séances:

Parakinesis (movement of objects with some physical contact)

Telekinesis

Changes of weight in objects or the medium

Thermal-radiant phenomena (such as breezes and cold areas)

Sounds, including voices

Hyloplastic phenomena (production of marks or tracings)

Zollnerian phenomena such as apports and knots on cords

Tangible teleplasty (materializations)

Simple telephany (luminous phenomena)

Visible, active and tangible teleplasmy (materialized forms and limbs)

 

Sketches of Materialized Forms Observed in Seances in which Morselli was Present

Morselli Palladino form 2

Morselli Palladino form 4

Morselli Palladino materialization sketch

There is much in the book about the medium’s psychological and medical aspects. “Morselli noticed that Palladino perspired profusely during trance. She told him her menstrual period was more copious and erratic when she held many séances. Coming out of trance, she sometimes was amyosthenic (muscular weakness), and experienced paralysis in her limbs, mainly on the right side.”

The phenomena were believed by Morselli to be caused by a force exteriorized from the medium’s body. Morselli wrote: “We say that everything happens as if the medium’s body exteriorizes its bio-psychic force . . .  This fact of exopsychicity is not more unintelligible than electricity which propagates at a distance without conductors and produces movement, chemical, luminous, [and] sonic phenomena . . .”

In addition, Morselli presents two useful bibliographies.  One is about Spiritism and psychic phenomena in general, while another is a list of publications about Paladino. Both include materials in French, and Italian that are usually missed by English-speaking students of her mediumship (on these bibliographies see an article here, starting on page 1900.

Morselli Bibliography

Finally, in the encyclopedia entry I also presents examples of the book’s reception, among them a negative one by Eleanor M. Sidgwick (Review of Psicologia e “Spiritismo.” Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 1909, 21, 516-525).

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

In a previous blog I interviewed Dr. Dean Radin, Chief Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, about his career and general ideas regarding parapsychology. I interview him here about his new book, Real Magic: Ancient Wisdom, Modern Science, and a Guide to the Secret Power of the Universe (New York: Harmony Books, 2018).

Dean Radin 4

Dean Radin

Radin Real Magic

Here is the table of contents:

  1. Beginnings
  2. Science and Magic?
  3. Magical Potpourri
  4. Origins of Magic
  5. Practice of Magic
  6. Scientific Evidence
  7. Merlin-Class Magicians
  8. Toward a Science of Magic
  9. Concluding Thoughts

Interview

Can you give us a brief summary of the book?

Real Magic reviews the history and concepts of the Western esoteric tradition to see if that domain might provide clues about how psi works. I found that it does. The book also compares lore about magical practices with what parapsychology has learned about psi. ​After the superstitions and theatrical excesses associated with ceremonial magic ​are stripped away, magic and psi are found to involve the same underlying phenomena, with the same modulating factors. In sum, what did ancient magicians know about psi that we are struggling to understand today?

 

What is your background in parapsychology, and with the topic of the book specifically?

​I’ve been involved part or full-time in empirical psi research for 42 years. I’ve been interested in the history and practices of Eastern and Western esoteric traditions for at least that long.​

 

What motivated you to write this book?

Like many who are convinced by experience or experiment that psi is real, I want to know how it works and what it implies about the nature of reality. Theoretical models in our field have not advanced nearly as fast as the empirical work, which suggests that there might be a problem with our starting assumptions. So I decided to seriously consider if the esoteric traditions, which are saturated with magic and psi, might shed some light on this problem. After reviewing the relevant history (which is vast), I’ve come to believe that the metaphysical basis of the esoteric cosmologies (in the philosophical sense of metaphysics) provides a better explanation than the metaphysics underlying today’s scientific worldview. In the book I provide a suggestion that views today’s scientific worldview as a special case of a more comprehensive worldview. The expanded worldview maintains everything known by science today, but it recasts psi, magic, and mystical experience from bizarre, inexplicable anomalies into phenomena that are natural and obvious.

 

Why do you think your book is important and what do you hope to accomplish with it?

I ​ hope to show that a calm consideration of​ magic and psi does not represent a regression to a superstitious, pre-scientific past, but rather it is a forecast of the future of science. All of my popular books have been part of a long-term effort to crack the taboo that has prevented serious discussions of psi experiences, what they are, how they work, and what they imply about the nature of consciousness. Real Magic is the latest step along this path, one designed to appeal to a (large) audience interested in both science and esoterica. As evidence that this topic is (or should be) of high interest to science, Real Magic gained endorsements from two Nobel Laureates, a former program director from the National Science Foundation, an astrophysics medal winner from the National Academy of Sciences, and many prominent academics from mainstream disciplines at mainstream universities.

 

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD, Research Fellow, Parapsychology Foundation

A recent issue of the journal Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice has discussions of precognition by various authors. The discussion opens with an editorial by Erik Woody and Steven Jay Lynn (“Perspectives on Precognition.” Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2018, 5, 1–2). They write:

“The balance of this issue consists of five articles addressing what has variously been termed precognition, precognitive ability, and retrocausal or retroactive influences . . . In the first article, Schooler, Baumgart, and Franklin (2018) address how to strike the most appropriate and productive relation between Sagan’s “seemingly contradictory attitudes,” drawing an important distinction between entertaining versus endorsing anomalous phenomena like precognition. In the second article, Mossbridge and Radin (2018b) present a comprehensive review of existing empirical research on precognition, making the case that this body of work warrants scientists being open to this possibility despite its “bizarre or counterintuitive” qualities. The next two articles, by Schwarzkopf (2018) and by Houran, Lange, and Hooper (2018), are invited critiques of Mossbridge and Radin’s (2018b) review, applying the “most ruthless skeptical scrutiny” in pointing out what these critics believe are crucial conceptual and methodological flaws in the research. A response from Mossbridge and Radin (2018a) follows these critiques.”

The editorial was followed by Jonathan W. Schooler, Stephen Baumgart, and Michael Franklin’s “Entertaining Without Endorsing: The Case for the Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Cognition” (2018, Vol. 5, 63–77. Here is the abstract:

Johnattan Schooler

Johnattan Schooler

“Empirical reports in mainstream journals that human cognition extends in ways that challenge the current boundaries of science (anomalous cognition) has been viewed with dismay by many who see it as evidence that science is broken. Here the authors make the case for the value of conducting and publishing well-designed studies investigating anomalous cognition. They distinguish between the criteria that justify entertaining the possibility of anomalous cognition from those required to endorse it as a bona fide phenomenon. In evaluating these 2 distinct thresholds, the authors draw on Bayes’s theorem to argue that scientists may reasonably differ in their appraisals of the likelihood that anomalous cognition is possible. Although individual scientists may usefully vary in the criteria that they hold both for entertaining and endorsing anomalous cognition, we provide arguments for why researchers should consider adopting a liberal criterion for entertaining anomalous cognition while maintaining a very strict criterion for the outright endorsement of its existence. Grounded in an understanding of the justifiability of disparate views on the topic, the authors encourage humility on both the part of those who present evidence in support of anomalous cognition and those who dispute the merit of its investigation.”

The target article, by Julia Mossbridge and Dean Radin, was “Precognition as a Form of Prospection: A Review of the Evidence” (2018, Vol. 5, No. 1, 78–93). Abstract:

Julia mossbridge 6

Julia Mossbridge

Dean Radin 4

Dean Radin

“Prospection, the act of attempting to foresee one’s future, is generally assumed to be based on conscious and nonconscious inferences from past experiences and anticipation of future possibilities. Most scientists consider the idea that prospection may also involve influences from the future to be flatly impossible due to violation of common sense or constraints based on one or more physical laws. We present several classes of empirical evidence challenging this common assumption. If this line of evidence can be successfully and independently replicated using preregistered designs and analyses, then the consequences for the interpretation of experimental results from any empirical domain would be profound.”

This is followed by two critiques of Mossbridge and Radin’s paper, and by their reply.

D. Samuel Schwarzkopf, “On the Plausibility of Scientific Hypotheses: Commentary on Mossbridge and Radin (2018)” (2018, 5, 94–97).

“Mossbridge and Radin reviewed psychological and physiological experiments that purportedly show time-reversed effects. I discuss why these claims are not plausible. I conclude that scientists should generally consider the plausibility of the hypotheses they test.”

James Houran, Rense Lange, and Dan Hooper “Cross-Examining the Case for Precognition: Comment on Mossbridge and Radin (2018) ‘ (2018, 5, 98–109).

James Houran

James Houran

“Based on a review and meta-analyses of empirical literature in parapsychology, Mossbridge and Radin (2018) argued for anomalous replicable effects that suggest the possibility of precognitive ability or retrocausal phenomena. However, these conclusions are refuted on statistical and theoretical grounds—the touted effects are neither meaningful, interpretable, nor even convincingly replicable. Moreover, contrary to assertions otherwise, the possibility of authentic retrocausation is discredited by modern theories in physics. Accordingly, Mossbridge and Radin’s interpretations are discussed in terms of misattribution biases that serve anxiolytic functions when individuals confront ambiguity, with potential reinforcement from perceptual–personality variables such as paranormal belief. Finally, we argue that research in human consciousness should be multidisciplinary, and notably, leverage informed investigators in the physical sciences to advance truly valid and cumulative theory building.”

Julia A. Mossbridge and Dean Radin, ‘Plausibility, Statistical Interpretations, Physical Mechanisms and a New Outlook: Response to Commentaries on a Precognition Review” (2018, 5, 110–116).

“We address what we consider to be the main points of disagreement by showing that (a) scientific plausibility (or lack thereof) is a weak argument in the face of empirical data, (b) the statistical methods we used were sound according to at least one of several possible statistical positions, and (c) the potential physical mechanisms underlying precognition could include quantum biological phenomena. We close with a discussion of what we believe is an unfortunate but currently dominant tendency to focus on reducing Type-I statistical errors without balancing that approach by also paying attention to the potential for Type-II errors.”